Table of Content

    15 July 1986, Volume 41 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Hu Zhaoliang
    1986, 41 (3):  193-201.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603001
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    According to the information from 1952 to 1984 there are five characteristics of the industrial distributions in China.1. The distribution tends toward balance. Obviously from 1952 to 1984 its coefficient of geographic association ascended and the index of concentration decended.2. The industries in each region had obtained a general development. The average annual growth rate of total industrial output in Shanghai and Liaoning was only over 9%. which is the lowest rate.3. Apparently the change of the industrial distribution may be divided into different stages. From 1957 to 1965 due to the errors in work, the changing was negligible.4. According to the various proportions of the industries in national economy five types can be grouped in general. (1) The type of steadly rising, including Hubei, Hunan. Anhui and Guizhou; (2) The type of increasing recently: Fluctuations appeared before 1975 since then it has a steep increase, this including Shanxi, Henan, Nei Monggol, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Guangdong and Fujian; (3) The type of increasing before 1975, then it appeared a tendency of decline, this including Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangxi, Hebei and Beijing; (4) The stable type, including Jiangxi; (5) The declining type, including Shanghai, Tianjin, Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang.Compared with that of the coastal areas the industries of the interior areas developed more rapidly. The proportion of the interior industries in the whole country raised from 20.3% in 1952 to 30.7% in 1984. The situations in coastal regions are complicated. The industries of Guangxi and Fujian are rather backward and the industry level of Guangdong, Shandong and Hebei is lower than the average of the country. The development at a high speed in these regions will be conducive to the balance in distribution. Jiangsu and Zhejiang have advantages in culture, technology, management and administration. They have developed very fast in the resent years, potential power being turned into real superiority.From now on the basic trend will be continued toward the balance in indtistrial distribution but the developing velocity will be slowed down. Owing to the great difference in natural and social conditions between the regions, the bull balanced distribution is unlikely to be realized in China. When programmes and planning are made, different regions have to develop at their own speeds according to the specific conditions.
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    Qiu Baojian
    1986, 41 (3):  202-209.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603002
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    Some modifying suggestions on the "Further Study on the Eegionalization of Ag-roclimate of China" (Acta Geographica Sinica, Vol. 38, No. 2) are delivered as follows: (1) The grades are simplified. Sub-belts are replaced by belts, and 46 regions are deduced to 39. (2) indices and boundaries for the regionalization are defined more definitely. (3) Boundaries of regions are defined mainly by precipitation and its distribution, and make them coincide with the natural regions.
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    Cai Yunlong
    1986, 41 (3):  210-223.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603003
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    The climate of Guiyang belongs to monsoon type of humid subtropical zone. Geo-morphologically it is essentially a karst plateau. Landscape is varied. The chief factors of land differentiation are geomorphology, lithology, and soil-vegetation. Based upon these factors and taking land facet as mapping unit, 8 land types of the first order may be distinguished. They are subdivided into 22 land types of the second order and 77 land types of the third order.The land types, their proportions of area, and their patterns in a certain region are referred to as the structure of land types. According to similarity and difference of the structure, the land types are grouped into 22 land systems, or minor regions (land system local form), which can be studied as individuals. This is physico-geographical regionalization of the lowest order mapping in smaller areas with a larger scale. When mapping in larger areas with a smaller scale they can be grouped into land system abstract in taxonomic study. These minor regions are further grouped into 5 physico-geographical regions. In this way, units of higher level can be grouped step by step. This approach links up land classification and physico-geographical regionalization.In this paper, natural features, measures of improvement and utilization for each, land type are also studied. The land structure and the directions of agricultural development for each regions are described.The agricultural development of an aroa depends mainly on the water-heat condition, the land structure and the social-economic function of agriculture. After analysing the characteristics of these aspects of Guiyang, the author points out the following strategical policies should be adopted for agricultural development: (1) To expand the diversification of economy and concentrate the subtropical cash crops. (2) To stren-then the intensive agriculture and raise the productivity. (3) To take the reforestation and extension of land cover as the essential method to resume ecological balance, the long-term objective of which is to recover the zonal evergreen broad-leaf forest on mountains and hills and to establish varied natural-cultural ecological systems conforming to the local conditions.
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    Li Wei
    1986, 41 (3):  224-232.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603004
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    From three aspects this text analyses the location of dairy industry in China.1. Locational factors of dairy industry. It comprises the basic factors (raw material, energy resources, consumption, transportation, water supply and labour force etc) and environmental factors of location.2. Models on location of dairy industry. According to raw material, energy resources, and the influence degree of consuption on the location of dairy industry, the author built six types of locational models, and analyses their features and application in China and other countries.3. The setup of location of dairy industry. It analyses the features, problems and channels of the setup of location of dairy industry in China, for example, balanced distribution, regional specialization and locational network of distinct scope of dairy factories.
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    Tang Yijian
    1986, 41 (3):  233-240.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603005
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    Begional river water quality is a comprehensive reflection of environmental characteristics and human socio-economic activities. Though it is very complicated and quite fuzzy, yet its space distribution and composition obey some rules. In this paper, fuzzy cluster analysis is used to distinguish river water quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area. Then a dynamic fuzzy cluster tree was drawn up, by fuzzy matrix multiple calculation. After determining a proper threshold, i.e. value λ, according to actual condition, an objective classification of river water quality was obtained. The result was compared with those obtained by systematic classification, the former reveals interdependency between different environmental factors.
