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    15 October 1984, Volume 39 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE CHANGES OF CITY SIZE IN NEW CHINA
    Sun Pan-shou
    1984, 39 (4):  345.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (943KB) ( )   Save
    The large and medium-sized cities (with more than 500 000 and 200 000-500 000 inhabitants respectively, excluding agricultural population who live in cities) develo-ped rapidly since the founding of new China. All of 48 large and 71 medium-sized cities had comprised 63.8% and 22.4% of the nation’s entire city population in 1982, while 126 small cities accounted for only 13.8%. It is necessary to control the size of large cities and to build more small ones actively at the same time. As a populous country with high rural population density, to develop small cities in China will be helpful to the economic, political and cultural progress of the countryside and to the modernization of agriculture. In addition, China has large amounts of towns as the foundations to set up new cities. There had been 116 towns risen to cities during the period of 1949 to 1982, of which 92 were small cities.The provincial and autonomous region’s capitals as well as mining and mining-ma-nufacturing cities were the rapid progressive functional types in 1950s and 1960s. Most of the capitals has been become large cities and will take no remarkable changes in size in the future, except for the medium-sized and small cities as Xining, Yinchun and Lhasa. Mining cities founded fundamentally after liberation. Part of mining-manufa-cturing type of cities were mining on’es initially and develop manufacturing industries in new China, the rest o’f the type were newly founded, and most of which were large and medium size. In the future, both the above industrial cities will develop continuo-usly for further exploitation of various natural resources throughout the country. The largest functional type in China is the capitals of prefecture (zhou, meng), which ac-count for 45% of total Chinese cities. These capitals 70% are small and 30% are me-dium-size. Many of them have fine geographical and communicational situation that may -be arranged as priority project cities.There are also obvious changes having occurred with regard to basic ’features of city size in Chinese different regions. As to the coastal regions (with seven provinces’ and one autonomous region), where small cities developed slowly, but the large ones grew rapidly. To this erid, it is necessary to build more small cities to -improve present structure of city size. In hinterland regions (nine provinces), the new erected cities since liberation surpassed all other regions. Cities developed in these regions are more evenly in all size. The remote border regions in northern and western parts of China (five provinces and four autonomous regions) had been built more new cities than coastal regions until 1982. In some parts of the regions, city (populations are highly ooncenterted in individual large cities such as Lanzhou, Urumqi and Kunming. The most effective way in solving the problem is probably to erect the medium-sized cities.
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    ON THE NECESSITY OiF THE URBAN DEVELOPING STRATEGY OF STAGES
    Zhou Yi-xing
    1984, 39 (4):  359-358.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (735KB) ( )   Save
    It has great significance, both theoretically and practically, to study the law of urban development. The way of urban development that tally with the Chinese actual situation comes from the application of the common law of urban development to the special conditions in China. Urban development by stages is one of the important component parts of the law of urban development. It should be kept in mind both in national urban development strategy and in the developing plan for a region or a city.Urban development by stages can be seen at least in the following four aspects:1. Urbanization is an unavoidable trend when human society develops into the stage of industrialized society, and China is no exception.2. The three stages of the process of urbanization are the initial stage, the mid-dle acceleration stage and the terminal stage. China is in the initial stage now. The important thing is to make urbanization developing steadily, not to rush nor to make it standstill.3. The development of urban hierarchy system is also by stages. The distribution of urban population in different levels within the urban, hierarchy varies as the system develops. In the process of urbanization, concentration of population in large and middle cities is usually followed by dispersing into smaller cities. The fact that China has more large and middle cities is caused by both inevitable factors and some artificial factors. Cities of different sizes have different functions which can not be replaced by cities not of the same sizes. Small cities and towns should be revived and developed, large and middle cities should also develop continually at the same time. This is the need of the economic development of China in the present stages and is also trained by the present economic conditions.4. The problems faced by different regions and different cities with different developing stages are different from each other. Therefore, the urban developing poli-cies and plans should be made differently according to the local conditions.At the present stage of urban development in China, the good intentions are not always in accordance with our economic capability, and the core of the problems is lack of economic strength. To make our urban developing strategies we not only should keep the aim of future urban development in mind, but also should not be di-vorced from the present stage of urban development. In other words, we should not overleap the present, stage to do what should be done in future.
