Table of Content

    15 January 1984, Volume 39 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Huang Bing-wei
    1984, 39 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401001
    Abstract ( 558 )   PDF (728KB) ( 419 )   Save
    When the Chinese Academy of China came into existence, Professor Chu Ko-chen was appointed as its vice president. In the midst of his numerous contemplations, were his painstaking efforts to establish an institute of geography to undertake investigations for the development of agriculture in China. As the president of the geographical Society of China, he was a warm advocate of geographicl work in this direction. As chairman of the Commission of Comprehensive Survey of Natural Resources, he organized and supervised a series of multidisciplinary expeditions to various regions of this country where the physical conditions were little known to the scientific world. As a scientist, he devoted himself with the limited time available to him to researches relevant to agriculture: crop-climate relationships, phenology and climatic changes. In charge of the team work of the physico-geographic regionalization, he persistently called the attention of all participants to focus on factors bearing significance to agricultural production broadly defined, to include crop cultivation, livestock raising and forestry. He is remembered for his able and effective coordination of the activities of nine working groups of scientists of different disciplines.He was a keen observer of the agricultural problems of every region of China. But it seems to me that he was most concerned with the situation of North China: the Loess Highlands, the middle and Lower Yellow River and the vast plain where is located the capital of China. Endorsed by him, the Institute of Geography sent in 1952 two field parties, one to the middle Yellow River region between Shanxi and Shanxi and another to the abandoned course of the Yellow on the plain to the north of the Huaihe. In the next year, his centre of interest had been shifted to the soil conservation of the Loess Highlands. According to his instruction, I had joined the work and in the ensueing years, he himself had once and again made field studies in Shanxi and Gansu. He held an over-all view, strongly supporting the coordination of various measures in a drainage area. His emphasis on soil conservation on the Loess Highlands did not detract from his recognition of the importance of agricultural problems on the North China Plain. His interest in the water conservancy of the Plain dates back at least to sixty years ago. In the preparation of the multiple purpose basin planning of the Yellow River in the middle fifties, he had gone through thick and thin to materialize the organization of a large working force to map the soils of the Plain on a scale of 1:200000. In early sixties, he headed the steering committee of multidisciplinary teams under the auspices of the Academy working on land amelioration schemes for some sectors of the North China Plain. The two regions under consideration are similar in a number of respects and linked by the middle and lower Yellow River. In the opinion of Professor Zhu, the proble-ms of both regions must be solved in concert. How sure is our control of the Yellow River may serve as the barometer of how successful is our agricultural development of the areas concerned.Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the lower reaches of the Yellow River has been safely kept within its embankments over a period of thirty four years. This is no doubt a great feat. But the sediment discharge from the Loess Highlands to the lower course averages 1.6 billion tons each year. Some 0.4 billion tons of this is annually deposited in the river channel. The river bed is raised about 10 cm each year. The danger of flooding is ever increasing. Over the North China Plain, the crop yield is lower than the national average and varies widely from year to year. The situation with the Loess H’g-hlands is even much worse. A more and more serious problem with both regions is the shortage of water for urban, industrial and agricultural uses, The gaps between supply and demand in food and water will be widened with the growth of population. In a perspective of the said three problems in
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    Chou Li-san
    1984, 39 (1):  11-16.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401002
    Abstract ( 405 )   PDF (426KB) ( 371 )   Save
    The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Regionoccupies about one sixth of the total land area of China. There are three mountain systems, Tienshan, Altay and Kunlun, Lying alternatively with three large basins, Tarim, Turpan and Junggar. numerous glaciars develop in the higher mountains, while vast expanse of gobi and desert prevails in the basins. The climate is arid with a scarcity of population, yet, due to its complicated geological structure and land types with abundantnatural resources, this region possesses favourable conditions not only to develop agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry, but also industry and mining.Around 1956, the Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted successively a series of scientific investigations on border areas, the Xinjing integated Survey was one of them. Dr. Chu Ko-chen (Zhou Ke-zhen), being the Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was concurrently the head of Commission for Integrated Survey. With all his heart and might Dr. Chu took part in this scientific research work of great strategic significance. It was under his gidance that the integrated survey in Xinjiang was making excellent progress from beginning to end. He pointed out that investigation teams should take agriculture, forestry and water conservancy as the key links and investigations of water and land resources, climatic resources, biological resources and rational distribution and allocation of production as the main tasks.During our four-year work of the investigatied survey, Dr. Chu often worked together with us. In fall of 1958, regardless of his old age of about seventy, he made an expedition to Xinjing in person. At first he inspected Urumqi, then arrived at Yili prefecture via Shi-hezi and Jinghe in the westmost part of Xinjing, and finally he attended a summing-up meeting convened by the investigation team in the Tarim Basin, on his visit to Aksu, kashi, Shache and Yecheng, he made an on-the-spot investigation on farms and industries so as to obtain firsthand information. Not only did he acquaint himself with production conditions, but also paid great attention to the problems existing in the economic development. During the period of 1959?960. Whenever we started to summarize our comprehensive work or to compile the monograph on the integrated survey in Xinjing, Dr. Chu would give us advices personally. The instructions offered by him played an important role in defining the direction and task for the Xinjiang Integrated Survey.Dr. Chou had been always concerned with exploiration and utilization of natural resources in the Xinjiang region, on the problem of reclamation of arid region, for instance, he emphasized several times his viewpoint of "reclamation according to available water", that is to say, the amount of farmland to be opened up depends on the amount of available irrigation water. He also stressed that attention should be paid to water and soil conservation, that precaution must be taken against salinazation and desertification, and that care must be taken of the combination between agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry.