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    Yin Guokang
    1986, 41 (3):  241-253.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603006
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    This paper has reviewed the classic concept of the cycle of erosion of William Morris Davis (Davis, 1899) on the basis of present rates of uplift and of different land-masses, and analysed the variaties within long1 tendency landscape development both from the viewpoint of unity of opposites and feedback and that of different time and space spans in landscape evolution. Several remarks are summarized as follows:1. The classic model of the cycle of erosion of Davis provided a theoretical framework in landform evolution through time.lt was a great impetus to geomorphological study. However, his view of gradual chang has also some negative influence on the comprehensive understanding of geomorphic processes, and his scheme is too simplistic to interpret the variety of complex natural phenomena.2. Geomorphic cycle is the unity of opposites between variation and feedback (representing tendency). Multiplicity of cycles is characteristic of landform evolution for both variations (or events) and feedbacks occur over and over again in a landscape system. The multiplicity of causes of events results in a number of cycles with different time and space spans. Owing both to the randomness of events and the time lag of feedbacks, the effect of feedbacks in a system will attain different levels. That is why the landscape of a region, is inevitably stamped with the brand of polycycles characteristic of that region. As a result, it is difficult for the relief of any region to be completely levelled and in a landscape system there is no strict equilibrium. That is why the geomorphic types and processes in the world are quite complicated and that there are no totally identical landscapes found in any two regions in the world. On the other hand, the landscape of a region, under the action of the exogenic forces, will tend to be levelled and approach the sea level, and within the system itself there will be coordination between the dynamics and forms through the action of feedbacks. Therefore, there are also numerous similarities among landscapes belonging to the same type in the world.3. Every cycle begins from an event and, undergoes a longer span of feedback time and fmally comes to an end before a new event occurs.After a depositional form is formed, feedback will be going on during a longer time span mainly of self adjustment, including the upbuilding and downcutting of relatively small magnitude. So, in general, geomorphic processes can be either of the four states: (1) the sudden landforming event (variation); (2) the adjustment of the form afterthe event (graded state); (3) the equilibrium state of course with small fluctuations above and below a mean states; and (4) the steady state under which the form is almost constant.4. On studying1 landform evolution, the trammels of the progressive idea must be smashed. We cannot just consider that landform is always progressively being lowered down and continually to be levelled in response to denudation. Instead, we must be conscious of the existence of periods of landmass uplift and lowering of base level. As concerns a graded river, we must be aware that, on the one hand, there is its adaptability to erosion base level and an equilibrium between sediment load and transportability caused by self-regulation and, on the other hand, there are also the stages of form variance due to aggradation or degradation. In respect to a equilibrium stream in which on the average the inflow of sediment equals to the outflow, the local and transitory scour and fill may still exist. In the case that only the long tendency is kept in mind, while neglecting the variation, we shall come to a poor comprehension of the complexity of change of landforms in space and time. On the contrary if we keep out sight only at the cycle interruptions and neglect the long tendency of landform development, well also be misled by transient and local phenomena and cannot utilize geomorphology to its full profit.
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    Zhu Xuanqing
    1986, 41 (3):  254-261.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603007
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    In this paper, the author describes the sedimentary features of point bar in piedmont inclined plain deposited under the regime of semiarid-sernihumid climate. Some new concepts are deduced as follows-.1) The profile shape of the Rong Cheng point bar is controlled by the semiarid climate, namely, the terrace-shaped relief of the point bar is the result of the floods of different stages and different extent.2) Inclined erosion plane, the indicator to distinguish the point bar and to divide lateral deposit is the intrinsic attribute of the erosion of the point bar.3) One point bar may consist of several lateral deposits, which are the important foundation to restore the forming history of the point bar.4 The effect of the transverse cross-circulating current of the meander section in semiarid climate region is less. The decreasing of the energy resulted in the receding of the flood is the key cause of the positive rhythm formation from coarse to fine of the point bar deposit. In this case there is more large scale trough cross-bedding and parallel bedding, but fewer turbulent cross-bedding at the bottom of the point bar.5) Semiarid climate is the favourable condition for the formatiozi of the point bar and chute deposits. Its existence makes the whole point bar complicated.6) The point bar binary structure consists mainly of the products produced by leading current when the current returns to the channel after a flood receding.
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    Li Guangtian, Fu Wenxia, Jia Xijun
    1986, 41 (3):  262-273.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603008
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    The Liaodong Peninsular tidal flat is an important mud coasts in China. As it is situated between sea and land, it has the common characteristics of physical, chemical and biological from both sea and land. Therefore, it is a good place for the proliferation of benthos, meanwhile, it also provides the great potentialities in the redaima-tion of land from marshes, reed planding etc. The characteristics of present trends of the tidal flat are the aggradation of flat surface and push the coast line forward toward the sea.From the coastal zone investigation, it revealed that the Liaodong tidal flat is effected by different currents, the author according to the diversities of biotic composition, micro-landforms and types of sediment, three sub-belts of flat is suggested:1. Suaeda Glauca Bun-ge, Macrophthalmus Dilitatus De Haan-animal-inhabited mud pile-high tidal mud belt.2. Zostera Marina L., Ruditapes Philippinensis (Adams et Reeve), Bullacta Ex-arata (Phillppi)-scaly beach-middle tidal silt belt.3. Ruditapes Philippinensis (Adams et Reeve), Dosinin Traillei Adams, Cyclina Sinensis (Gmelin)-wave and current ripples-low tidal fine sand belt.On the bases of the biotic environment, rational development and according to different altitude, the tidal flat can be divided into three belts:1. The economic shellfish cultural belt2. The planting reed belt,3. The rice planting belt.
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    Atmospheric Water Vapour Transport of Chang Jiang Valley
    Zhang Youzhi
    1986, 41 (3):  274-280.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603009
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    Recent Review of Urban Climatology in China
    Shen Jianzhu
    1986, 41 (3):  281-285.  doi: 10.11821/xb198603010
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