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    15 October 1981, Volume 36 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    PROMOTING AREAL SPECIALIZATION OF AGRICULTURETHROUGH DEVELOPING AREAL PREDOMINANCE
    Wu Chuan-chun
    1981, 36 (4):  349-357.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104001
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    In the field of agriculture, physical reproduction and economic reproduction crosseach other intricately. Thus, agriculture must fundamentally adapt to tiie local condi-tions, which should be properly recognized as including not only the physical, but thesocial and economic conditions as well. In a country of vast territory like China, arealdifferentiation of local conditions is so evident that it would never be exaggeration toemphasize the importance of adaptation.On the march towards modernization, Chinese agriculture will have to undergo aperiod of strategic transferring. The adjustment applies both to the allocation and thestructure of agriculture.The guiding principles like: "reclaim those land suitable for agriculture, afforestthose suitable for forestry, and grazing those suitable for animal husbandry", and eeo-nomic crops should be"properly concentrated in distribution", etc.. are just in generalterms and cause much trouble in implementation. Here, the terms "suitable" and "pro-perly concentrated" should be defined precisely by means of a series of quantitative andqualitative criteria.Ever since ancient times, food crop has been the mainstay of Chinese agriculture.About 80% of rural labour, cultivated land and sown area are devoted to food crop cultiva-tion. However ,the dogmatic demand of self-sufficiency in food supply for everywhereis impracticable in many parts of the country, such as the loess plateau and the dryfarming areas of Inner Mongolia. A proper ratio between the acreage of food cropsand economic crops and the critical limit of treple cropping (double cropping of riceplus winter wheat or rapeseeds) index in southern China are needed to be thoughtfully decided.The new guiding principle of "developing the areal predominance through promot-ing the favorable and dodging the unfavorable conditions" attracted much attentionfrom the agricultural and academic circles. The author suggests that in order to realizethe principle’s true meaning, the following view points are helpful. (l’i Areal predo-minance is a comprehensive idea, and it can only be developed under the conditions thatare physically suitable, technically practicable and economically profitable,i(’2)i In theregional system of the country, any region is not isolated, but is linked together with oneanother, just like a single piece on the chessboard. The right order of developing arealpredominance should put national first, provincial nest, and local still next. (3) Asconditions of any region are subject to change, the development of areal predominanceshould be considered with long-term sense. (4) Comparative plans for developing arealpredominance are preferred, so as to select the mostninst rational and profitable one throughteehno-economic appraisal.Through the process of developing areal predominance, areal specialization of agri-culture will gradually take shape. Chinese agriculture, on the basis of petty-peasanteconomy, asked local self-sufficiency for every thing in the past, deterred areal speciali-zation of production. There only flourished .sericulture in the deltas of the Yangtze andthe Pearl River, due to the need for de luxe clothing in the feudal times. Cotton andtobacco plantings were encouraged in the vicinities of Shanghai. Tsingtao and Hankowthrough the investment of foreign manufacturers in the semi-feudal and semi-colonialdays. It was only after liberation, new bases of commercial grains, cotton, sugar beetand tropical crops were established by the state farms in the interior and border regionsThe areal specialization of agiculture that China is going to promote is not those ofmono-cropping systems of the colonial or semi-colonial nations, but is the rational divi-sion of labour among regions under the guichnce of planning economy. It is expectedthat the potential of agricultural production will be brought into full play through theproceeding of areal specialization.
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    TYPES OF REGIONAL GROUPING OF MINERAL RESOURCESAND TERRITORIAL INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
    Wei Xinzhen
    1981, 36 (4):  358-368.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104002
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    Regional grouping of mineral resources is usually found in the boundary zone of dif-ferent geotectonic units or in the region having been subjected to various processes ofmineralization, The knowledge of the law of spacial distribution of regional groupingof mineral resources is of great importance to the development of national natural resour-ees, to the delimitation of economic regions, and to the planning of regional industrialcomplex according to the type of regional grouping of mineral resources.According to the spatial distribution pattern and the industrial comprehensiveutilization of mineral resources, regional grouping of mineral resources can be classifiedinto three basic types:1. That having a single mineral deposit of various associated minerals.2. That having a number of mineral deposits closely associated with each other.3. That having a number of mineral deposits not closely associated with each othergpecially.As geological structure varies from place to place, regional grouping of mineral re-sources is also highly varied and each of the three basic types can be further subdividedinto many sub-types.It has been proved in practice that to exploit mineral resources according to theirregional grouping is advantageous to the development of territorial industrial complex,to the enhancement of economical effect of investment, and to urban planning to limitthe size of large cities and to build small cities in clusters.