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    Lin Chao, Wang En-yong
    1984, 39 (1):  17-19.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401003
    Abstract ( 738 )   PDF (207KB) ( 412 )   Save
    In geographical circle Dr. Chu Ko-chen is well known as a great teacher, an eminent scholar, head of various scientific institutions and president of the Geographical Society of China for more than twenty years. But his service and influence on the development of geography in China far exceeded his professional capacities. One of the examples was his care and help to the Department of Geography at Peking University.Since he came to Beijing in 1950 he gave continual help and guidance to the department. The department had its origin as a section in the Department of Earth Sciences at Tsin Hua University. In 1950, just after the Liberation, the Geographical Section was very small with a staff of only four teachers and fifteen students. Dr. Chu helped to strengthen the teaching staff by recommending a new professor. During the period of restructuring of higher education he was instrumental in the founding of the new Department of Geography at Peking University. Towards the end of the fifties during the Great Leap, among the leading members of the staff, there was a tendency to over-emphasize the importance of mathematics, physics and chemistry and to reduce geographical courses. Dr. Chu advised in time that geograpical subjects should remain the focus of a geographical department. His advice helped to rectify the tendency and retain the geographical subjects.Towards the end of the Cultural Revolution, how to meet the need of the nation became a prerequisite for the recovery of the department. When the advice of Dr. Chu was sought he pointed out that environmental protection would be a suitable subject for the department of geography His advice was adopted by the University and approved by the Ministry of Education. It not only paved the way for the recovery of the department but was also followed by the departments of other universities. Thus it opened up new vistas for the development of geography in China.In retrospect we owe much to the wisdom and guidance of Dr. Chu for the development of the Department of Geography at Peking University which has now become one of the important centre for the training of geographers in China.
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    Yang Huai-ren, Xie Zhi-ren
    1984, 39 (1):  20-32.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401004
    Abstract ( 556 )   PDF (854KB) ( 616 )   Save
    The present paper discusses climatic changes and sea-level fluctuations over past 20 000 years (especially Late and Post Glacial events) in East China.
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    Qian Ning, Wang Zhao-yin
    1984, 39 (1):  33-43.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401005
    Abstract ( 549 )   PDF (481KB) ( 782 )   Save
    The motion of debris flows can be depicted in the following manner:1. Debris flows consist of the neunrally suspended load, the suspended load and the bed load. The fine particles (silt and clay in general and including sand for debris flows with heavy concentration), called as "neutrally suspended load" in this article, mix thoroughly with water and form the liquid phase-------the slurry which behaves as a Binghamfluid. The coarse particles in turbulent debris flows move as suspended load and bed load, and assume the form of bed load in quasi-viscous and viscous debris flows. Both the suspended load and the bed load form the solid phase of the flow.
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    Sun Hui-nan
    1984, 39 (1):  44-51.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401006
    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (554KB) ( 510 )   Save
    This paper consists of following 3 parts:1. discusion on the method and conception of Potential Evapotranspiration.2. calculation and distribution of the Potential Evapotranspiration in China.3. some problems on the Potential Evapotranspiration studies.The first part discusses different methods of measuring the evapotranspiration and suggests to distinguish different conceptions of Potential Evapotranspiration according to the condition under which they are measured or calculated. Four conceptions are identified: Normal Potential Evapotranspiration (NPE) under the condition of unlimited water supply, complete vegetation cover and surrounded with uniform large area; Climatic Potential Evapotranspiration (CPE) under the condition of unlimited water supply but without uniform vegetation; Pseudo-Potential Evapotranspiration (PPE) under the condition of limited water supply; and Local Potential Evapotranspiration (LPE) in a small area with unlimited water supply and surrounded with large area of arid or semiarid condition.In the second part, the H. L. Penman’s formula for calculating the Potential Evapotranspiration is applied and the Map of mean year’s Potential Evapotranspiration in China has been drawn.The third part deals with the orientation of the Potential Evapotranspiration studies. Two suggestions are emphasized: to improve the measuring instruments and to increase comprehensive studies.
