Table of Content

    15 October 1986, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Lin Zhiguang
    1986, 41 (4):  289-301.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604001
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    It is always said that: "There arn’t three clear days" in Guizhou, and "Sichuan’s dog barks at the sun". In this article, the data of all stations with 30 years(1951 - 1980) in this areas are used, the main results are as follows:1. In these areas, mean annual total cloud amount reaches 8.0 - 8.9, and low-level cloud amount is about 5 - 7.The radio of low-level cloud amount to total cloud cover is 50 - 70% over Sichuan basin and 70 - 90% over Guizhou plateau.2. In the cloudest areas, the continuous clear sky for five days never occured in past 30 years.3. The curve of annual total cloud amounthave two peaks and two lows, but only one peak and one low in low-level cloud amount. The investigated area not only has much cloud amount, but also has different pattern of annual change of cloud amount than surounding areas.4. In four regular observations there are more cloud amount in early morning (08 h), and least amount the evening (20 h) usually.5. The standard deviation of mean annaul total cloud amount is about 0.15 - 0.25,one-tenth in these investigate areas but it is rather different for low cloud amount.6. The common cloud form over Sichuan basin and Guizhou plateau is low-level cloud,, and in which the commonest is the Stratocumulus(Sc).For example, in January the ratio of the times of the appearence of Sc to all low-level cloud are about 57.7 - 72.1%.Bat from winter to summer, the frequency of Sc reduces and Cu increases.7. The commonest height of cloud base of Sc is between 1000 - 2500 m.The height of Sc are 520 m higher over Sichuan basin than over Guizhou plateau.The height of Sc is higher in Summer and lower in Winter, and higher in 14 h than in 02 h.
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    Yang Dayuan
    1986, 41 (4):  302-310.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604002
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    In this paper the author, based on the analyses of the sedimental features and the paleonto-logic informations in the Mid-lower regions of Changjiang at 18000 yr. B.P., concludes that the temperature was lower at that time than at present and the precipitation was less by then. The wind force was so strong that the loess accumulated on the plains or the hilly regions and the dunes which consist of the older river sand were formed near the lake rims or the bank sides.At the same time, the headward erosion took place along the Changjiang Valley due to the drop of the world sea-level in the full-glacial period. The paleochannel bottom had reached a depth about - 60 m at the north of the present debouch and the water level of main stream in the Mid-lower Changjiang Valley was about 20 - 45 m lower than present, thus provided the Dongting, Poyang and Taihu lakes regions with different erosional plain.
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    Li Chunchu
    1986, 41 (4):  311-320.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604003
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    This paper analysed the main factors of the coastal formation in South China, i.e. the geological structures, the geographical conditions of the mainland coast, the raise of the sea-level during Holocene, the tide, the wave, the longshore drift and so on. The coast in South China is characterized by the pattern of barrier-lagoon (or bay), because the tide range is small and the sediment transported by wave is rather strong. The mud-sand of most part of the barriers was derived from inner shelf, and moved landward with sea-level rise in Holocene. The author described in full details of the morphology about the two patterns of harbour-coasts (i.e. submerged valley and barrier-lagoon). The characteristics of the harbour of barrier-lagoon are as follows:1.A harbour with the barrier-lagoon is commonly independent from the adjacent coastal systems;2.Either the pluvial-alluvial terraces and the erosion platforms or the hills always lie at the back of the barrier-lagoon (or bay) systems;3.During the Holocene, the barriers had evolved continuously by retreat, progradation and return. That correspondingly caused the changes of the other morphology, such as the area of lagoon, the mud flat, the tidal inlet and its sand bodies;4. The foreshorelines of most barriers have tended to the logarithmic spiral plan shape;5. The morphodynamics of beach may be divided into three sections;6. The throat-position of the tidal inlet is always situated in the apex of Z-shaped headland-bay and is generally stable.
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    Fang Guangdi
    1986, 41 (4):  321-331.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604004
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    Sanjiang region is situated in the northeastern frontier of China including the Sanjiang plain, Xingkaihu. plain and its contiguous zone, with an area about 106 800 km . It is now an important region of grains and soybeans production and one of the major reclamation areas in China.In this paper, the precipitation regimes and the potential evaporations in Sanjiang region are studied and calculated. Based on the soil-water balance equation, the field water requirements during the growing season of the spring wheat (from April to July) are estimated, and several agricultural features of local precipitation are stated. Besides, the author also presented the preventive and controlling measures for drought and flood in Sanjiang region.
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    Wu Chen, Wang Zihui, Xu Qinghai
    1986, 41 (4):  332-340.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604005
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    In pluvial-alluvial fan regioms, the depth of shallow-hurried paleochannels are 3 to 20 metres, in the middle of the fluvial plain the depth are of 10 to 30 or 35 metres, in the delta regions are about 5 to 25 metres. The paleochannels had a radiate shape in the pluvial-alluvial fan regions belt patterns in the middle of the fluvial plain regions and reticular patterns in the delta regions. They ,stretch 30 - 60 km in pluvial-alluvial fans, 300 - 600 km in the seashore delta regions and 300 - 350 km in the middle of fluvial plain regions. Usually they are 5 - 10 km in width, the widest sections are 15 - 20 km and composed of mid-sized sand mixed with pebbles at the apex of the pluvial-alluvial fans, medium-fine sand in the lower parts of the pluvial-alluvial fans, fine silt on the fluvial plain. They are 10 - 20 metres in thickness and at most they may increase to 25 metres. The floor of the shallow-burried paleochannels are made up of brown yellow clay sand and sand clay on the pluvial-alluvial fans, brown-red clay and sand clay on the fluvial plains, and grey muddy clay on the seashore deltas.According to the synthesis data of the paleochannel sedimental structures and facies of Yongding river in Beijing plain (representing the pluvial-alluvial fans), the Yellow river, Zhanghe river and Hutouhe river in the central and southern parts of Hebei plain and in the north of Shantong plain (representing the fluvial plains), and Luanhe river in the east of the plain (representing the seashore deltas), the paleochannels can be divided into two sedimental cycles: The first is the lower one, mainly made up of pure, better selected light grey-green or light grey-brown medium-fine sand and fine sand of which are accompanied by some charcoal and tree branches and many shell remains of Lam protula. Under the sand layers, the erosion surfaces of the clay and sand clay are stagnant fluvial sediment composed of grinded calcarous nodules and spheroids clay. The second cycle, the upper one, is composed of muddy silt and muddy peat with brown-grey color and is accompanied by many bhell fragments-of Mollsca and a few Lamprotulas. From the 14C dating, the sediments of the first cycle was-formed in 38,000 to 7500 yr. B. P., corresponding to the fluvial facies deposition of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. The sediments of the second cycle was formed between 7,500 - 2,500 yr. B.P. corresponding to the deposition of rivers and lakes of the middle Holocene. But the clay sand, sand clay and clay of the floor of paleochannels were formed 38,000 yr. ago, corresponding to the deposition of fluvial and lacustrine facies of Yumu interglacial stage.
