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    15 July 1982, Volume 37 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    IN MEMORY OF THE GEOGRAPHER HSU HSIA-KE AS A PIONEER OF HIS TIME
    Hou Ken-zhi
    1982, 37 (3):  236-240.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (381KB) ( )   Save
    Of all the noted geographers in the history of the development of Chinese natural sciences, Hsu Hsia-ke (1586-1641) is the one person whose life and achievement has been studied the most by students of geography in our time. In the past fifty-five years, two new editions of "The Travels of Hsu Hsia-ke" have been published and more than thirty theses have been devoted to special topics about his life and achieve-ments or popular editions of his life story. Some of these theses were written and publi-shed before the founding of new China. These writing evalute Hsu and the scientific contents of his travels from the stand point of modern geography. The other works written and published after liberation, not only delve deeper into his book from the perspective of its scientific achievement, but also, by using the method of historical materialism attempt to investigate and explain the social background underlying the writing of the Travels. The present essay attempts to emphasize that Hsu Hsia-ke was not only a pathfounder in the research of physical geography in China, but also a forerunner and pioneer of his age. Due to the longivity and power of the feudal system in China, no one has been able to follow in the foot steps of Hsu Hsia-ke until modern time. As a progressive personality who definitely broke away from the bloc-kade of reactionism, Hsu Hsia-ke provides an example for us to emulate in our en-deavour to establish and realize a new age of soicialist China.
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    INTERTIDAL FLAT SEDIMENTS IN SHANGHAI COASTAL REGION
    Shao Xu-sheng, Yan Qiu-shang
    1982, 37 (3):  241-251.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203003
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    This paper deals with the sediments of intertidal flat of Southern Part of Yangtze Delta. Field study was carried out in two sub-coastal segments: Eastern Intertidal Flat, from Nanhui Cape northward, and Southern Intertidal Flat, from Nanhui Cape westward.The characteristics of Shanghai Intertidal flat are as follows:1. The sediments of the studied intertidal flat are predominantly supplied by Yangtze River discharge, and generally fine in grain size. Even the sediments of low tidal flat, which rank the coarsest in whole intertidal flat, are merely coarse silt, their average size is 0.037 to 0.038 mm in diameter, and the overall content of grains larger than 0.063 mm is below 10%.2. The average tidal range varies from 2.7 to 3.5 m, while wave action is fairly weak in normal sea climate owing to the consumption of wave energy after long jour-ney across wide and gentle subaqueous slope, though no prominent topographic handi-cap such as barrier island exists. Therefore, tidal action plays the dominant role. It can be expected that the grain size of sediments becomes progressively finer, the mud content gradually increases, and sorting becomes worse from low tidal flat landward to high tidal flat. In sedimentary structure, the characteristic features of high tidal flat are horizontal laminae of silt and silty mud. Those of mid tidal flat are predo-minantly alternate beds of silt and silty mud, of which, muddy layers often show wavy structure, while silty layers are in continuous or discontinuous lenticular form; reac-tivation surfaces occur. Those of low tidal flat are predominantly small scale cross stratification; horizontal silt laminae and wavy muddy silt layers are also common; neither herringbone cross stratification nor "B-C" sequences appear.3. Both intertidal and subtidal vertical profiles distinctly show rhythmical stra-tification, which consists of alternate bands of coarse grains and fine grains, Typhoon, occasionally prevailing in late summer and autumn, raises sea level temporarily and is accompanied by violent wind wave action, causes powerful effect of coastal erosion and deposition, and is responsible for the formation of coarse-grained bands. In con-trast, the fine-grained bands are accumulated in the state of low-energy under ordinary tidal and wave condition throughout the year.4. The progradation rate of intertidal flats is very high. In the last 6 years, it was about 100 m/year in the Southern Tidal flat region; while in the Eastern Tidal flat region, it was about 60 m/year. Because of the high rate of accumulation and scarceness of burrowing fauna, the whole intertidal flats are slightly burrowed ordisturbed.5. The environment of intertidal flat is greatly affected by human activities. In accord with progradation rate, embankments were built in time near the edge of mean high sea level. Inside the embankment, instead of natural tidal flat, it becomes cul-tivated field. Outside the embankment, reeds grow extensively, which obviously accelerate progradation rate.