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    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DISTRIBUTION OF KE-SHAN DISEASE AND THE SELENIUM CONTENT OF FOODGRAINS AS A FACTOR OF CHEMICAL GEOGRA-PHICAL ENVIRONMENT
    The Group of Environment and Endemic Disease
    1981, 36 (4):  369-376.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104003
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    We have studied the rules of the geographical epidemiology. An article publishedin Acta Geographica Sinica Vol. 34, No. 2, P. 85, June, 1979, illustrates that the distri-bution of the Keshan disease is very orderly, and is closely related to the natural envi-ronment. The Keshan disease is mainly distributed in the area with the temperate (orwarm temperate) forest and forest-steppe soils as axis. It forms a wide belt runningfrom the Xorth-East to the South-West in our country. While the typical steppe-desertregions to the north West and the typical yellow-red soil regions to the South-East arcdisease-free. Thus, there are three belts in our country: one disease belt and two disease-free belts. The disease belt located in the middle, while the two others lie to its twosides. We think that this case might be concerned with the chemical geographical en-vironment.We explored the relationship between Keshan disease and the chemical factors of theenvironment. 1638 samples of various food grains from the main different regionsthroughout the country are collected. Seventeen elements are analysed, It is found thatthe selenium content in the food grain is closely related to the Keshau disease, namely,the difference of the selenium content in the food grain between the disease belt andthe disease-free belt is very significant. The average selenium content in the main foodgrains of the disease belt is less than about 0.020 PPm, while in the disease-free beltsthe content of selenium is much higher. The selenium content in most of the food grainssamples for the disease belt is less than 0.025 PPm, and for the disease-free belt more than0.040 PPm. The value 0.040 PPm might be considered as the reliable threshold value ofthe food grain selenium dividing the regions with and without disease.Hence, the selenium in natural environment has obvious regional differentiation.The Keshan disease occurs only where the grain selenium content is low. Then we mayconsider the low selenium environment as an important factor causing keshan disease.Our studies provide a sound geoscientifical basis for the cause of kashan disease.
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    THE BASIC FEATURES OF DISTRIBUTION OF WATER VAPOURCONTENT AND THEIR CONTROLLING FACTORS IN CHINA
    Zhou Jinshang, Liu Huilan
    1981, 36 (4):  377-391.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104004
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    In this paper, We have calculated average monthly values of water vapour contentof air column above unit area of one square centimetre at the earth’s surface and thelevels of 850, 700, 500 and 600 mbs respectively. The calculation are mainly based onthe meteorological data of 103 aerological stations during the period of 1960-1969 inChina. The charts of average amounts of water vapour content for each of the months,i.e. January, April, July and October, and the time cross sections along latitude of33°N, and longitudes of 90°E and 110°E are presented.The basic features of distribution and variation of water vapour content over China are briefly described as follows:1. In general, the mean values of water vapour content are decreased northwest-ward from South China. The maximum is located near the northern Gulf, where theamount of water vapour is about 62 mm. The centers of large values of moisture arefound in the Sichuan Basin and the two large lakes area. The minimum over the TibetanPlateau is due to the high elevation of the terrain in that area.2. The amount of water vapour content decreased rapidly as the altitude in-creased. On the average, the amount of moisture of air above unit area of one squarecentimetre in the layer from the surface up to 500 mb is in excess of 90% of that at theearth’s surface.3. The patterns of the months from October through April show a slight change inform and in magnitude of water vapour content. But by May, a noticeable increase ofmoisture over the central and eastern China begins to appear and continues throughJuly. Therefore, July is the month with the maximum value of water vapour forChina, and January (or February) is the month with the minimum amount. Excep-tions are those stations in the southern coast of China with maxima in June.As for the position of maximum longitudinal gradient of water vapour content, itmoves with the transition of natural weather season. In winter, the maximum gradientlocates in 20°-25°N, in Spring, 30°-35°N, and in Summer, 35°-40°N. In Autumn, it returnes to 30°-35°N.4. Another feature is very important that there is an extensive tongue of moistureextended northeastward by east from the southern coast of China. After the appearanceof the tongue of moisture in April, it is developed very strongly in June. Obviously, itis associated closely with the lower jet stream.5. A center of moisture over Tibetan Plateau on charts of water vapour contentin the layer from 600 mb up to 200 mb was found, its tongue extends eastward fromterrain. This center of moisture begins to appear in June and continues through Sep-tember. August is the month of maximum amount over there.Finally, the paper discussed in details the factors, which include geographi-cal latitude, proximity of sea and land, topography, monsoon and weather regimes havesignificant influences on the distribution and variation of water vapour content in ourinvestigating areas.
