Table of Content

    15 January 1986, Volume 41 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Jing Guihe
    1986, 41 (1):  1-7.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601001
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    Landscape eeology is an inter-diseiplinary science between physical geography and eeology, and it is a synthetic subject related to many other subjects. Since C. Troll presented the concept of landscape ecology in 1939, it has been developed widely in many countries of the world. Now the coneept of landscape ecology has become an important theoretical bacis of land ecoevaluation and ecodeviee. It has also great significance in the study of environmental management and territorial planning.The land ecoevaluation is an evaluation on the basis of ecological land classification and it emphasizes evaluation of ecological value and function of land. It contributes to landscape ecodevice and landscape ecologieal architecture. Eeoevaluation of land includes land evaluation, and it should emphasize: 1. the comparison of land physical productive capability with land practical productive forces; 2.1 and physical structure and function, land use structure and coordinate degree of land function; 3. the effect of human action on ecolandseape and its developmental tendency.The idea of land ecodevice is based on the human understanding of physical rules, then to apply current wisdom and technology consciously to the "symibiosis" of mau and nature and to create an ideal human living environmen. which conforms with physical rules and can produce more material wealth. For example, to establish a wood-grass-farmland complex ecosystem in the flat sandy areas of temperate subhumid region; to establish a square farmland-net wood complex ecosystem in the plain area of temperate sub-humid region; both of them are examples of landscape ecological arehitecture which are designed by the application of the "symbiosis" of man and nature.
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    Xu Xueqiang, Gar-on Yeh
    1986, 41 (1):  8-22.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601002
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    China’s cities belong to the clustered pattern, examining them by Kolmogorov-Ami-nov formula and the Lorenz curve. The highest density of cities and towns has happened in Shanghai municipality: 56.77 cities and towns per 10,000 km2. Zhejiang and Jiangsu Provinces occupy second and third places, according to the density of urban settlements: 17.06 and 11.67 cities and towns per 10,000 km2 respectively. The lowest density indexes of cities and towns are found in Xizang Autonomous Region and Qinghai: 0.08 and 0.12 respectively, the density of cities and towns is regularly reducing from East to West in China. The provincial variation of the density of cities and towns can be explained by the regression techniques. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 has been obtained by the regression analysis of the density of cities and towns, in which the population density as independent variable. In provinces and autonomous regions, the greater the population density, the greater the density of cities and towns. A multiple correlation coefficient is 0.96, which was found by multiple regression analysis of the density of urban settlements with the gross industrial and agricultural output value, per capita industrial output, the index of the railway length, per rural person grain output, and population density as independent variables. These five variables can explain 92% of the provincial variation of the density of urban settlements.Because the urbanization is measured by the proportion of urban population to the Provincial total ones, the urbanization level of those provinces with concentration of unban settlements and urban population seems to be not so high. Mostof the relatively high urbanized provinces and autonomous regions are located in Northeast, North and Northwest China, while the provinces with moderate and lower urbanization level are found in the East, Central and South provinces. Variables of population density, size of area, and industrial-agricultural output ratio, per capita industrial output, per capita agricultural output, per capita total production output can be used a for reflection of provinces’ population and economic characteristics respectively. Two factors are identified by factor analysis "with varimax rotation. The first factor is industrialization that measures the levels of industrialization and productivity and the second faetor-ispoptulation density that reflects the general population distribution characteristics of a province or an autonomous region. As these two factors are orthogonal each other, it suggests that there is not direct relationship between the industrialisation level with population size or density in every province or aut. region. A multiple correlation coefficient of 0.863 has been obtained by multiple regression analysis between urbanization level with the factor scores of industrialization level and population density as independent variables. These two factors could explain 74.5% of the provincial variation of urbanization level. The urbanization level of a province oir an autonomous region is related positively with industrialization level but negatively with population density. The industrial distribution policy encourages urbanization for the less densely populated Northeast, North and Northwest provinces and autonomous regions. To a certain extent, the control of urban population discourages urbanization for the densely populated East.There is big variation in the primacy index of the provinces in China. It ranges from 1,009 in Auhui to 10.23 in Qinghai (in 1982). The provinces and autonomous regions with high primacy index are mainly concentrated in the Northwest and Southwest regions of China, except Guangdong an Hubei provinces. The indexes of provinces and aut. regions in West China have increased since liberation, but in recent years, they have begun to fall in some provinces and autonomous regions. Most of the Northeast, East, North, and Central South provinces have moderate or low primacy indexes, which have declined since liberation. The provincial variation of the
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    Chen Yueqiu
    1986, 41 (1):  23-31.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601003
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    The article explains that the district of Tai-hu Lake hadn’t undergone transgression in the past six thousand years and it was not formed from lagoon environment.1. By the analysis of trace-element in the peat bed of 6000 yr Bp., it is considered that the farthest boundary of the transgression in Tai-hu Lake district in the Holocene, is on the east side of the shell ridge formed 5680?80 years ago.2. The deposits of the middle Holocene dated by 14C show that they are neither marine-deposits nor lagoon deposits, but continental ones. Their depth is generally 3 or 5 meters under earth surface.3. The discovery of ruins and relics of the past seven thousand years proves that Tai-hu Lake district was already a land by that time and has never experienced transgression. The ancient culture layer 11 m thick is practically a continuous layer for seven thousand years. It strongly proves the Tai-hu Lake district had not experienced any transgression since the last seven thousand years.The auther concludes that Tai-hu Lake wasn ’t a lagoon, but a tectonic lake, formed by block of river courses by neotectonic movement.