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    A REVIEW ON THE PROBLEM OF SITING OF SHANGHAIHARBOR FROM THE REGIONAL AND URBANPOINT OF VIEW
    Zheng Hong-yi, Zhang Wu-dong
    1982, 37 (3):  252-260.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (662KB) ( )   Save
    Shanghai Harbor, the biggest port of China, ranks among the ten major ports of the world. In 1980, the volume of cargo handled at Shanghai Harbor amounted to 84.83 million tons.In view of the trend of growth of cargo-handling and the existing suggestions on the long term industrial development of Shanghai, it is likely that the volume of cargo to be handled at Shanghai Harbor in the year of 2000 will reach 300 million tons. However, the existing conditions of facilities of Shanghai Harbor can hardly meet the demand of its development and delay in loading and unloading vessels has become more and more serious. The questions of how to avoid congestion at ShanghaiHarbor and to meet the requirements for its long term development are considered as the main topics for the construction of Shanghai Harbor and its locational planning. The present paper attempts to probe into the siting of Shanghai Harbor from the point of economic geography.1. Shanghai has been rising from a small fishing village to the status of the biggest city of China and into the rank of the world’s five major metropolises. This is closely related to the fact that Shanghai Harbor is endowed with good natural condi-tions. Besides, the expansion of the area of Shanghai as a city and the evolution of its urban location are also important factors in this context.2. The throughtput capacity of Shanghai Harbor may be raised through the improvement of efficiency, renovation and reconstruction as well as extension of wharves and utilization of shorelines.But since transhipment accounts for a high percentage in cargo handling and still shows a trend of growth, it is necessary to open a branch of Shanghai Harbor in its vicinity. Nan-tong Harbor has very good conditions and can be made into a main harbor for branching transhipment from Chang Jiang River, while Zhang-jia Harbor may be made secondary harbor for the same purpose. Zhenghai Harbor may handle part of transhipment from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Anhui provinces. Besides, Fuzhou Harbor, Xiamen Harbor and Liangyun Harbor can handle some transoipment as well.3. So far there have been more than ten alternative project of three different types for siting of Shanghai Harbor (Chang Jiang Estuary, North bank of Hanzhou Bay and the inland harbor type). The concerned authorities have made compara-tive feasibility resources researches according to conditions of physical geography, engineering and investment. In this article, the authors made a survey of the siting of Shanghai Harbor from the point of concentration and dissipation of cargos between the harbor and its hinterland and the relationship between harbor and city and reached the following conclusion: the site of Jingshan Mouth is believed to be the most ideal due to its proximity to railroads, easy in linking with them and setting stations and stack grounds with little interference to the neighbouring towns, convience in connec-tion with the Taihu lake water system and the local deep water favouring the accomoda-tion of large vessels.4. In the area of Jingshan Mouth-Xinghuo State Farm there is a lot of open lands available for harbor construction with relatively low costs. It is located in the windward side, and at a distance from the city of Shanghai. Even developing industries in this area will not pollute the environment of Shanghai. It possesses a favourable con-dition for constructing a satellite city of Shanghai with 400.000-500,000 population, therefore, the site of Jingshan Mouth is most suitable for carrying out dispersion, plans for the city of Shanghai.
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    THE SPORE-POLLEN AND ALGAE ASSEMBLAGES FROMTHE SURFACE LAYER SEDIMENTS OF THEYANGTZE RIVER DELTA
    Wang Kai-fa, Zhang Yu-lan, Sun Yu-hua
    1982, 37 (3):  261-271.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203005
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    Through the systematic research of spore-pollens and algae from the surface layer sediments of the Yangtze River Delta, we have obtained the following four conclusions:1. The spore-pollen assemblages of Yangtze River Delta from its surface sediments have a close relationship to the vegetations on the Delta Plain and surround-ing hills. The main part of the spore-pollen grains in the Delta Plain came from its own vegetation, the rest came from the vegetation of neighbouring hills chiefly brought by the wind. The spore-pollen grains in the delta-front and predelta deposit under the sea came from the mesic-herbaceous plants and littoral halophytes of the delta plain and from the mixed forest of evergreen broad leave and deciduous broad leave trees. They were brought there by wind and river current whereas the sea current had little influence. The spore-pollen assemblages of the delta surface sediments might reflect the characteristics of vegetation and climate of the delta in recent times, they are the collateral evidence of delta deposit.2. The different facies of the Yangtze River Delta have different spore-pollen assemblages (showing in Tab. 1.).3. The different geomorphic units of the Yangtze River Delta have different density of spore-pollen grains. The density of spore-pollen grains is higher iu the laud part, lower in the submarine part of the delta. It is lowest in the river mouth. Fine sediments have higher density and coarser grains have lower density.4. The extent of distribution of hydrophyte pollens in the marine sediments reflect approximately the boundary of recent spreading of the Yangtze River Delta. The furthermost limit is 123?0’E in the East China Sea.