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    ON GEOMORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION AND LEGEND DESIGN IN MAPPING 1:1000000 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAP OF XINING SHEET
    Group of the Geomorphological Mapping and Research for Xining Sheet
    1984, 39 (4):  370-369.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (856KB) ( )   Save
    Xining Sheet is a map describing the area that located in the Northwest part of China, which is mainly composed of the Qilianshan Mountain and some adjacent geo-morphological units. The geomorphological pattern of the area is characterized by the NWW-SEE parallel arrangement of plateaus, mountain ranges, valleys and basins. This paper deals with the features of neotechtonic movement, and seven categories of neotectonics have been distinguished: the intensely uplifted during the Cenozoic Era, moderately uplifted during the Cenozoic Era, uplifted during the Quaternary Period, Subsided "from the Oligocene Epoch to the early Pleistocene and uplifted after the Mid-dle Pleistocene, subsided from the late Tertiary to the early Quaternary and newly uplifted after the Middle Quaternary, moderately subsided during the Cenozoic Era and intersely subsided during the Cenozoic Era. Mean-while, the climatic changes in this area since the Cenozoic Era, particularly in the Quaternary, have been analysed from the viewpoint of climatic geomorphology. Various combinations of basic exogenic agents and the dominant exogenic agent in different regions during different periods have been found out and five geomorphological kinds of exogenic origin been have defined: "La-custrine", "Lacustrine-fluvial", "Fluvial", "Dry and wind erosion" and "Glacial-pe-riglacial". Moreover, six fundamental morphological classes have been differentiated by the use of Fuzzy Mathematics: "High mountain", "Middle Mountain", "Low mo-untain", "Hill", "Plateform" and "Plain". Combined with different genetic geomor-phological classes, these morphological classes constitute the so-called "fundamental morpho-genetic classes". In addition, individual minor and genetiely simple land’forms have been also investigated and classified which are given as a general designation form and configuration classes.On the basis of the above research, the authors discuss the design principles and representation of legends on mapping 1:1000 000 geomorphological map. In the design principles of legend two lines should be followed, firstly, all of the land-forms of neo-techtonic origin, fundamental exogenic morpho-genetie classes and special forms and configuration classes should be fully reflected in designing the legend and respective legend should be developed for each category. The fundamental exogenic morphogenetic categories are of the most principle in all of categories, and should be emphasized in designing the legend system. Secondly, since a technique of representation of the patten of composite geomorphie mapping has been adopted in compiling the geomorphological map a corresponding legend system should be developed. For instance, the first level-basic exogenic morpho-genetic category is represented by the basic colouring methodwith codes; the second level-landforms of neotechtonic origin and special form and con-figuration category are expressed by codes and symbols. The third level-natural social components are expressed by symbols. Finally, this paper presents a list of complete legend system and a generalized map specimen.
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    ORIENTATION OF LANDSAT MSS IMAGE
    Li Shu-kei
    1984, 39 (4):  382-396.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (785KB) ( )   Save
    LANDSAT MSS COT data was generally rtecti’xied by polynomials, hardly thinking over the geometric characters, the residual error and ite well-distribution’depend on the ground control points and its distribution.In this study, we use the co-lineal equations in traditional photogrammetric as the mathematic foundation. The traditional photogrammetric single point rosection in space of a frame photography, here degenerates as the frame is substitutes by a line. The sa-tellite orientation elements is the function of scanning time (or scanning line). The mathematical model has been established between the image pixels and the ground tar-gets. We have also developed the corresponding software. The utility of the theory and software mentioned above was proved by experiment.
