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Table of Content

    15 January 1983, Volume 38 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A NEW SCHEME FOR COMPREHENSIVE PHYSICAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA
    Zhao Song-qiao
    1983, 38 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (719KB) ( )   Save
    A new scheme for comprehensive physical regionalization in China is developed and adopted in the newly written textbook "Physical Geography of China" (both in Chinese and in English). Three natural realms (Eastern Monsoon China, Northwest Arid China, Tibetan Frigid Plateau), seven natural divisions (Temperate humid & subhumid Northeast China, Warm-temperate humid & subhumid North China, subtropical humid Central & South China, tropic humid South China, temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, temperate & warm-temperate desert of Northwest China, Tibetan Plateau), and 33 natural regions are demarcated. They are listed in table 2 and shown in map 1. The classification of lower-level regional units (natural sub-regions and natural areas) is also briefly discussed.
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    STUDIES ON THE LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT AND QUATERNARY GLACIATIONS IN NORTH PAKISTAN
    Li Ji-jun, Xu shu-ying
    1983, 38 (1):  11-24.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2197KB) ( )   Save
    The landform development and Quaternary Glaciations in Northern Pakistan are of great significance to the Pleistocene Chronology and Geomorphology of High Asia. Based on the data collected during our visiting Pakistan in 1981, two main erosion surfaces are identified in the piedmont belt of the Himalayas. One is the Potwar Plateau, with an average elevation about 500 meters, and the other a dissected planation surface at an elevation about 1,600m above sea level They are progressively younger from north to south, ranging from 1.5 M. Y. B. P. to 0.4 M. Y. B. P. This reflects the southward expansion of the rising Hima-layas.
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    CLIMATIC FLUCTUATION AND ITS EFFECT ON FOODPRODUCTION DURING THE PERIOD 1400-949IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE
    Zheng Si-zhong
    1983, 38 (1):  25-32.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301003
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    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the climatic fluctuation during the period 1400-1949 AD in Guangdong province, and discuss how it effects food production and causes cyclic fluctuation of famines and bumper harvests. All the data are collected from chronological records of regional geography that called Fangzhi in Chinese.From power spectrum analysis, the fluctuation of severe cold has cycles of about 2-3 decades and 15 decades. Flood and drought have their own cycles, such as 23.1 yr cycle for flood and 30.0 yr cycle for drought, both exceeding 95% of confidence limit. It seems that the long-period fluctuation of typhoon fluctuates similarly in phase with severe cold. Drought and flood occurred freq uently in the cold period, meanwhile the index of humidity decreased. These evidences imply that during the Little Ice Age the variability of precipitation increased, the annual precipitation decreased, and the climate of Guangdong became more continental.The occurrence of famine depends on the degree of flood damage, cold damage and drought damage, especially on the impact of the last one. The slighter the damages of flood, drought and severe cold, the more frequent of bumper harvest.Typhoon is another effective factor on food production. The magnitude of decade value of typhoon presents a negative correlation with the decade value of famine, but a positive one with that of bumper harvest. Undoubtedly, invasions of typhoon destroy crops and incur losses of both life and wealth to inhabitants along the coast. But, on the other side, typhoon carries abundant rainfall to vast areas. When the Pacific High persists in summer, rainfall carried by typhoon can satisfy the water needs for crops.A schematic diagram correlating climate, famine and bumper harvest in this article may be considered as a preliminary conclusion
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    ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PHENODATEIN CHINA
    Gong Gao-fa, Jin Wei-min
    1983, 38 (1):  33-40.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (301KB) ( )   Save
    The budding and blooming data of a plant usually bring a climatic message of seasonal shift. Based on the phenological observations of 50 stations in China during 1963-1972, geographical distribution pattern of phenodate of 20 plants for spring, summer and autumn are taken into account, and the Hopkins’ Bio-climatic Law modified.It is shown in this paper that the phenodate for spring will be delayed 3.8 days every degree in latitude northward, 3.5 days every degree in longitude eastward, and 1.5 days every 400 feet upward. These ranges for longitude and height are smaller than that given by Hop-kins.Distribution of phenodate is not only a question of latitude, longitude and height, but also correlated with seasons. The days delayed every degree in latitude northward are as follows: 4-5 days before the end of February, 3-4 days for March and April, 2-3 days from the end of April to the middle of June, less than 1 day from the middle of June to the middle of July. After the middle of July the trend of the relationship between phenodate and latitude are reversed, that is, the more northward the latitude, the earlier the phenodate. The relationship between the phenodate and longitude and height show similar trend, but with a smaller amplitude.Empirical formula and alignment chart for the geographical distribution of phenodate are developed.