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    ON THE VARIATION OF ACCUMULATED TEMPERATURE DURING THE LAST 100 YEARS AND CROP YIELD IN CHINA
    Wang Fu-tang
    1982, 37 (3):  272-280.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203006
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    Based on the collecting and processing of the long series data of accumulated temperature and crop yield in our country, this article analyses the variation of the classes of deviation of effective accumulated temperature ≥ 10℃ during the last 100 years, and the meteorological association with the meteorological yield variation of the main crop during the last 30 years in Shanghai and other places.1. There are specific fluctuations with different periods for the variation of ac-cumulated temperature in different regions and it will affect agricultural development to a certain extent. The above mentioned periodic fluctuation will only make a little turbulence on the curve of accumulated temperature for short time- warming and cooling but it cannot change the general trend.2. The crop meteorological yield not only depends on the environmental-meteor-ological conditions but also on the rule of crop yield variation itself and from the periodic fluctuation in the variation of the meteorological yield such as 12 years period which makes the evaluation of prediction more complicated.3. In comparing the periodogram analysis of cla.sses of meteorological yield with that of classes of deviation of accumulated temperature in different periods during the last 30 years. There is a corresponding periodicity between them. It also shows that the periodic variation of agrometeorological thermal conditions may effect the periodic variation of crop yield to certain extent. In reference (1) the author suggested that agrometeorological thermal factor, as one of the main environmental conditions for crop planting and development, is one of the main reasons for periodic fluctuation in yield series serious. The above analysis in this paper preliminarily proves the existance of this relationship.
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    BASIC FEATURES OF NATURAL ZONES IN THE NENJIANG AREA AND THEIR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT
    Shen Yuan-cun
    1982, 37 (3):  281-290.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203007
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    Nenjiang area is located in western Heilongjiong province. According to compre-hensive physical regionalization of China (1959). this area is wholly delimited tem-perate subhumid region and meadow steppe-black earth zone. Yet, according to our own field investigation in 1977-1978, two natural regions and three natural zone have been identified.Firstly, based upon temperature and moisture condition, the area may be divided into temperate sub-humid and temperate semi-arid natural regions, secondly based upon vegetation-soil criteria, temperate sub-humid region may be sub-divided into two natural zones: forest-steppe-black earth zone and meadow-steppe-chernozem, zone; and temperate semi-arid region contains only one natural zone-steppe-chestnut soil zone.In regard to agricultural development, forest-steppe-black earth zone should be devoted mainly to agriculture, secondly to forestry and thirdly to pasture; meadow-steppe-chernozem zone mainly to agriculture, secondly to pasture and thirdly to forestry; while steppe-chestnut soil zone mainly to pasture, partly to agriculture and forestry.
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    ANALYSIS ON THE GEOGRAPHICAL ENVIRONMENT ANDENDEMIC FLOURINE POISONING IN THE YULINPREFECTURE OF SHAN-X1 PROVINCE
    Nie Shu-ren
    1982, 37 (3):  291-302.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203008
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    The main contents in this paper are as follows:1. The geographical distribution of fluorine poisoning affected regions.2. The geographical factors in the formation of higher fluorine content water.3. Improving the environmental quality to prevent endemic fluorine poisoning. The Yu-lin Prefecture is a major affected region of Shau-Xi Province. 38.7% ofthe total population have fluorotic mottled teeth and 2.1% have fluorotic osteopathy. This is a slightly and moderately affected region.In this Prefecture, when the fluorotic content reaches or exceeds 1.0 ppm in the drinking water, the clinic symptoms and signs becomes apparent. As the average con-tent of fluorine in drinking water exceeds the national hygienical standard in greater part of the Prefecture, one may say that this is an affected region. Furthermore, it has also the conditions for the disease to reappeared in a region previously affected. The concentration of fluorine in groundwater is higher in the western and southern counties; these are the major areas of endemic fluorine poisoning in the Prefecture. The symptom, however, is scattering in the region rather than concentrated.The major geographical factors causing higher-fluroine content in water in locality are: (1) The climate; (2) The composition of surface materials: (3) The topog-raphy; (4) Biological and human- social factors.According to our study, the following measures are very important to improve the environmental quality, as well as to prevent endemic fluorine.(1) Planting vegetation (both trees and grasses), especially those fluorine-tole-rant vegetations and those having the ability to absorb fluorites.(2) Preventing and harnessing soils from being salinized.(31 "Rational distribution of the residential areas and improving the quality of their drinking water.(4) Taking measures to prevent pollution of the environments around the sources of water supply.
