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Table of Content

    15 April 1981, Volume 36 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE LABOUR STRUCTUREOF CITY AND TOWN POPULATION IN CHINA
    Wu Youren
    1981, 36 (2):  121-134.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (931KB) ( )   Save
    The labour structure of city and town population denotes the proportional relationsof different kinds of population in total city and town population. According to theprinciple of distributing social labour in a proportional way, in addition to a variety ofthe proportional relation of distribution among the labour forces, the city and town po-pulation of China may be divided, in the first place, into two groups, i.e., non-agricul-tural and agricultural population, in which non-agricultural population can be furtherdivided into two sub-groups of labour and non-labour population. Basing on the natureof labour sector, labour population are further classified into nine types, i.e., industrial,capital construction, communication-postal-telecomniunication, agrieutural-forest-irriga-tion-meteorologieal, commercial-service, public service, scientific cultural-educatioual-health, financial, national agency and social organization. The first four essentially be-longing to material-productive sector and their staff and workers are called productivelabour population. The remainder of these belonging to nonmaterial-productive sectorare called non-productive population. By means of the classification mentioned the lawof development and variation of the labour structure of city and town population inChina have been studied analytically in this paper.After liberation, with the establishment and consolidation of the socialist system,the development of socialist construction, turning consumer-cities into producer-cities, thecontrol of the natural increase of population in a planned way, and the increase, of theratio of labour-age population within total city and town population, the labour struc-ture of city and town population in China has been obviously changed as follows: (1)the proportion of labour population has raised from 10-20% in early 50s to 40-50%;(2) industrial members and productive population have occupied the great part of labourpopulation, in which the former occupies about 50-60%, the latter, about 65-85% ; (3)the inner struture of non-productive labour population has undergone relative rationalchange; (4) staff and workers in ownership by the whole people have gained increasingimportance. The changes mentioned are reasonable but are still an uncoordinated pheno-mena which must be readjusted.The course of realizing the four modernizations will exert an outstanding influenceon the labour structure. From now on, it is necessary for the sectors of commerce-service,public service, culture and education, science and research, medicine and health, economicmanagement etc. To enlarge the ratio of labour population gradually, and for material-productive sectors to reduce the proportion, making overall, rational use of the labour po-pulation of cities and towns. It is estimated that the proportion of labour populationwill occupy 45-55% of total city and town population in ten years or so, industrial mem-bers and productive labour population, about 50% and 65-75% respectively whereas non-productive labour population, over 25%.
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    NEOTECTONICS STUDY IN CHINAREVIEW AND PROSPECTS
    Wang Xailiang, Yang Jingchun
    1981, 36 (2):  135-142.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (581KB) ( )   Save
    Neotectonic movements are very active in China, but before liberation, they wereonly occasionally noticed by some scholars. It was only after liberation when the studyof neotectonics was integrated with construction works, that it made a quick progress, thechief achievements in this field of study are as follows: 1) Research the relations bet-ween neotectonics and the evolution of landforms; 2) Investigations of active faults andfolds; 3) Enquiry into the relations between neotectonics and deep-seated structuresin the earth crust; 4) Research on the stress field of neoteetonics; 5) Study of the re-lations between neotectonics and earthquakes; 6) Application of new techniques andmethods in the study of neotectonics.Hereafter the study of neotectonics in China will have the following trends:1) The study will proceed from the shallower part of the earth crust to the deeper part, asa result the neotectonic phenomena and the origin of mega-struetural-landforms will bebetter elucidated; 2) The study will extend from the time span Plio-pleistocene to Ho-locene; 3) The application of new techniques and methods will be much enhanced, soas to transform the nature of study from qualitative to quantitative; 4) More attentionwill be paid to the study of horizontal movements in addition to vertical movements; 5)A more wide-spread monitoring of the active faults will be undertaken, this will lead toprediction of future fault activities; 6) The study of the history of neotectonic move-ments will also be enhanced; 7) A more comprehensive study of the quaternarytectonic stress field will be launched.
