Table of Content

    15 April 1983, Volume 38 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Yang Shu-zhen
    1983, 38 (2):  105-112.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302001
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    The National Land Management includes the exploration, rational utilization, mana-gement, improvement and conservation of national land.China has a vast terretory and abundant natural resources, but she also has the largest population in the world, so that the per capita supply of resources is relatively low. By the same time, the areal differential in physical, social and economic is so evident that it is also one of her characteristics. All these should be taken into full account, so as to plan a suitable national economic development project on the march toward modernization. In the management of national land, it is imperative to unite the present key measure with the long term economic development strategies and the following problems, such as how to enhance economic effiency?, how to establish a new ecological balance etc., should be fully considered. The planning, therefore has an comprehensive, strategic and regional in nature. The scientific way to draw up an overall and comprehensive project is to consider the work in an all round way. There are roughly two types of national land management project: the special and the regional planning, the later includes the national overall project and the local project. First, it must deal perfectly with specialization and co-ordination in terms of the overall interest. It is thereful necessary to study the economic regionalization in order to provide results as the fundamental basis for the compilation of land manage-ment project.The economic regionalization is based on the features of territorial division of social production and divided the land strategically into several economic regions, so as to reveal the development orientation of regional specialization and economic structure. Its main principle is ecnomiy and the following contents should be included:1. The all round development of national economy and the full play of the regional economy.2. The regional specialization in production and its integrated development.3. The present level of the regional economy and its prospective development.4. The regional economic centres and their hinterland.5. Raise the level of regional macroeconomic efficiency and the maintance of regional ecological balance.6. The grade system of economic regions and the planning management system of national economy7. The division if labor in homeland regions coordinates with the international divi-sion of laborIn the third part, the author discussed the grades and subgrades of economic regions. In accordance with the characteristics of our country and her productive capacity, three gra-des of economical regions can be established, ie, the major economical regions, provincial economic regions and intra-provincial regions. At present, we can carry out the planning of intra-provincial economic regions whilst taking active preparation for the early comple-tion of the major national economical regional plan; finally through the regulation of the present provincial economical regions plan to adapt to the actual intraprovincial economi-cal regions thus the provincial economic regions can be established.
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    Wu Wei-tang
    1983, 38 (2):  113-127.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302002
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    This article takes Neolithic cultural remain as chief tools to probe into Holocene Pala-eogeography along the Hangzhou Bay. There are a lot of Neolithic cultural sites here, some dated as early as 7,000 B. P. (Fig. l).Two of them, Hemudu and Luojiajiao, have been quite famous, where a great amount cultural remains of cultivated paddy rices, pigs, buffalos, dogs, bone spades, potteries, houses etc. As well as some remmants and spore pollens of wild animals and plants have been unearthed. An outline of palaeogeography as constructed on basis of Neolithic cultural remains is shown in table 1 through table 4.In early Holocene, submergence started; besides the middle part of the north bank, all the lands were submerged (Fig. 2). By 7,000 B. P. it started to emerge again, forming a plain studded with numerous lakes. Hangzhou Bay was formed 6,000 B. P.. The landform along the Qiantang jiang has been greatly influenced by tides, so that the banks have been higher than inlands, and rivers have changed their orientation.About 12,000 B. P., the climate in this region started to turn warmer, showing post-glacial landscape. About 7,500 to 6,000 B. P., occured southern subtropic or even tropic climate here, with mean January temperature of about 10-12℃ and mean annual tempera-ture about 4℃ higher than present. Later, there were several climatic pulsation and the temperature become similar with present about 3,500 B. P.. There was a drop of temperature about 5,500 B. P., which hasn’t been shown in the chart of climatic curves of East China.Taking cultural remains as index to investigate sea-level changes is more reliable than taking natural features as index. On the basis of altitute of cultural remains and human coastal habitats, processes of sea-level changes has been worked out (Fig. 6). Since 7,000 B. P., the sea-level has been raised by 4 m, yet less than 1 meter higher than present sea-level. There have been alternation of lakes dimension several times in this region, obviously related to sea-level changes.Ancient people created a Swamp Culture in this subtropic and tropic swamp environ-ment, quite different from the Zhong Yuan Culture in the Huanghe River Basin. Here is one of cultural origions for growing paddy rice in the world.