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    A TENTATIVE EXPLORATION ON REGIONAL ANALYSIS IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
    Lu Da-dao
    1984, 39 (4):  397-408.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (798KB) ( )   Save
    Kegional analysis is a main way ’xor developing basic theory and methodology of human geography. The concrete objective of the approach is to explore the law of re-gional development, to reveal the mechanism of inner-regional development, to enhance the predicative function of geographical research, and to promote the integration of branch studies of geography. The main methods of the regional analysis are: diagram-matization and geometric figuration, mathematical statistics and other mathematical methods, regional models. The regional analysis applies mainly to the following aspects: the analysis of de-termining regional location that is determining the reasonable location of social-econo-mic objects according to the analysing o’f the potentialities and frequency ranges.As to the analysis on economic relation and its structure, the author hag cited ex-amples to explain the way of using the method of input-output analysis for determin-ing the reasonable structure of regional economic complex; the method of spacial stru-cture analysis is applied mainly in territorial planning. After analysis on the deve-lopment and arrangement of Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, the author considers that, the region’s spacial structure must be re-arranged, the major development places of the region should be selected at the towns in coastal area, eastern part of Hebei province and farsuburbs of metropolises. So that, the region will be more evenly developed. The result o’f analysis on the process of the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region shows that, the inter-relationship between the growth of regional economics and the degree of its bala-nced development appears in mathematical curve as an upsided alphabet "U".
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    FEATURES OF FUJIAN’S MOUNTAIN ENVIRONMENT AND PROBLEMS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT
    Zhao Zhao-bing
    1984, 39 (4):  409-417.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (726KB) ( )   Save
    Fujian province is characterized by numerous mountains, broad seas and a subtro-pical climate. Mountains and hills cover more than 80% of Fujian's total land area. The natural resources of Fujian's mountain environment are quite rich, with a great variety of plants and animals, a huge volume of runoffs and hydro-electric potential and a climate favorable for growing subtropical trees fruits and crops. Mineral resou-rces are abundant as well.Based on features of Fujian's mountain environment, an over-all plan of "verti-cal agriculture" is tentatively proposed.
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    THE ESTIMATION OF DISCHARGE AND LOADS FROM THE RIVERS FLOWING INTO LITTORAL SEAS OF CHINA
    Jheng Tian-wen, Zhao Chu-nian
    1984, 39 (4):  418-427.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (637KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the data collected from 164 hydrological stations, situated at the down-stream of rivers (3022 station year), up to 1979, this paper estimated the annual ave-rage of runoff and loads flowing into the seas from the rivers in littoral areas of China, they are approximately 1800 km3 and 2000 million tons respectively and accound for 4.6% and 11.5% of the total volume of the world, while the content of soluble substa-nce in the runoff is about the same as that of the world.Under annual average, the Donghai receives most of the discharge approximately 64.5% of the total, while Nanhai comes the next, as to the Pacific, it receives the least.The distribution of runoff that empties into the seas both in dry and wet years are comparable to that of annual average, the most apparent variation of dry and wet years is observed in Bohai, While Donghai and Pacific are not so apparent. As to the sedi-ments transportation, the Bohai also show the most apparent variation.During 1970-1979, both runoff and loads discharged into Bohai decreased and vice verse in the case of Nanhai.In addition to the impact of periodic variation of precipitation in drainage areas, the increase and decrease of runoff is also affected by human activities, as when the precipitation of drainage area varies little but due to human activities the runoff will decrease. Since the last decade, the amount of runoff discharged into Donghai decre-ased slightly, but the amount of loads increased accordingly, an iiicreasing of 5.4% has been observed.Year’s and seasonal variations of runoff and loads discharged into seas are con-trolled by the major rivers that emptied into the sea areas. The variation of runoff and loads of most rivers within the sea area are consistent with each other.