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    THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF ORANGE FALL
    Zhang Ying-jun, Mo Zhong-da
    1982, 37 (3):  303-316.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203009
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    The article deals with the origin, evolution and the present condition of Orange Fall, a well known scenic spot along the Dabong River valley in Guizhou karst region.1. Geomorphologically, Orange Fall marks the boundary between two different types of landscape in central Guizhou Plateau, that of rounded hills, shallow depressions and broad karst valleys upstream of the fall, and that of gorges, sharp peaks and more rugged karst surfaces downstream. These indicate respectively two different physiograp-hical stages: the shapen stage (Mountain and Basin Stage) and the Xiagu Stage (Gorge Stage). During the later stage, as a result of the intermittent uplifts of Earth crust, several slope-breaks on the longitudinal profile of Dabong River had been formed. They are, from the upper reaches to the lower reaches successively, Orange-knickpoint, Hezuilai-knickpoint and Guanjiao-knickpoint (Fig. 3) indicating respectively the posi-tions reached by the headward erosion of Shiwangzhai, Banhuai and Daping substages. It should be point out that headward erosion of Shiwangzhai substage had only re-ached Luositan, not long after, the surface flow sank down into a ponor in the river channel. Then a ponor-fall belonging to the karst-erosional-knickpoint type had been formed which was the predecessor of Orange Fall of today.2. The authors show that in karst regions of central Guizhou plateau, after the surface flow sinks down to become an underground stream, the karst valley would undergo five phases of evolution : the embryonic phase, the incipient phase, the youth-ful phase, the mature phase and the old phase. Judged from the morphology of the valley downstream from Orange Fall to Natural-bridge, it exhibits the characteristics of youthful phase. However, on the Dabong River system, even within a comparatively small area, representatives of all the five phases of karst valley evolution could be found.3. There is a series of deep pools, partitioned respectively by rock steps, aligning on the river bed, just under the plunging water of the fall to several hundred meters downstream. They are the Rhinoceros pool, the plunging pool of the present water fall, beside, there are at least three other pools of former plunging water, already aban-doned after the recessions of the fall. It could be inferred that the site of the earliest ponor-fall should be, most probably, located at somewhere near Youyujing. Down stream from Youyujing, traces on the valley wall indicate serious collapses of former corridor deck. If the above inference is true, the Orange Fall would have been receeded for about 250 m since its formation.4. The reasons why Orange Fall are perfectly preserved at present are mainly lithological and structural:1) The rocks that compose the fall-face and valley wall are rather simple, mainlydolomitic limestones of lower Triassic age, which are of medium thickness and more re-sistant than the rock types further downstream of the fall.2) The present site of the fall is more favourable than its former site. Succes-sive recessions of the fall have already made it free from the fault zone and less re-sistant rocks.3) The rocks composing the present fall-wall dip slightly upstream.4) There are, deposited on the fall-wall thick beds of tufa which prevent plung-ing water from eroding the base rock on the one hand and filling up the fissures on the other hand, it possesses the effect to cement and strengthen the rocks on the other.5) The depth of the present plunging pool (15m) approximates the depth of security necessitated to dissipate the energy of the plunging water.5. The great thickness of tufa deposition on the fall-wall is quite a remarkable feature. Curtain-like tufa depositions hang down from the fall-crest to form cave-like space on the fall-wall, the well- known "Water-screen Cave, which is a kind of primary cave (Primarhohlen in Sedimenten).The authors found that in karst regions of Guizhou, tufa often deposits on the slope-breaks along the river valley where water fall or rapids occur. It is also wor-
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    THE OLD RIVER DEPOSIT AND THE FEATURES OF THE OLD RIVER TYPES OF NANGONG UNDERGROUNDRESERVOIR
    Wu Chen, Wang zi-hui
    1982, 37 (3):  317-324.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203010