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    Li Cong-xian, Li Ping, Cheng Xin-rong
    1983, 38 (2):  128-140.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302003
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    The authors, after analysing the field investigation data, conclude that the influence of marine factors on sedimentary characteristics of Yangtze River channel below Zhenjiang as follows:1. The velocity of the ebb flow upstream from Taipingzhou and downstream from Jiangxinsha in Yangtze River below Zhenjiang is higher than that of the reaches between them. The velocity of the flood flow shows progressive decreasing upstream from the river mouth up to Taipingzhou. The river reaches in which flood flow developed is about 130 km long.2. The sediments in Yangtze channel below Zhenjiang become gcadually finer do-wnstream. There are gravelly sands upstream from Taipingzhou, medium and fine sands between Taipingzhou and Jiangzinsha, from then the silty sands and sandy silts distributed in spotty pattern downstreams. The distribution of sediment size disagrees with the velocity change of the flow in the river mouth area where sand becomes finer when the flow velo-city becomes faster.3. The marine microfossils go upstream as far as the flood current does up to Tai-pingzhou. The living foraminifera in south distributaries of Yangtze River mouth may reach Hengsha where the 0.2% of low water isohaline is located. The living foraminifers in north distributaries may reach 20 km up stream from the river mouth where isohaline 1-1.5% is. The living ostrocodes may appear near Jiangxinsha.The extent of flood current upstream, the boundary of the fresh and brackishwater, and the reach of the marine microfossils agree with each other or discord from one another are innate in sedimentary environment. The concept is useful in the interpretation of the contradication of the various environmental factors and the disagreement between trangre-ssive and stratigraphic boundaries in the deltaic sequence.
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    Wang Zong-tai, Liu Chao-hai
    1983, 38 (2):  141-153.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302004
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    According to the data of the Glacier Inventor}’ compiled in 1979-1980, in Qilian Shan there are 2859 glaciers in total with an area of 1972.5km2 and an estimated ice sto-rage of 95.44km3.Qilian Shan consists of a series of high mountains and inter-mountain basins all run-ning parallelly in NWW direction, with grid-radiating network of waterways.The annual precipitation at Lenglongling and Zhoulang Nanshan of Qilian Shan rea-ches 400-700mm, and gradually decreases westward or southward to about 150mm. At 4000m a.s.l., the annual average temperature in the northwestern part of the mountain is lower than that in the southwestern part, with the centre: of low temperature (- 8.5℃) situated in Danhe Nanshan. Qilian Shan is a broad alpine zofte. The area above 4000m occu-pies about 30% of the total area, with Shule Nanshan as a dividing line, the mountain mass north of it are thinner and the valleys are narrower and deeper than those south of it. Again, with Youmen-Tuanjie peak-Delingha as a dividing line, the mountains in the eastern part are strongly cut by erosiom, but dry denudation mountains are preponderant in the western part preserving broad planation surface on some of the mountain tops. Such topographic conditions have great influence on the distribution of glaciers in Qilian Shan.1. There are more glaciers developed on the northern slope than on the southern slo-pe, with an area of 75.6% of the total area. The glaciers on the southern slope occupy only 24.4% of the total area.2. The size of the glaciers in inner mountains is larger than those in marginal mo-untain regions. For example, the glacial area in Shauli Nanshan occupies 28.3% of the total area, with an average area of one glacier at 1.13 km2, while that at Harke Shan only occupies 1% with an average area of one glacier at only 0.32km2.3. The elevation of distribution rises from northeast to southwest. The mean eleva-tion of glaciers at Lenglongling in the northeastern end is 4320m. while that at Qaidam Shan in the southwestern end is 5540m.4. The glacial type varies from east to west. Hanging glaciers are dominant in the eastern part, with 50% or more in number in all the basins. In the western part, valley glaciers are preponderant, with an area over40.5 in relative basins.5. The accumulation area ratio (AAR) decrease from the inner mountains to mar-ginal ones. Around Haltang basin, the AAR is 0.75 or more while at the marginal ones, they are less than that.6. The proportion of melt-water as a replenishment to river flow is far larger in thecentral mountains of Qilian Shan than In the marginal ones, as at Haltang basin the reple-nish volume of melt water is 40% or more, while at marginal mountains they are less than 30%.According to the features of glacial distribution as mentioned above, it can be divided into five large regions, the Shiyang-Hei river; the Shule-Dang River; the Haltang-Tatalin, River; the Har Lake and the Tatong River.
