Table of Content

    15 April 1986, Volume 41 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Zhou Yixing, Tang Qi
    1986, 41 (2):  97-111.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602001
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    The study of the urban-size hierarchy of China is important to the national urban development policy. In this paper, the cities and towns in China are divided into 17 classes according to their sizes. The change of urban-size hierarchy of China during 1964-1980 is analysed and some unexpected trends in the change are explained. The conclusions are: (1) The medium-size and small-size cities grew most rapidly and their status in urban-size structure rose greatly during the 16 years; (2) The growth of large cities, specially super-large cities, was under control on the whole some people hold different views: (3) Small towns have always been on the decline. However, the causes for the declining of small town have been trend basically disappeared and they are on the revival.After analysing a great deal of data, the authors introduce three indices to describe the urban-size hierarchy on provincial level, e.g. the size of primacy city, the ratio of primacy city in provincial urban population and the imbalance index of (provincial urban-size structure. These indices are better than "primacy level" or "rank-size distribution model" in reflecting the characterisics and differences of urban-size hierachy on provincial level.Through the step-by-step discriminate analysis, the 1980’s urban-size hierachies of the 26 regions on provincial level are classified into six types:Type I Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Jiangsu-ShanghaiType II Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Sicilian, GuangdongType III Hubei, ShaanxiType IV Hunan, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Lilin, Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, GuangxiType V Xinjiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, GansuType VI Qinghai, Xizang (Tibet), NingxiaThe characteristics of each type and the evolution trend of each region from 1964 to 1980 are described, and some regularities in the evolution trend are found.Through related analysis between the hierarchical types and 17 variables, it is discovered that the territorial type of urban-size hierarchy on the provincial level has the closest relationship with three variables: the total urban population, the number of staff and workers and the number of industrial labours of the region; and has some generally relations with the following variables: the development level of industry and commerce, the density of transportation network and the population density, etc; but has nodirect relation with the urbanization level and the agricultural level.On the basis of above analyses, the authors have developed a evolutional model of urban-size hierarchy on the provincial level.In the last part of the paper, the authors present the following views on the urban development policy of China: (1) We should view the large cities of China against the background of dynamic development of the urban-size hierarchy all over the country. Any lopsided view not in accordance with the fact would make us unprepared mentally for the comimg trend of rapid growth of cities. (2) China is one of the countries which has the largest geographical differences. There are also striking territorial differences among provincial urban-size hierarchies. The policy of urban development should not be the same for all regions, but should be varied according to regional conditions. (3) As the development of regional urban-size hierarchy is from lower types to higher types, stage by stage, the policy of urban development should be changed according to the stages of development of urban system from time to time.
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    Ye Qingchao
    1986, 41 (2):  112-122.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602002
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    The abandoned Yellow Eiver Delta was formed during 1194-1855, when the Kiver captured the Huaihe River, in Northern Jiangsn. It took 661 years to complete this process. In the early years, 1194-1495, only a part of discharge of Yellow Eiver flowed into Huaihe River, but a great quality of sediments deposited on the Huang-huai Plain. By then, the development of the abandoned delta was not so obvious, the river estuary was only 15 km long. Since 1495-1855, due to the changing of the old policy ’’ divert the flow to the south’’ into ’’ divert the discharge to the east to erode the silt", accelerated the silt deposition rapidly downstream, the delta building was quickened, its apex moved from Huaiyin to Ertao at the downstream of Yunntiguan. The extent of the delta was small yet the length of the estuary entended to 90 km.The develop model of the abandoned Yellow River delta was different from the present dalte. The old one was com posed of a number of parallel Subdeltas, forming a type of fan delta under the margin of Huaihe River fiord. These subdeltas were mainly take shape by the longititude deposition of sediments of the river, the lateral deposition of burst diversion of discharge and diffusion deposition by the shore. The present delta is formed by the frequency swinging of the River channel and numerous tonguelike deposition.Originally the Hongzehu lake was connected with the abandoned river. Before 1855, the fresh water of the lake played a role of adjustment by eroding the river channel. The back deposition of the estuary, generally, will not beyond Huaiyin. The raise of the river bed at downstream of the Yellow River was mainly due to the deposition along the river channel.
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    Li Ribang, Zheng Daxian, Wang Lizhen, Tan Jianan
    1986, 41 (2):  123-131.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602003
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    In order to study the root, leaf, stem and seed of barnyard grass absorbing fluoride from soil, a cultivated experiment of barnyard grass was carried on in a net room using 11 natural soils. After determining the fluoride content in the root, leaf, stem, seed of barnyard grass, the order of fluride content in them from high to low is root>leaf > stem>seed. The result of statistics indicated that there is a positive correlation betweenfluoride content in root of branyard grass and with that in soil, but there is no correlation of fluoride content in leaf, stem, seed with that in soil. This indicates that the fluoride content in soil has no obvious affect on them. The biological absorption coefficients of fluoride by these four parts of barnyard grass is blong to O.n grade, and fluoride is a middle-absorbing element by barnyard grass. It also shows that fluoride can not be accumulated in the barnvard grass. and still more can not be accumulated in its seed.
