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Table of Content

    15 July 1985, Volume 40 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE CHARACTERS AND TASKS OF BASIC-LEVEL TERRITORIAL PLANNING
    Liu Donghai
    1985, 40 (3):  197-206.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (705KB) ( )   Save
    Territorial planning is an over all long-term planning in a certain area to exploit resources comprehensively protect and improve ecologic environment and to make an integrated distribution of production in particular. Its main task is to study the general distribution of production.It emphersizes the spacial allocation of production as well as the entirety of planning. During studying production allocation, the combinations of production, ecology, and living should be taken as a whole, and also the planned region placed in a proper position in regional heirachy system. Besides the above general characters of territorial planning, basic-level territorial planning has the following characters:1. taking comprehensive regional planning as the dominant factor.2. Being the basis of sectoral planning and provincial territorial planning.3. Combining closely with the mester plan of central cities.4. Providing a basis for the institutional reform "putting counties charged by city".Based 011 its characters, the basic-level territorial planning takes integrated regional planning as main body, the planning of backbone sectors as focusing point, makes a deep techno-economic appraisal with regional strategy of development, and undertakes at the same time feasibility studies of those key construction projects leading to regional development. The main task of integrated regional planning is, on the basis of comprehensive evaluation of resources, making a good planning of the whole region, through region-wide coordination and balancing and grasping the inter-departmental and inter-regional links. Sectorial planning is the component of territorial planning, and one of the bases of comprehensive regional planning. It lays particular emphasis on studying the internal-structure scale of development, and spatial allocation by means of techno-economic appraisal.To deal with territorial planning as a large systematic project, the following two methods are usually adopted:1. Regional comprehension: That is to say, in certain regional scope, taking pro-duction as a whole, relations of production with resources, environment and urban system are coordinated to have a rational spatial organization.2. Combination of macro-distribution with micro-distribution: In view of the hei-rarehy of territorial planning, form the strategic decision of regional development to tactical decision of plant location. The functions of control and feedback in different levels should be used consciously so as to make rational programme of production distribution by combining levels and repeating the process several times. "With the guidance of macro-distribution study on the base of micro-distribution study.Finally several problems are proposed: Whether the feasibility study of key construction projects can be included into territorial planning; what are the effects of new technical revolution on territorial planning; how to realize the close combination of basic-level territorial planning with the territorial plannings of province, major economical regions and nation, etc.
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    ORIGIN OF CHINESE AGRICULTURE AS VIEWED FROM DADIWAN CULTURAL RELICS
    Feng Shengwu
    1985, 40 (3):  207-214.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (385KB) ( )   Save
    Recently, the No. 1-period Dadiwan cultural relics were found on the second terrace at the Qingshui River Valley, central Loess Plateau. By 14C dating the dates of the relics were between 7800-7355(?165) B.P., i.e., about 1000 years earlier than Banpo type of the Yangshao culture.Moreover, carbonated seeds of grains were found in the No. 1-period ash pit. They were ascertained to be the earliest crops of dry farming in China.One of the earliest agriculture of China is considered originating in the Qingshui River Valley of the Jinghe River and the Weihe River drainage. Then it expanded, ra-diately, to the Guanzhong basin, Huanghe River Delta, Changjiang River drainage, southward to the Zhujiang River Delta and the Guangxi Basin, northeast ward to the Song-liao Plain and northwest ward through the Hexi Corridor to the Xingjiang oases.
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    MORPHOTECTONIC PATTERNS OF NINGX1A HUI AUTONOMOUS REGION AND ITS FORMATION AND EVOLUTION
    Zhou Texian, Wang Li, Chao Mingzhi
    1985, 40 (3):  215-224.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (614KB) ( )   Save
    Two different types of morphotectonie pattern are found in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Eegion. Its northern part is characterized by a N-S aligned zonal pattern consisting of mountain ranges and basins in the west and a plateau in the east, whereas its southern part is represented by a NW-SE striking arcuate pattern convexing toward NE and composed of three mountain ranges alternating with two series of basins.During Cenozoic, the northern part was in a tensional stress state with the axis of NNW-SSE or NW-SE, while the southern part was in a eompressive stress with the axis of SW-NE.Since Oligocene, as a result of the action of these tectonic stresses strong tensional movement along the NNE-trending faults which were formed in Mesozoic has been occu-ring in the northern block of Ningxia resulting in the formation of subsided Yinchuan basin, uplifted Helanshan mountain range and the Ordos plateau, and hence the zonal pattern.While pushed toward NE, the southern block of Ningxia was stopped by two ancient rigid blocks in its northern and eastern sides respectively. As a result, the deformation of crust there occurred, causing the formation of the above-mentioned arcuatepattern. This precess expreienced three major stages──from the end of Oligocene toearly Miocene, from the end of Pliocene to early Pleistocene and from the middle Pleistocene to present.
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    THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAMMALS AND THE EVOLUTION OF MAMMALIAN FAUNA IN QINGYAI-XIZANG PLATEAU
    Zhang Yongzu, Zheng Changlin
    1985, 40 (3):  225-231.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (357KB) ( )   Save
    According to recent estimates, the mammalian fauna of the plateau and the surrounding mountains comprises more than 190 species, the majority of which may be assorted into 7 main distributional types and 21 subtypes. The distributional patterns reflect that the plateau proper forms an important obstacle to the spread of the Oriental species. Only in the Hengduan Mountains do they penetrate along the valleys into the southeastern margin of the plateau. On the contrary, the Palaearctic and Centro-Asia-tic elements spread over the plateau in different extents under conditions similar to those of the boreal population.The climatic deterioration occurred in the ice age of the Pleistocene has induced the migration of animals far southwards as a whole in Eurasia. While on the plateau, during the course of upheavel, the migration of animals as a consequence of the retreat of forests was from the interior to the southeastern margin, or rather from the higher to the lower elevations of the mountains.The changes of fauna caused by the upheaval of the plateau can be concluded as follows:1. The forest-living animals and thermorohilic elements retreated to the southeastern margin or to lower altitudes of the pateau;2. The steppe and desert and periglacial fauna invaded the plateau from central and northern Asia;3. Some indigenous and cryophillic species evolved on the plateau proper;4. Faunal composition differs in the east and the west margins of the plateau.