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    Li Shuntan’s Contribution to the Founding of Geographical Science in China
    Song Jiatai, Wu Chuanjun, Jin Qiming
    1986, 41 (4):  341-349.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604006
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    Zhu Dewei, Liang Jinshe
    1986, 41 (4):  350-359.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604007
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    Based upon the dual theorem of linear programming, two respects about supply-sale location of mass goods and materials-relative price system correlated with the optimum location and relative locational superiority of supply or cosumer places are discussed. The dual problem is explained in geographical interpretation. The authors think that the model may be extended to allocate the various resources. Jt is used to study the theory of economic geography, as well as to direct productive practice. In this paper, the authors presented a case study.
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    Zhou Chenghu, Tang Qicheng
    1986, 41 (4):  360-369.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604008
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    On the basis of analysis of the properties of hydrologic data, a new method, or two-stage-sequential method was developed to study the moving laws of river runoff. It absorbed the thoughts of hierachical clustering theory and formal system theory and multistage decision. The clue and calculating stages of this method have been introuced in detail in the paper, and taking Hong Shan Ju station of Manas River at the north slope of Tian Shan Mountains of Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu as an example.A group of indexes which reflect the annual moving laws of river runoff can be gained when this new method is applied. The concepts, such as characteristic period and characteristic degree, dominant period and dominant degree, etc., which are used in the method, are with explicit meaning and practical significance. The property of the indexes is good, and can be correctly comprehened from the point of the cause of runoff formation and runoff process. So two-stage-sequential method is a good method to study the moving laws of river runoff.
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    Li Wenyan
    1986, 41 (4):  370-379.  doi: 10.11821/xb198604009
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    In China, since the founding of the People’s Republic, industrial geography has gradually developed, giving emphasis to serve economic planning and regional development. In the past three decades, its main fields of research were:1.Compiling of monographs chracterized by analysing the process of formation and evolution of industry allocation in China.2.Providing basicin formation and scientific appraisal for planning the future allocation of regional industry.Based on various investigations into the overal allocation of key construction projects in several important industrial bases, mainly in North and East China, a great number of valuable reports were worked out and quite a few important proposals put forward.Among these, reports on the Zibo industrial base and a framework of territorial planning of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area are most successful.The former recommended a site for a big petro-chemical complex and the latter made an overall blueprint and a series of suggestions for the future territorial development with industry as the main contents.3. In recent years, economic geographers began to tackle the development stra tegy of industry of China. For example, Lu Da-dao advanced a conception of "Pole-axis growth" as one of the scientific basis for the nation-wide allocation of industry up to 2000. He argued that the coastal belt and both banks of the lower and middle reaches of the Chang-Jiang River are two most important, "growth axes" and a number of cities along or beyond them could be regarded as the growth poles. Li Wen-yan and Chen Hang contributed to theenergy strategy a preliminary study on the energy-economic regionalization of China. They proposed two-order energy-economic regions be delineated through comprehensive appraisal of the regional differentiation on the richness and chracteristics of energy resources and scientific demarcation of the marketing regions of potential energy bases.4. With respect to theoretical study of industrial geography, it is relatively weaker than the applied aspects. In the past decades, main efforts were put on the following themes: (1) Economic appraisal of mineral resources and their territorial combination; (2) Regional industrial system and territorial combination of plants; (3) Factors and conditions relevent to allocation of industry; (4) Basic theory and methodology of industrial geography as a subdisci-pline of economic geography. Up to now, more than 50 papers have been published besides an textbook of industrial geography compiled by Prof. Wei Xing-zhen.To further develop industrial geography in China, the author suggests the following three aspects deserving more efforts from economic geographers:1. Continously serve various kinds of planning, regional planning in particular, emphasising on comprehensive allocation of industry; actively participate in the study of development strategy of industry, nation-wide or regional, overall or sectorial;undertake pre-feasibility studies of some key projects.2. Regional industry should be dealt with as a system, comprising of a set of operating units with the functions of industrial management,production and service.It is necessary to research into the techno-economic linkage of industrial systems and their organizational linkage as well.3. Combine researches on the allocation of industry of China with those of foreign countries.Comparative study could be done further and it is becoming more important to study the impacts of the introduction of foreign invest and technology on the development of regional industrial systems.4. More efforts should be turned to theory and methodology of industrial geography. Relationships between industry and technique, environment, energy, society, government policy, investment and growth of population involved in the allocation deserve much more attention. Systematic analysis could be well introduced to the researches of industrial regions.
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