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    Zhou Yunhua
    1986, 41 (2):  132-146.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602004
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    (1) The energy flux of the ultraviolet direct radiation S for the wavelength range between 0.3-0.4μ may be written by Where I is the spectral irradiance outside the atmosphere at the wavelength λ, and τ; τ and τ are the optical depths for molecular scatting under normal sea-level pressure, absorpti on by ozone, and aerosol extinction at λ above the stations respectively.
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    Yu Xianfang
    1986, 41 (2):  147-156.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602005
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    Shengzhen is located in the seaside of southern part of Guangdong Province, close to Guangzhou and adjacent to Hong Kong. It is of significance to both Guangdong and South China coasts.Shengzhen is located in the seaside of secial Economic Zone and the Baoan County, covering an area of 1911 km2, of which sixty per cent is mountains and hills, thirty per cent fields, and ten per cent beaches and waters. Land type can be classified into five systems: A. mountains, B. hills and terraces, C. farmlands, D. beaches, E. waters. They are further sub-divided into 22 units and 93 sub-units; areas of each units are measured. From geographical viewpoint and for the purpose of developing the Special Economic Zone eight regions are divided.
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    Shi Yunliang, Yang Wu, Ren Meie
    1986, 41 (2):  157-167.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602006
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    Owing to the different physiographical conditions, flood season of southern tributaries of the Changjiang occurs in April-June, but July-August is flood season in the upper Changjiang and Hanjiang. The sediment concentration of the upper reaches and northern tributaries is higher than that of southern tributaries but the latter have more discharges.A series of discharge-sediment concentration correlation diagrams of key stations on the Changjiang have been prepared (Fig. 6). The most outstanding feature is that curves of Luoshan. Haukou and Datong all show a counterclockwise pattern, different from other major rives in the world. This is chiefly due to the fact that in the middle and lower Changjiang discharge and sediment from rivers of different hydrological regimes are brought together. The correlation curves of these stations for the first six months (Jan.-June) largely reflect the influence of southern tributaries which have considerable discharge but low silt content but in curves of the second six mouths (July-December), the effect of highly silt-laden water from the upper Changjiang is marked. The characteristic counter-clockwise pattern of curves of the middle and lower Changjiang is the result of combination of two sections of curves of different hydro-logical regime.A comparison is made with the Huanghe which has correlation curves with usual clockwise pattern (Fig. 8), because the hydrological regime of its whole drainage basin is similar. Therefore, it is concluded that the counter clockwise pattern of correlation curves of the Changjiang is the result of particular climatic-hydrological-physical conditions of its drainage basin.
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    Bai Guangrun
    1986, 41 (2):  168-176.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602007
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    According to the principal plant of peat formation, the peat-bog is divided into two types. One is low-moor in which principal plants of peat formation are herb and woody plants. The other is high-moor in which principal plant is sphagna. The climate only suitable to the development of low-moor is named the low-moor peat formation climate, the climate suitable to the development of both high-moor and low-moor is named the high-moor peat formation climate.The paper has counted T and K values (from 1961 to 1970) from 517 meteorological stations throughout the world and established ail equation of the water and heat system for peat formation, i.e. Z=5.7K+12.8-T, regarding daily average temperature in the period in which the temperature equals 10℃ more orless (T) as heat index and humid coefficient by M. H. as water index.
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    Chen Yongshen, Liang Shan
    1986, 41 (2):  177-183.  doi: 10.11821/xb198602008
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    Professor Zhu Kezhen had some thinkings on developing modern geography in our country. Three aspects of the thinkings has been introduced in this paper.1. Prof. Zhu believed that the distinguishing features of modern geography might be its synthesis, regionalism and practicality. Based on them, the comprehensive study should be the main direction for developing modern geography. For the sake of improving the comprehensive level, the officials of every organization should learn how to develop each branch of geography and try to link up the relationship among the branches, especially the internal relations between physical geography and economic geography.2. Prof. Zhu pointed out that the great vitality of geography might stem from the definite purpose and results which could be applied in production practice. Developing geography must break with outmoded frame, dare to struggle and dare to win. It is necessary to be lifted out of simple qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis. Armed with modern scientific achievement and instrument, geography will be pushed up to a new top.3. Prof. Zhu emphasized that the most important and urgent need for realizing a leap of geographic science was to foster geographic scientists. He also thought that every geographer should implement the basicline, science research serves the socialist construction, must aim at the target of modern science and work hard for seeking truth and exploring the nature’s secrets till new pathes could be opened up.
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