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    Qiu Bao-jian
    1983, 38 (2):  154-162.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302005
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    A former paper (Acta Geographica Sinica, Vol. 35, no. 2) by the present author and Lu, using hydrothermal condition, presented a tentative regionalization of agroclimate of China, three large regions were defined, the monsoon area, the arid area and the Tibetan Plateau. Regions of order 2 were based on the accumulated temperature above 10℃ and as for the regions of order 3, the aridity was adopted as the main index.In this paper, some principles for regionalization are revised as follows:1. In the former paper, the warm temperate climate belt was divided into two partsbut they were combined into one in the present paper. As for the Tibetan Plateau, three belts are defined: highland cold, sub-cold and temperate climate.2. Regions of order 3 not only defined according to humidity conditions, but also the differences in temperature and other factors as landform, surface water, soil and vege-tation are considered combinatively.3. Some climatic indexes used as bases in former case are modified and the bounda-ries have been redrawn. For example, the boun dary that separate the regions of aridity from the monsoon area is moved eastward to the west side of Daxingan Ling Mt., which is the crisscross area of pasture land and farm land. Belts define above may further reflect the differences between agriculture and pasture and so the cropping system; the regions of order 3 fit well to the physical environment, as well as in guiding agricultural development.
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    Wei Lin, Wang Jing-hua, Jing Ke
    1983, 38 (2):  163-170.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302006
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    Hou Ren-zhi
    1983, 38 (2):  171-175.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302007
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    As a component part of modern geography, historical geography, urged by New China's socialist construction, has achieved rapid progress by applying the viewpoint of dia-lectical and historical materialism to its study and adopting advanced academic ideas and approaches of other countries.
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    Chen Jun-ren, feng Wen-ke,Zhao Xi-tao
    1983, 38 (2):  176-187.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302008
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    In this article, the authors, after analyzing the data which were collected during an integrated marine geological investigation of the Northern shelf of the South China Sea, carried out in 1970-1978, especially on the sediment samples and echo Sounder, shallow stratigraphy profiles and Sidescan Sonar records, acknowledged that their knowledge on the features, divisions and geological significance of the- 50 m paleocoastline have been greatly improved.
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    Jiang De-hua
    1983, 38 (2):  188-196.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302009
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    Distribution of crops to adapt the local condition is an important basis on which spe-cialization and regionalization of agricultural production can be carried out. Beside tradi-tional theory of distribution of crops, mathematics and technique of electronic computer can also be used.
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    Chen Zhong-yong
    1983, 38 (2):  197-203.  doi: 10.11821/xb198302010
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    The, book "Die Geographic, ihre Geschichte, ihr Wesen und ihre Methoden" (Bre-slau, 1927) by A. Hettner, the German geographer, has been translated into Chinese re-cently. This book will be published by the Commercial Press and is now in the process of typesetting and printing. Being an "encyclopaedia" dealing with the elementary theoryof geography of the author's age, the book contains the history, nature, assigment, method as well as means of expression of geography.Breaking through the former frame of discovery history, Hettner's "History of Ge-agraphy" summarized the achievement of 800 people in the field of nature and society, and analyzied their historical causes and positions. The problem on nature and assigment of geography has been argued endlessly by geograhers throughout the world. This is a fact to show that Hettner's geographical thought exists certain depth and strength in the sphere of learning. The theoretical analysis of the method and means of expression of ge-ography is also an important contribution by the author of this methodological book. He-ttner has also given an effective and systematic statement on the education of geography. The central idea running through all of these sections is the feature of regional significane belong to geography. This is the foundation for geography as an independent science and at no time hereafter a vassal of history or other science.Broken paths A. von Humboldt had explored before, A. Hettner had faced some dif-ferent probfem in geography: The former demonstrated how geography developed from record and description into a science; while the later mainly the problem of what is geog-raphy arising from the new development of geography. Under such a condition, Hettner made an attempt to solve these questions and thus emerged his theory of geography as the times required.We can see from this book not only the thought and achievements of the science of geography since the time of A. von Humboldt and also the dialectical thinking and method flashed constantly before Hettner's eyes. This is because the influences of natural philoso-phy and empiricism occasionally raised doubts in Hettner's mind. By the way, we must know, the dialectical thought of Hettner have taken root in the classical philosophy of Ge-rman culture. Hettner strived to combine appropriately the scientific contents with diale-ctical thought and made valuable and pioneering attempt to study the elementary theory of geography on the scientific view point. The turbulent situation of the German society of Hettner's age leaded our author, Hettner, to a very complicated social thought, which revealed tortuously it self by this science book.
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