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    Yuan Guoying
    1986, 41 (1):  32-40.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601004
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    The Altay Mts. are situated at the northern borders of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The geographical coordinate of the studying area is: 86?5’ to 8811’ east lo.ngitu.de and 48°3’ to 49°1‘ north latitude. With an area amounts to 5588 km2. On the basis of the scientific data collected by the investigation in 1980, this paper deals with some problems of the vertical zonation in this area.The neotectonic movement occurred since the end of Tertiary and acted upon the Altay Mts. in the form of vertical movement have caused intense uplift of the fault-block mountains. Altitude of the mountains generally exceed 4000 m.The vertical zones on southern slope of the western Altay Mts. belong to a temperate semiarid type. Moisture and temperature, type of plants and soils are taken as main indicators in the division of the vertical zonation. Ten vertical zones may by recognized on the southern slope of the Altay Mts.When the spectra of vertical zones of the western Altay area are compared with those of the eastern Altay Mts., of the Tien-Shan Mts. and of the Kunlun Mts., mainly due to the increase of aridity and the lower latitudes, the altitude of some vertical zones of the other mountains are higher than the western Altay.In this paper, the relation of the vertical zones to land utilization is also described.
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    1986, 41 (1):  41-50.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601005
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    AbstractThe development of karat depressions in limestone terrains is not duly controlled by the lithology and geological structures, but also highly affected by the biogenic and hydrodynamic conditions. The depression evolution is strongly influenced by the overland floiw, soil flow, surface flow, subcutaneous flow, vadose flow, shaft flow, fissure flow and conduit flow. This paper has preliminary studied the mechanism of karst depression development and established a theorilical model for it.Though the hydroloigic structure in the karst depressions is very complicated, but there is a binary hydrologic structure. The subcutaneous aquifer is formed by the larger or smaller openning fractures. The lower parts of the fractures, which are closed, constitute the fracture vadose zone with very low flow velocity──a relative impermeable blocks. With the development of the depression, the subcutaneous aquifer will be developed downward to the saturated zone and the permeability of the vadose zone is greatly improved, as a result, the binary hydrological structure is gradually destroyed. When the depressions are developed into the stage of depression or batein, the grounid-water table is closed to the basin or depression bottom, and the fissure layer (including the fracture vadose zone and the subcutaneous aquifer) becomes the relative homogeneous fissure aquifer. The conduit flow exists in the limestone block between the depressions or basins.The subcutaneous aquifer is very important to solve the problems of water supply and agricultural irrigation which does not need too much water in some places. For building surface reservoirs in depressions and basins, great attention should be paid to the existance of the relative homogeneous fissure layer under the big depressions and basins and the character of Quaternary deposits, and also to some corresponding engineering measures. The conduit flow between the depressions or basins is one of the main points to comprehensively develop and utilize the karst waiter resources in limestone areas.