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    Ma Xiang-yong, Sben Xiao-ying, Zhang Li-sheng, Liu Fei, Wang Shou-feng
    1984, 39 (1):  52-64.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401007
    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (880KB) ( 544 )   Save
    Tai Lake Region covers an area of 36 570 square kilometres, of which 52.5% belongs to Jiangsu, 33.2% to Zhejiang, 13.6% to Shanghai and 0.7% to Anhui. Among the total area, 6.8% is plain, 16%, water, and 14.2, mountain area.Due to its favourable natural and economic conditions, this region, which undergone a long developing history, is one of the important economic base of China. It is not only the main producing region of grain, oil crops, cotton, hemp, silk and animal products, but also an important base of commodity grain in the country. So Taihu Lake Region is known as one of the most productive parts of our country.Even though the agricultural development of this area can be traced back long ago as early as the dynasty of Han, but still there are some problems remain unsolved. This paper discusses mainly the approaches and measures to make better use of land resoures.Firstly, it is important to adjust the agricultural productive structure for the rational utilization of land resources. In different types of land of Tai Lake Region, many representative cases of the Chinese traditional farming have been inherited. The rational agricultural productive structures suitable for local physical and economy conditions make it possible for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, fishery and industry depend upon each other and promote each other, so that the agricultural production has been greatly improved, and the best use of labour, terrain can be undertaken.Secondly, improve the drainage system of water logged fields by means of renovation of lowlying land area. Good results have been achieved by adopting culverts in some communes and brigades to drain the water logged fields. This is not only an effective way to increase production but also a reliable way to tap the land potentialities.Thirdly, construction of forest-shelter networks on farmland to resist natural calamities is one of the major task to improve agroecosystem environment. It is generally belived that the forest shelter networks of some brigades increase 6% in grain output exclusive of the reduction of output in forest shade places.Fourthly, it is important to protect the environment and control pollution in the area.Lastly, rational use of mountain area, adjustment of agroecological balance and effective conservation of water and soil play an important part in the long-term plan of the national economy and the people's livelihood.
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    Dai Xu Zhao, Songqiao
    1984, 39 (1):  65-74.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401008
    Abstract ( 529 )   PDF (653KB) ( 363 )   Save
    Heilongjing province and Hulunbeier League, located at 42°34′N and with an area of about 710 000 sq. km, is the northern most province of China. Up to the end of ninteenthcentury, the region was called the "great northern wilderness". In less than 100 years, it has been rapidly turned into the "great northern granary". It has now 8.73 million hectares of cropland, occupying about one twelfth of the total cropland, and producing about one sixth of the total commercial grains in China. There are still about 7.41 million hectares o?arable virgin land which will enhance the development of this commercial grain base to an even higher level.The present paper consists chiefly of five parts.In the first part, natural conditions of the Heilongjiang province are briefly introduced. In general, the temperature, moisture and soil conditions are favorable for agriculture, although there are also some unfavorable natural conditions, such as low temperature, spring drought, summer flood, soil erosion and salinization in different areas and in varying intensities.In the second part, the history of agricultural reclamation is briefly reviewed. Three periods are dentified: (1) Up to 1897 A. D., there were about 5300 hectares of cropland. (2) From 1897 up to 1949 A. D., agricultural reclamation by small farmers developed very quickly. In about fifty years, the northern part of the Songhua-Nen Jiang plain and the whole Mudan Jiang valley were already well developed. In 1949, croplands of Heilongjiang province totalled about 5.7 million hectares. (3) After 1949 A. D., the agricultural reclamation by state farms and people’s commune has reached a new high level. The newly reclaimed areas have been mostly located in the Three River plain and in the piedmonts of the Great and Small Xing-an Ranges.In the third part, the present croplands are analyzed and assessed. Most of them are favorable for agriculture. But, as three-fourths of them are located at the gently, rolling slopes, soil erosion has been rather severe. According to an estimate, one half of the total cropland is subjected to erosion, and about one fourth of which is very severe. The land has been gradually degraded. Again, the producing capability of the cropland has not yet been fully developed, so far, yield per area is rather low.In the fourth part, arable virgin lands are evaluated. The total area is about 6.7 million hectares. According to their capability to be used productively, they may be classified into four categories. They may also be grouped into four land types: gentle slope, flat ground, meadow and marsh.In the last part, chief measures for increasing commercial grain production are introduced.