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    A STUDY OP THE INFLUENCE OF OROGRAPHY ON DIURNALCHANGES OF TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE, WIND VELO-CITY, PRECIPITATION, RELATIVE HIMIDITY ANDDURATION OF SUNSHINE
    Lin Zhiguang
    1981, 36 (4):  392-403.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104005
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    In this paper, the following results are obtained:1. The diurnal temperature range is small on the summit of high mountains ’iutit is large in the valleys. Maximum temperature comes earlier on the summits than inthe valleys. i,e. about 13h on the summits and 14-15h in the valleys.2. The diurnal variation of precipitation on high mountain is just the contrary withthat of some large valleys: precipitation in daytime is l;:rger than that at night on thesummits, and precipitation in daytime is smaller than that at night Ln the hiurh valleys.And in large valleys of Xizhang and Yunnan, night rain follows the fine day. but inSichuan Basin, night rain follows the overcast day.3. The diurnal change of relative tumidity is very small on the summit, but is verylarge in the valley. Its maximum comes in the early morning and minimum appearsin the afternoon.4. On the top of a great mountain and in. large valley, the diurnal change of windvelocity are reverse too. In general, the maximum appears at night and the minimum inthe daytime on high mountain, while in the low valley, daytime maximum and niorhtminimum is observed. On Qing Zliang Plateau in winter and spring, the diurnal r. ngeui wind velocity is about 7? m/’sec which is the largest in our country.5. On mountain summit, two maxima and one minimum are observed on the diu-rnal curve of sunshine.- the maxima appear at U-10h, and 15-16h; minimum at about12-13h. In the valley, diurnal curve has one maximum only, it appears at about 9-10h in the dry season and about 12h in rainy season.6. On high mountains the diurnal curve of pressure have two abnormal waveswhich are different from that in the low land. In some high mountains, it has a singlewave only. We found that the diurnal range of pressure is proportional to the diurnalrange of temperature.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE LAND-USEOF TAIHU LAKE PLAIN
    She Zhixiang, Chen Yue-e, Tang Zhenfu
    1981, 36 (4):  404-412.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104006
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    This article deals chiefly with the fundamental features of the agricultural produc-tion and land utilization on the Taihu Plain, with speeial reference to the following two topies:1 The- farming system is closely related to land utilization. After many years ofdevelopmem. almost all of the land on the Taihu Plain have been exploited, and nowthere arc no large plots of uncultivated land left on the plain. Therefore, the only wayto develop the agricultural production is to raise the per-unit yield. From 1965 to thebeging of the seventies after a period of 6 years’ development and reformation),the triple-cropping system (i.e. wheat, or rapes, green manure-double harvest rice) hasbeen widely popularized, instead of double-cropping (rice-wheat). The per-mu grainyield has been increased from 800-900 jin to 1.200-1.800 jin; as a result, the utiliza-tion of farming land lias reached a new stage. For the present, the Taihu Plain hasbecome one of the largest areas under double-cropping of rice and triple-cropping systemin our country. This Ligh intensive farming system has many advantages, e.g. (1) tohave a very high land productivity; (2) to make full use of the labour resources inthe countryside and (3) to increase grain yield to a greater extent. At the same time,a number of problems came to the open. For example, in time of harvest or planting,there is an acute shortage of manpower, a tendency that the physical property of soilgoes deteriorization, the quality of grain is therefore getting worse; and it is impossiblei’ur the peasants to effectively increase their incomes and so on. Our present task isbound to sum up experience mentioned above, so as to try to find out a scientific ap-proach to the development of a farming system which is fit even better for physical andeconomic condition as well as for the increase of production and incomes.2) A few hills scattered sporadically around the Taihu lake they are rich in va-rious kinds of fruit and perfume, such as orange, loquat, myrica, chestnut, plum, per-simmon, peach, apricot, pomegranate, ginkgo, jujube, osmanthus and a few rose. Theeconomic condition is flourishing in this countryside. Being affected by the marketprices in different periods, there is a definite relationship of growth and decline of therelative area between different kinds of fruit and the structure of the land use has beenchanged evidently. Judging from the tendency of the past years, the plantation oforange is fast growing. On the Taihu Plain, heat conditions meet fundamentally the re-quirements of early-ripening and cold-resistant species of such fruit. However, it is notalways the case. In view of the existing instability of orange-growing at the hilly areasof Taihu Plain, great importance should be attached to the microclimatic difference.This plays a very important part in the selection of suitable area for orange cultivation.On the basis of analysing physical and economic condition, the suitable best areas fororange-growing have been selected.