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    Peng Buzhuo
    1986, 41 (1):  51-58.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601006
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    Mt. Namjagbarwa, 7782 m above sea level, is situated at the southeastern Xizang Autonomous Region and the eastern tip of the Himalaya Range. Some problems of vertical zonation in this area have been discussed, in this paper, as follows:1. Based on the characteristics of the natural landscape, the basic belt of vertical zones on the southern slqpe is characterized by quasi-tropical monsoon rainforest yellowish lateritic red earth.2. According to the vertical speetra of the Mt. Namjagbarwa area the landscape there might be grouped into types, i.e. (1) quasi-tropical monsoon rainforest yellowish lateritic red earth; (2) mountain subtropical broad leaved evergreen forest mountain yellow earth; (3) mountain quasi-subtropical semi-evergreen broad leaved forest mountain yellow brown earth; (4) the mixed forest of mountain warm-temperate coniferous leaf and broad leaf mountain brown earth; (5) mountain frigid-temperate dark coniferous forest mountain alpine podzol.3. The influences of moisture passageway along the Yarlungzangbo Jiang river, ice and snow cover, the inversion of temperature on vertical natural zones are also described.
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    Chen Chuankang
    1986, 41 (1):  59-69.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601007
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    The main task of the regional development strategy is to make a long-termplauning analysis of social economic structure. In the light of various levels of economical hinterland and characteristics of Lianyun Port the author has analysed the economic structure of Lianyungang city from comprehensive angles and put forward the following eight measures for the revitalization of Lianyungang.(1) Toi set up a coordinated committee of economic hinterland of Lianyun Port, so as to become a coordinated entity organization of the provinces and regions concerned.(2) To make the exploited area become a processing and financaal freetrade area.(3) To restore emphatically Huaguo Shan tourist area, and to develop tourism in many ways.(4) To build a steel and iron base in Lianyung Port after the Baoshan Steel and Iron Base has been established in Shanghai.(5) With major efforts to develop the Eurasian containerized traffic transport through Lianyun Port after the North Xinjiang railway lines have been built and linked up with those of the Soviet Union.(6) To establish a rational industrial structure, so as to make Linayungang become a coordinated development structure composed of heavy chemical industry, electronics industry, mechanical industry and light and textile industry for tourism.(7) To built an agriculture base of opening-up type in northern Jiangsu Province, i.e. grain is considered as industrial crop to cultivate, as judged from the viewpoint of macroindustrial crop.(8) To improve all-sidely communications and equipment conditions.
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    Wang Dehan
    1986, 41 (1):  70-76.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601008
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    In this paper, the mean monthly air temperature data series before 1980 for continuous 23-30 years at 210 stations distributed relatively homogeneous over China are subjected to harmonic analysis. It shows that the annual march of air temperature over China is satisfactorily described by tre first harmonic. Three factors decide the characteristic distribution of the amplitude of the first harmonic: the latitude, the ocean and the altitude. There is no conspicous relation-ship between the distribution of the phase- angle of the first harmonic and latitude, hence, it reflects the degree of oceanic effect better than the amplitude of the first harmonic.By using Gorczynski formula and Conrad formula, to calculate. The continentality over China. The results indicate that the conventional index of continentality can not satisfactorily eliminate the effect of latitude. As the difference between oceanic climate and continental climate includes two aspects: the annual range and the type of annual march of air temperature, hence, according to the conventional continentality index and the lag of air temperature behind solar radiation, seven climatic types are identified in China.
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    Wang Xiangheng
    1986, 41 (1):  77-85.  doi: 10.11821/xb198601009
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    The current taxology of geography in China is an old type that has been left still since 1950s. Geography is absolutely divided into two major parts: physical geography belonging to the natural science, and economic geography belonging to the social seience, whereas human geography is lacking. The frontier sciences are dispersed and included in their original relevant disciplines. So geography is divided in pieces, and there is almost nothing under the subject of geography. Geography doesn’t seem to be independent science that possesses its own classification system.The central task of contemporary geography should still lie in the study of the mutual relation and interaction between the natural environment and human activities, therefore the study of the geography deals with either physical geography or human geography (including economic geography), especially in the comprehensive study oj?these two parts. Geography in mordern times not only tends to synthetic research, but also pays attention to its practical application of constructive role, thus the synthetic character of geography seems to be taken more seriously.In order to catch up with the current situation, first of all, the taxology of contemporary geography must affirm that geography is a synthetic science. For the sake of its synthetic character, books belonging to it should ’be concentrated only on its subject. Geography should be divided into three major parts: The first part is physical geography which deals with the natural environment. The second part is human geography (including economic geography) which deals with human social activities. The third part is named synthetic geography which deals with the comprehensive study of both physical geography and human geography. Becausethe frontier sciences take shape only after the synthesis with physical or human geography, certainly they should ’be entirely included in the geographical classification system. And then geography can really become an independent science that possesses its own system, and will become an more important science that plays a greater role in the construction of our country.
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