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    SOME PATTERNS OF THE HEAT ISLAND IN BEIJING
    Zhang Jing-zhe, Liu Ji-han, Zhou Yi-xing, Wang Yong-chang
    1984, 39 (4):  428-435.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (484KB) ( )   Save
    It is generally accepted that urban heat-islands will constantly change their formas well as their intensity as the result o’f change in the background weather conditions. Although variations in heat-island intensity have been well documented, studies concer-ning veriations in heat-island form are few. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the heat-island studies in the, past were illustrated with only one detailed isotherm map based on one temperature survey, usually at times when heat-islands are strongest, to depict the spatial structure of the heat-island concerned.In this paper, the spatial structure of the heat-island in Beijing has been investiga-ted through more than 60 temperature surveys conducted in January, April, July and October, 1981. Temperature data for 14:00 and 21:00 or 22:00, 23:00 were obtained by both stationary observations and mobile traverse observations on pre-determined sites within and around the built-up areas. Data from a few meteorological stations in the suburbs were also used. Eesults show that the spatial structure of the heat-island in Beijing varies greatly at different times and the patterns of isotherms of the heat islands observed were all different from one another. However, it is found out that the varia-tions of the spatial structure of heat island are closely related to the intensity of heat island, and a few broad types of heat island spatial structure patterns can be recogni-zed:1. Calm-light air clear night type: As shown in Fig. 2, the pattern of isotherms roughly coincides with the urban morphology with highest temperature in the heart of the old city. Although the concentric pattern of the isotherms can’ ibe detected, there are some outstanding peaks on the ’fringe of the heat island. This type takes place in the calm-light air clear night, especially in winter when heat island reaches its maximum intensity.2. Light ibreeze clear sky type: As shown in Fig. 3, the pattern of isotherms is quite different from that in’ Fig. 2. The intensity of the heat island decreases due to light wind (about 2-3 ms"1) and some of the outliers of the built-up areas are excluded from the heat island. The breaking up of the heat island peak in the old city into two is a remarkable feature of this type.3. Gentle-moderate breeze clear sky type: As shown in Fig. 4, the pattern o’f isotherms is drastically different from those in Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. Whenever wind speed reaches 3ms""1 or even higher, the urban temperature is only slighly higher than the rural temperature, and within the urban heat island there are many small peaks near the anthropogenic heat sources.4. Cloudy type: Whenever the sky is overcast, the heat island is very weak. The pattern of the isotherms, as shown in Fig. 5 is different from that in Fig. 4, which is also a pattern of weak heat island but d.ue to windy weather. The outstanding feature of this type is the lack of correspondence between the pattern of isotherms and the urban morphology.
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    PROSPECTS FOR THE QUATERNARY POLLEN RESEARCH IN CHINA
    Li Wen-yi
    1984, 39 (4):  436-439.  doi: 10.11821/xb198404010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (289KB) ( )   Save
    In China using pollen analysis as a researching method ’for the Quaternary has been applied increasingly.Since more then thirty years, we have had using Palynological method to expound some evidences in Paleobotany, Paleoelimate, Paleogeography, Stratigraphy and Neote-ctonics etc. But a lot of works are still limited in the level of early stage. In this paper the author- puts forward her proposals in three expects: 1. In Botany, to master the ve-getationa.1 knowledge and apply it in practice are very important. The regularities of pollen dispersal in various geographical conditions should be studied. To seek the way of the floriestic development about Quaternary in China, e.g. the problems of refuge in south China and the dry climate in north China is unfolding before us. To grasp the critical concepts about the vegetation throughly is favourable to study the environ-mental changes of the studied vegetations. However the study o’f the pollen morphology either of present or of fossils should be strengthened. 2. In the techniques of pollen analysis, to take absolute pollen will be able to raise the efficiencies of pollen analysis and rationalities of Donations, as well as the use of .numerical techniques will also be helpful. 3. In the application of the pollen analysis, to pay attention to the influence, infiltration and coordination with it’s interrelated sciences will be more beneficial. In using pollen method to demarcate the climatic period and stratigraphic subdivisions in different areas and continents should be careful.
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