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    MORPHOTECTONIC FEATURES OF THE TONGHAI EARTHQUAKE REGION, YUNNAN PROVINCE
    Han Mu-kang, Chai Tian-jung, Li Zhao-xiang
    1983, 38 (1):  41-54.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2858KB) ( )   Save
    The seismic structure that caused the 1970 Tonghai earthquake of M = 7.7 is the NW-trend Qujiang fault along which the Qujiang river runs. This fault experienced a complex oblique motion. To be exact, it is a pivotal fault with both dextral shearing and scissoring movement under the NNW-trend principle compressions! stress since the Quaternary.Its dextral motion is shown by the corresponding offset of tributaries of the Qu-jiang river which run across the fault, the offset of alluvial fans, and of a formerly con-tinuous early Pleistocene ancient valley. These phenomena mainly occur in the central section of the Qujiang fault, which has had a dextral displacement of 1,000 m since the Mid-Pleistocene.The scissoring or pivotal motion of the Qujiang fault is shown by the following facts: along its western section the fault plane dips SW with the southern hanging wall thrusting against the northern footwall. In this area the Neogene planation surface and the early Pleistocene river terrace on the southern block are higher than those on the northern block. Along the eastern section of the fault, the situation is reversed, the fault plane dips NE with the northern block thrusting against the southern one. Here the Neogene planation surface on the northern side and the early Pleistocene river ter-race along the main fault stand higher than those on the southern side.In addition, three (western, central and eastern) Quaternary transverse upwarps are formed along the Qujiang fault at its intersections with faults of other directions. These upwarps appear to be represented by dome-like deformation of the Neogene pla-nation surface and the early Pleistocene terraces of the Qujiang river. The western and central upwarps caused interruptions, inversions and deviations of the Qujiang river. The central upwarp is situated immediately adjacent to the pivotal region of the Qu-jiang fault, where the dip of the fault plane changes from southwest to northeast, and both vertical crustal movement and lateral displacement along the fault are most con-spicuous. These intense crustal deformation reflects that there is a concentration of tectonic stress in this region. It was where the 1970 Tonghai earthquake of M = 7.7 and its "early foreshock" of M=5.2 in 1965 took place.Another important phenomenon is that in addition to the two earthquakes men-tioned above, there are aftershocks and the historic earthquakes occurred in central and eastern sections of the Qujiang fault. It is worthy to note that the Tonghai earthquake region is situated at the apex of a southeastward-moving wedge-like block bounded on the east by the NS-trend sinistral Xiaojiang fault and on the west by the NW-trend dextral Honghe fault. Under the action of NNW-trend principle compressional stress, the central and eastern sections of the Qujiang fault are isubjected to much stronger dextral shearing compression than the western section, hence the higher seismic activities occured.
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    THE METALFORM AND FORM FACTORS OF HEAVY METALS IN THE XIANGJIANG RIVER SEDIMENTS
    Zhang Li-cheng, Dong Wen-jiang, Zheng Jian-xun, Zhao Gui-jiu
    1983, 38 (1):  55-64.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301006
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    In this article the metal forms of Xiangjiang aquatic sediment are discussed.The wet and hot climate of subtropical zone as well as the carbonate environment inupper and middle reaches of Xiangjiang rebuilt in some specific regional factors for themetal forms.1. The proportion of the exchangeable trace metal concentration in the sediments is low, generally not over 2%. The proportion of the major metals in the sediments is 10-30% for Ca, 2-6% for Mn and iron the lowest.2. Beside Cu, there is a higher proportion of content of the trace metals of carbonate forms than the hydrous Fe/Mn oxides forms metal, they amount to 30-81% for the total content.The two processes mentioned above suggest that the major mechanism of self-purifica-tion in the water for trace metals is effected by the human activities pollution.3. These processes might exist simultaneously as the proportion and distribution of the trace metals for hydrous Fe/Mn oxides-form, carbonate and organic substances forms, however the major trend is different, Cd and Zn were associated by carbonate and hydrous Fe/Mn oxides and carbonate for Pb, and organic substances for Cu.4. Except the content of Fe which is more than 90%, the normal concentration of other metals is about 35-50% in residual fraction.