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    INFLUENCES OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE ENVIRONMENTIN THE TUOMUL AREA
    Yuan Guoying
    1981, 36 (4):  413-422.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104007
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    The author took part in the scientific investigations on Mount Tuomul in 1978and in the additional investigations in 1979 as a member of thc mou-ntaineeringSeientifie Expedition to this monntain, organized by the Comprehensive Research andInvestigation Committee of the Aeademia Sinica. This paper tries to discuss andstudy comprehensively the relationship between the activities of the local people andenvironments.Mount Tuomul is situated within our territory, 20 km south-west of MountHautengeli located on the border line between China and the Soviet Union. It is the highest mountain in the whole Tian Shan System, with an altitude of 7,435.3m above sea level. The geographical coordinate of theTuomul Areais:41°15’ to 43°10’ north latitude and 79°40’ to 81°15’ east longitude. Its area within our country amounts to 15.000 square km or so.As Tian Shan is a natural climatic barrier, the northern and southern sides of Mount Tuomul differ in term of the national composition, the mode of production and the human influences upon the environment. Inhabitants on its northern side mainly belong to Kazak. Han and Mongol nationalities, but on the southern side predominantly dwell Kighurs and Hans. Stock raising is the leading economic activity, and farming is less important on the northern side, while on the southern side things are the contrary. As for industry, the southern side is more developed than the northern side, yet in the respect of forestry, the former is less developed than the latter. As for the influences of human activities, the piedmont area of front ranges on the northern side, show the greatest, whereas on the southern side, the plain are much more influenced by man than the front range regions.The human activities in the Tuomul area result in the changes of the natural ecological environment. Such influences decrease with the rise in altitude above sea level: their long, slow and cumulative effects in history have led to destructive changes for the ecological environment. These changes in their turn are developing from quantitative to qualitative ones. With the constant development of the productive forces, influences of human activities on the environment are intensifying, especially since Liberation, they ai-e even more drastic as a result of the economic development. Because of the spread of air pollution, there are no places, which are absolutely not subject to contamination. The ice-and-snow zone of the Tuomul Mountain area is not an exception.The environment of the Tuomul area is developing in both favourable and unfavourable directions. On one hand, owing to the amelioration of gobi deserts, building water conservancy and oasis projects, the artificial oasis environment has become more favourable for living; on the other hand, due to the destruction of the ecological environment as a result of irrational utilization of natural resources, there has also appeared a tendency to the nature’s retaliation upon mankind. For example, because of the overfell and reckless cuttins? of the forests and the excessive reclamation for farming, the indiscret capture and hunting of wild animals, there has arisen a tendency towards the microclimate’s becoming drier; the decrease or drying up of water sources in the front ranges regions and the decrease in forest area; the aggravation of insect pests and the increase in the resistance of insects to pesticides which have resulted in the decrease in crop yield by a big margin: the reduction of the carrying capacity of pastures due to the deterioration of their vegetative covers; the deflation of the chernozem on the northern slope and the extension of the sand-covered and salinized area on the southern slope; the rapid drop of the variety of wild animals; and so on.Finally, in terms of these existing problems, this paper gives suggestions concerning the maintenance of the balance in the ecological environment and the improvement of its development in the direction favourable to humanity.
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    THE GEOMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND FORMiNGFACTORS OF SUBMARINE RELIEF IN THE POHAISEA AND THE YELLOW SEA
    Geng Xiushan
    1981, 36 (4):  423-434.  doi: 10.11821/xb198104008
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    The shelves of the Pohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and North Part of East sea of Chinaare a large f1at seafloor which are formed by a series of sedimentary basin and narrowdenuded and planed structual ridges. But the alternated distributional pattern of dif-ferent struetual basin and ridges are obviously distinet. The characteristics of the assem-b1ages of submarine geomorphological types in various structual regions are also very dif-ferent. In addition, though this studied region loeated within the ranges of this typicalagglomerated shelves of Eastern China, the 1ate structual movement still refleets dis-tinetly on the submarine relief and directly affected the exogenic process and existingform of geomorphological types.
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