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    AN ATTEMPT TO ESTABLISH A STEREOSCOPIC MODEL OF THERMAL INFRARED SCANNING IMAGES
    Ma Ainai
    1985, 40 (3):  232-241.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1255KB) ( )   Save
    Thermal infrared scanning image is a continuous picture of film baud which is different from multi-picture of the aerophotograph. In general, the aerophotograph has a pair of pictures which can be stereoscopic observation, topographical measurement and geometrical correction that can make image format map. But then, thermal infrared scanning image only just has two-dimension information. Especially, thermal infrared scanning image was obtained in night. For example, a small white point in the image will be a pond or a hill of carbonatite. The pond has higher thermal capacity so higher apparent temperature, but the hill of carbonatite has higher emissivity so higher apparent temperature. The pond and the hill both are small white point in the image.The author tries to solve the stereoscopic model of thermal infrared scanning image which can give clear and vivid vision in order to decrease the difficulty of interpretation. This result proves theoretically correct and indicates the possibility of obtaining a steroscopic imagery. It was arranged that each flight band has a 60% overlap with the next band in a test of aircraft thermal infrared scanning survey in the Karst region of the Guilin-Yangshuo of Guangxi Chuang Autonomous Eegion of China in November 1977.In this way, we have got stereoscopic pairs both of day and night imageries. This paper discusses:1) The geometreial characteristics of thermal infrared scanning images.2) The principle of thermal infrared scanning stereoscopic imagery pairs.3) A test and result of thermal infrared scanning stereoscopic imagery pairs.4) The topographical measurement and geometrical correction of thermal infrared scanning stereoscopic imagery pairs.
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    HYDROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STREAMS IN QAIDAM BASIN
    Zhang Jiazhen, Liu Enboo
    1985, 40 (3):  242-255.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (830KB) ( )   Save
    An annual precipitation and depth of runoff in Qaidam Basin decrease from southeast to northwest, i.e.. from 250 mm to 20 mm and from 50 mm to 0, respectively. The vertical distribution of precipitation is characterized increase with elevation rising. The vertical distribution of runoff may be divided into three zones, as follows: producing zone in the mountainous area, vanishing zone on the top of an alluviail fan and overflow zone at the forefront of an alluvial fan.The rivers souroed by runoff may be divided into four types, namely, rain fall water type, rain fall water-groundwater type, groundwater type, and ice and snow-melt water type. So the runoff distribution changes a lot annually, but its variation is small from year to year.The stream-frozen period is about 5-6 months in the northwest and 3-4 months in the east. While some stream are never frozen.Because of drying climate strong weathering and steep slop, most of streams carry a large amount of sediments. However, a small specific yield makes this region as a some with low erosive modulus in China.Degree of mineralization in streamflow decreases with a range from 200 m^r 1 to 1000 mg/l or more, and hydrochemical pattern changes from HC03--Ca++ to Cl-Na+ with elevation decreasing.
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    DISCUSSION ON LAND TYPES AND REGIONALIZATION
    Liu Chuang
    1985, 40 (3):  256-263.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (644KB) ( )   Save
    This is a resume of the discussion on problems concerning studies on land type and regionalization in China. It is one of the results of the Symposium on Integrated Studies on Land Resources, held in Peking from 11th-15th, February, 1985. The main topics are: The. development of studies on land type in China, basic theories of land type studies, land type and region, methods of land type studies, mapping of land types, structure of land type, the relations between land type studies and regionalization. Suggestions for the further studies of land type and regionalization have also been put forward at the symposium.
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    ON THE PROBLEMS OF MODERNIZATION OF GEOGRAPHY
    Chen Guojie
    1985, 40 (3):  264-272.  doi: 10.11821/xb198503008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (656KB) ( )   Save
    The core of geography is the concept of viewing the environment as a whole in which many factors, such as inorganism, organism, nature and culture et al., depend on each other and interplay, It is regarded as a comprehensive and integrated system. The main task of geographical research is to irradiate the mechanism, structure and function of the system; and to understand the transportation and changing processes of matter, energy and information in the system.Although it has had a great development, contemporary geography would not keep pace with the time which is confronting with the fourth industrial revolution unless it is equipped with modern sciences and technologies. Today the objective situation is in favour of geographical advancement: (1) many important social problems, such as environmental pollution, population problem, the shortages of natural resources and energy, ecological equilibrium et al., promote and urge geography development. It has become a strong and solid social basis for geographical advancement; (2) modern sciences and technologies are supporting and supplying new theories, new methods and new technics to geographical research. It is possible to improve geographical method and catch up the contemporary requirements.In order to realize modernization of geography, we should use dissipated structure theory, systematic approach, information theory and cybernetics et al. into geographical research, and then build gradually a new epistemology and methodology for geography itself, meanwhile, we should pay intention to develop applied geography and technical geography. Finally it is the most important that we should raise old knowledge structure of georaphers to a contemporary scientific level.
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