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    Hou Shao-fan, Zhu Zhen-yuan, Tan Jian-an
    1984, 39 (1):  75-85.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401009
    Abstract ( 468 )   PDF (433KB) ( 550 )   Save
    The Kaschin-Beck disease occurs generally in the low selenium environment of China's low selenium areas, and nondisease region is generally distributed in the normal selenium environment. In both environments, the selenium dynamics in the course of fetal growth, is about the same. There is a decreased tendency of selenium content in fetus of five months. The selenium content increases when the fetus is six months. After that it decreases again. It is the lowest with in a month before birth and increases after birth. But in both environments, the changes of selenium content in the fetus are based on the different selenium levels.
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    Li Rong-quan, Liu Zeng-sen
    1984, 39 (1):  86-96.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401010
    Abstract ( 484 )   PDF (639KB) ( 537 )   Save
    The Changxindian formation which outcrops on the Southwestern Beijing suburb is the deposits of Early Cenzoic. The statistics of the rock composition of Changxindian formation indicated that Jurassic extrusive rocks takes the predominant part in the lithologic composition while materials from the Sinian Sub-group come next, the intrusive rock components are insignificant.Basing on its special lithological composition and the features of geologic structure of the source area, the authors try to reconstruct the evolution of the landforms of the Xishan (West Mountain region).1. During the deposition of Changxindian formation the folded topography of Yan-shan period in Xishan Mountain region was peneplaned, then it was uplifted in the Himalayan movement, consequently, an inversion of relief has occurred.2. Guangting Gorge of Yongding River has been formed after Eocene.3.Dashi River and Guangting Gorge belonged to two different drainage systems in Eocene, the development of karst around the Dashi River region appeared earlier than that of the Guangting Gorge region.
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    Huang Ci-xuan, Liang Yu-lian
    1984, 39 (1):  97-104.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401011
    Abstract ( 673 )   PDF (491KB) ( 445 )   Save
    In 1977 one site of Neolithic cultural remains was excavated in Qingdun, Haian County, Jiangsu Province presided by Nantong Museum. The excavation was continued in 1978 and 1979 by Nanjing Museum. Large amount of pottery relics, stone tools, bone objects and jade articles were unearthed successively, plenty of animal fossils, and a group of skeleton of ancient man were found. Meanwhile, differentiation of the cultural horizon of the remains was conducted and fossil soil samples of various strata were collected for sporo-pollen analysis, this paper intends to infer the palaeo-geographical environment of the ancient Qingdun Man and Changes of phrsical environment of middle and late Holocene period according to sporo-pollen anlysis and other available data.
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    Cong You-zi
    1984, 39 (1):  105-114.  doi: 10.11821/xb198401012
    Abstract ( 465 )   PDF (440KB) ( 506 )   Save
    The sedimental core with a length of 125m sampled from the southern Huang-hai coast is analysed, including the items of magnetic stratum, absolute age-dating, microfossils and core facies and the others. The results of the continuous measured magnetic strata show that the Brunhes positive polariod occur the anti-polarity magnetic strata of 3200-2900 yr. B. P., 8000- 7000 yr. B. P., 13 000 - 11 000 yr. B. P., 31 000 - 19 000 yr. B.P.,43 000 - 41 000 yr. B. P., 60 000- 50 000 yr. B. P., 130 000 - 110 000 yr. B. P., 215 000-198 000 yr. B. P., 311 000 - 193 000 yr. B. P., 420 000 - 400 000 yr.B. P., and about 500 000 years B. P.. The results of the micropaleofossils and rock facies show that there existed four stable sea facies layers (A, B, C, D,). The sedimental age of the marine facies layers correspond to 8000- 3000 yr. B. P., 40 000 - 30 000 yr. B. P., 1000 000- 60 000 yr. B. P., and 300 000 - 200 000 yr. B. P., respectively. The sedimental age of the continental facies correspond to 30 000 - 10 000 yr. B. P., 60 000 - 40 000yr. B. P., 200 000 - 110 000yr. B. P., and 700 000 - 300 000 yr. B. P., respectively.From the above-mentioned results we can conclude that the marine facies layer periods were the high sea level periods of the Huang-hai and East China Sea transgression; and the continental facies layer periods were the low sea level periods of the Huang-hai and East China Sea regression; there exists remarkable correlation among the magnetic stratum, biostratum and climatic strata change, which may rise in the magnetic strata (the relationship zone of the earth magnetic field with the Sun wind) change, and may broke the balance of the stratum around the earth, and brought variation of universe rays comming into the earth, finally it brought the abnormal climate and the ecological variation.
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