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    RELATIONS BETWEEN VERTICAL CIRCULATION ALONG 115癊 AND MOVEMENT OF RAIN-BAND IN THE EASTERN CHINA
    Zha Liang-song
    1983, 38 (1):  65-72.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301007
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    In this paper, the variation of decade (10 days) rain-band during flood season in the eastern China is investigated. It has been found that the seasonal migration of rain-band is closely related to the movement of the wedge line of subtropical high at the 500 mb level, the displacement of subtropical jet and the variation of the vertical circulation along 115癊.According to the synoptic situation and climatic features, the vertical circulation asso-ciated with decade rain-band of 1978 and 1979 may be classified into five types:(1) The Spring rainfall type in the south of the Yangtze riverFig. 1 shows the distribution of decade rain-band and vertical circulation along 115癊 in this case. It is characterized by the existence of the direct circulation cell between 26癗 and 34癗. The rain-band connecting to the ascending branch of the cell lies between the Yangtze river and the Nanling mountains. The wedge line of subtropical high is located at about 14癗. The axis of 200 mb subtropical jet maintains at 30癗. In general, this type appears in April and May.(2) The rainfall type in south China in the early SummerAn example of this is shown in Fig. 2. The axis of rain-band in correspondence with the north ascending branch of monsoon circulation cell, which is near Kuangzhou, extends along the Nanling mountains and rainfall is quite heavy. At this time, the axis of subtro-pical jet is located at 36癗. This type appears from 2nd decade of May to 1st decade of June.(3) The plum raift type in the Yangtze and the Huaihe valleysAn example of this type is shown in Fig. 3. It is characterized by the existence of the strong monsoon circulation cell and the east:-west plum rain-band corresponding to the as-cending branch of the cell. It can be seen that the rain-band lies in the Yangtze valley, and the wedge line of subtropical high is located at about 22癗, but the axis of subtropical jet still maintains at 35?36癗. The northerly wind prevails in the upper part of the tropo-sphere. The Qinghai-Tibet high at 100 mb level belongs to "the west type".(4) The persistent drought type in the Yangtze and the Huaihe valleys in mid-Summer This type appears in July and August. Fig. 4 shows the distribution of rain-band andvertical circulation along 115癊 in 1st decade of July, 1978. It can be seen that the southern component of wind and the descending motion predominate in the whole troposphere. And in the vast subtropical regions of south to the 33癗 persistent drought occurs. The wedge line of subtropical high is located at about 26癗. The Qinghai-Tibet high belongs to "the east type".(5) The drought type in the Yangtze and the Huaihe valleys at the end of summer, meanwhile rain area shifts to the further north in North China.A selected case is shown in Fig. 5. It shows that the monsoon circulation cell is very strong and stable in North China. The rain-band corresponding to the ascending branch of the cell lies in North China, while in those vast regions of south to the 35癗 drought ap-pears because of strong descending motion, except the south-eastern coast of China, where some new rain areas occur. In addition, the wedge line of subtropical high is located at 34癗, and the axis of subtropical jet advanced to 45癗. The strong ascending motion just appears on the south side of the axis.Some results of this paper might have indicative significance for long-range forecast of rainfall tendency.