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    Nangong Underground Beservior lies on the old channel zone of Damiug-Qinghe-Jingxian-Qingxian at Hebei Plain (code number: 112(1) B). Explorations and dissec-tions on the reservior have been made in recent years, and the results show that the deposit has the typical marks of river-facies deposit such as: a scoured surface and river-bed holdxip-f acies deposit; an progressively thincr upwards cycle of sedimentation; thin and fine deposits along river bed caused by one-way water flow; the remains of fresh water organism such as clam shells; "V" traces, pits and shallow channels on the surface of the quartz sand.The old river developed on a scoured s’lrfaee of brown redish clay in the drpth of about 30 m and it was accumulated successively into three stages. Stage I (about 20-30 m deep), stage II (about 8-20 m deep’i and stage III (about 0-8 m). Among them, stage T was a braided channel, transporting sand mainly by bed load and saltation load. Stage II was a braided-straightward one. transporting sand mainly by mixed load, and stage III was a straightward-curved one, transporting sand mainly by suspension load.The accumulation of three stages of the old channels represents three different geographical landscapes of Nangong Underground Eeservoir at late-recent geologic period: during stage I, the sea level was lower, the climate was cold and humid, the discharge of the river was large and the current velocity was swift, therefore a landscape of pouring and roaring flood was emerged on the river. During the stage II, the sea level uplifted, the climate was warm and humid, the discharge of the river was smaller and the current velocity slowed down. Therefore,a landscape of flurishiug biology lakes was emerged on the river. During stage III, the sea level lowered down, the climate was dry and cold, the discharge of the river was small and variable, a dry landscape with drought, waterlogging and salinization of soil occured alternatively.
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    ON THE ORIGIN OF THE LONGITUDINAL VALLEY BETWEENHONGWEN VILLAGE AND DIANNAN VILLAGE, NW.YUNNAN, AND THE DISCUSSION ON THERIVER CAPTURE OF JINSHAJIANG
    Xu Zhong-lu, Li Xing-jian
    1982, 37 (3):  325-334.  doi: 10.11821/xb198203011
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    The .longitudinal valley between Hongwen Village, NW Yunnan, near Shigu, at the first curve of Jinshajiang and Diannan village trends from NNE to SSW and stretches more than 53 Km. Professor P. Misch and Professor Ben Mei-ngo et al. believed that it is the valley of the old Jinshajiang, and was the result of river capture. The old Jinshajiang, after passing through Shigu, flowed southward along this longitudinal valley into Lancangjiang or Yuanjiang. The authors after two field studies in this district express their diffrent opinion as follows.The longitudinal valley when look at a distance is a single trough. But, actually it is a compound of different landform units, including seven depressions or sink holes, subsequent valley and fault basin, which stretch in the same direction. There wasn’t any river deposits and river landforms. In addition, the lacustrine deposits in Jian-chuan Basin and the wide valley of Jiuhe, and the alluvial deposits of river along Jinloghe, the main Quaternary bed in this valley, are pluvial deposits. Its composition is rigorously controlled by the rocks exposed in the coombes, such as the pluvial gravels consisting of mica-schist and the mica fragments originated from mica-schist’s gravels and the lamprophyre. These rocks, located at the base and the outside of coombes of Bailashao, came from the basal conglomerates of Upper Tertiary and exposed in these coombes. But Professor Ken Mei-ngo described that these pluvial gravels and fine sand beds consisting of mica fragments were alluvial deposits transported by the old Jinshajiang from the areas of schist rock of the upper river. In the longitudinal valley, the terraces which only present in the south of the Guanyinmiao may be divised into two to four classes, they consist of lacustrine, alluvial and pluvial deposits, all of which belong to the Middle Pleistocene or even later. We believe that those terraces are one of the phenomena of the newer and strong uplift tectonic movement in this region.The development of the different landform types in the longitudinal valley has been controlled by the great thrust fault zone between Hongwen Village and Hejiang Village that strikes NNE-SSW. This fault zone stretches about 100 Km., and the fault plane dips to the east. The Upper Tertiary and the underlying beds, even the Qua-ternary rock beds that near the fault zone had been faulted. This indicates that the fault is quite young and active.The authors think that the abrupt change of the direction of Jinshajiang at Shigu is a natural result of its adaptation to local geological conditions during the process of development.
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