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    SOME PROBLEMS ON THE STUDY OF URBAN CLIMATE
    Ching C. Chang
    1983, 38 (1):  73-79.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301008
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    This paper discusses some problems concerning the following aspects: 1. The application of urban climatology: Urban climatology has long been consi-dered as an applied science and could make contributions to urban planning, but actually it has not played any significant role in urban planning. This is due to the fact that the great majority of the studies of urban climate in the past were of a descriptive nature, not many were devoted to analytical and theoretical research, and applied studies were even fewer. The lack of knowledge of urban planning on the part of urban climatologists is one of the main hindrances to applied research. The lack of knowledge of urban climate on the part of urban planners is also one of the major reason why urban climatology has played no im-portant role in urban planning. In order to change the situation, applied research must be emphasized, communication between urban climatologists and urban planners should be en-couraged, and mutual understanding and collaboration between them should be promoted. And the advancement of the study of the causes of urban climate will also be important." 2. The study of the causes of urban climate: The central theme of urban climatology is to study the mechanisms causing urban-induced climatic anomalies, but so far only a com-paratively small number of the studies were devoted to this theme. The great majority of the literature only reiterated the explanations offered by our predecessors long time ago and applied them indiscriminately to every city. Urban heat island, the most studied urban clima-tic phenomenon, can be used to illustrate this situation. The formation of heat island was ascribed, almost with no exception, to (1) reduction of wind speed in the urban area, (2) low albedo of the urban surface, (3) greater heat flux due to decreased evaporation from the urban surface, (4) greater heat storage capacity of the urban building materials, (5)great amount of anthropogenic heat released in the city, and (6) attenuation of out going long-wave radiation due to atmospheric pollution. The main issue here is that the causes mentioned above are all deduced according to theoretical reasoning and actually the relative role each of them plays in the formation of heat island varies greatly with different city, in different season, in different time of a day, and under different synoptic condition. Only causal analysis closely associated with given conditions of the city in question can improve our understanding of the mechanisms causing heat island. There were some studies in the past devoted to causal analysis, but most of them were restricted to relating the temporal variation of heat island to synoptic factors, and only a few attempted to analyse the relati-onship between the spatial variation of heat island and urban landuse types. The key of un-derstanding the mechanisms causing heat island lies, above all, in the study of urban radia-tion balance and urban heat balance. It is only in the last decade that a few climatologists started to do research along this line.In most cases, urban climatic anomalies are not exclusively urban-induced, nonurbao factors such as topography and natural water bodies also account for some of the anomalies. In searching for the causes of urban-induced anomalies, the component part induced by non-urban factors should be screened out, but it is not always easy to do so.3. Urban climate observation: Observation sites should have representativeness. How to chose such sites within an urban area is still a problem to be solved. Since urban climate, to a certain extent, is a mosaic of urban microclimates, any site chosen by whatever method can only be representative of a certain type of urban microclimate, and can not be repre-sentative of the urban climate as a whole, The true picture of urban climate can only pos-sibly be portrayed by an observation network consisting of observation sites chosen to rep-resent each type of microclimatic surroundings classified according to urban landuse.Almost all the studies of urban cli
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    ON THE MODERN CARTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM
    Liao Ke
    1983, 38 (1):  80-89.  doi: 10.11821/xb198301009
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    This paper is divided into four parts. The first part is a brief review on the deve-lopment of modern cartography and emphasis on the introduction of various views of cartographers (E. IMHOF, K. A SALISHCHEV, A. H. EOBINSON, L. EATAJSKI, J. BEETIN, A. KOLACNE, C. BOAED, A. F. ASLANIKASHVILI, I. KEESCHMEE, and U. FEEITAG E.C.T) on the "Theoretical cartography" and "Practical cartogra-phy".In the second part the inadequacies in the cartographcal system which have been put forward in the world are analysed and studied, and then the author expresses his views on the system of modern cartography. The system consists of three parts: the-oretical cartography (the theoretical base of cartography), practical cartography (me-thodology and technology of cartography) and applied cartography (applied principle and method of maps).Theoretical cartography includes elements of cartography, theory of cartographic information, theory of cartographic modelling, theory of cartographic communication, mathematical cartography, semiology of cartography (sign theory in cartography), theory of perception of cartography (theory of Cartographic experiences), theory of cartographic generalization and theory of complex mapping.Practical cartography consists of general cartography, thematic cartography, aero-space cartography, computer-assisted cartography and cartographic reproduction.Applied cartography describes the function of maps, estimation of maps, methodo-logy of analysis of maps, process of map use, method of map use, auto-analytical cartogra-phic system and application of maps.In the last part the author points out the real significance of modern system for the future cartographic study, teaching and the development of mapping production.
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