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE MECHANISM OF SELFREGULATION OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT CAPACITY IN THELOWER HUANG HE (THE YELLOW RIVER)
    Qian Ning, Zhang Ren, Li Jiu-fa, Hu Wei-de
    1981, 36 (2):  143-156.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (788KB) ( )   Save
    In rivers with heavy sediment load, the river channel will adjust itself temporarilyin accordance with the variations in sediment concentration and composition for eachflood. When the amount of sediment coming from upstream increased, the result of selfadjustment is in the direction of increasing the sediment transport capacity such thatthe outgoing load from the reach will be increased too. This is the so called "the moreit comes, the more it goes" which is well known in the Lower Huang He (the YellowRiver).In this article the modified Einstein Bed-Load Function is used as a tool for thestudying of the mechanism of short-period adjustment in rivers with high concentrations.The result of analysis indicates that for Hua-Yuan-Kou reach of the Lower Huang He, thechannel bed is usually silted up for high oncoming load (and yet the concentration issmaller than 400 kg. per cu. m.) As a consequence, the bed composition will becomefiner and it is essentially through this process that the sediment transport capacity israised. However, when the on coming load surpasses 400 kg. per cu. m., the channel will bedeeply eroded instead. In this case, the change in physical properties of the flow due tothe presence of high sediment concentration and the adjustment in channel shape are thetwo major factors in raising the sediment transport capacity.
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    SOME PROBLEMS ON THE ALLOCATION OF TRANSPORTIN INDUSTRIAL BASES
    Zhang Wen-chang
    1981, 36 (2):  157-170.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (965KB) ( )   Save
    Because of their various conditions andspecializations, different kinds of industrialbases have different types of inter-regionaland intra-regional economic links and thusmake different requirements about transportnetwork.The author analyses four kinds of industrial bases:(1) Inter-regional raw material or fuel base. It is characterized by the muchlarger tonnage of export than import, e.g. Shanxi coal base (Tab. 1), with coal tonnagemaking up 80% of the provincial freight of the railroad, with export tonnage 3 timesas much as import.(2) Industrail base with developed manufacturing industries depending on supplyof raw material and fuels from outside, e.g. Shanghai (Tab. 2) with import tonnagetwice as mucu as export.(3) Complex industrial base depending on local resources. Its import, export andintra-regional tonnage are usually large, e.g. Liaoning Province (Tab. 3 and Fig. 2). Itsrailroad frieght accounts for 13% of that of the whole country, meanwhile, more than70% of it are intra-regional.(4) Industrial base mainly with intra-regional links, e.g. Sichuan Province (Tab.4). Because of its particular geographical conditions, Sichuan has weak economic linkswith outside and nearly 90% of the total freight are intra-regional.With the development of the industrial base, its orientation and characteristics ofeconomic links are always changing. For example, Liaoning Province has experinced threestages, i.e. (1) largely exporting’raw materials and fuels, (2) developing primary in-dustries depending on local resources, (3) necessarily importing considerable amount ofraw materials and fuels In allthesestages, allocation of transportation lines has been re-quired to develop accordingly.Any large industrial base needs construction of transport network badly. Throughanalysis of case studies in China, the author argues that the distance of trunk line (rail-road and river) shoudn’t be less than 120 km.The author gives several examples to explain that transport construction (includinglines, stations, ports, etc.) must be undertaken in advance of the regional developmentand construction of industrial bases.
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    SOME PROBLEMS RELATED TO MAPPINC THE LANDTYPES IN THE MOUNTAINOUS REGION(Based on the Studies of the Mountainous Region,West of Beijing)
    Li Shousheng
    1981, 36 (2):  171-179.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (617KB) ( )   Save
    The procedure of mapping the land types in mountainous region is quite differentfrom that in the plain. In the mountain ous region, it needs to begin with the studyingof the basic morphological features of the mountains. These include the vertical zona-tion, the atternation of positive and negative landforms, the aspects of slopes, and so on.Moreover, the formation of the morphological features of the land units should beanalysed also.In the practice of making the large and middle-scale maps of the land types in themountainous region, west of Beijing, two facts have been noticed. One fact is that the la-titudina position and the altitude of the mountain determine the spectrum of vertical zonesand its structure. The other is that the geological and geomorphological factors (geologi-cal structure, new tectonic movement, lithology, types of landforms, and so on) have im-portant relations to the differentiation of the land units and their structural characteris-tics. They also form the basis of different agricultural land. use. Therefore, these twofacts have to be studied carefully for giving a sound foundation for mapping.Several related problems should be studied further. They are:1. The hierarchy of the classification of the land units. We considered that thehierarchy should be "the vertical zones of mountain landscape, land system, facet andelements". Such a hierarchy not only agrees with the characteristics of the mountainousregion but is also useful to make comparison with the land types of the plain.2. Basic contents of maps of different scale, considering the characteristics of themountainous region and the present agricultural land use conditions, we suggest that:(1) for large-scale mapping, the land facet should be the main object; (2) for middle-scale mapping, the land system should be the main object; and (3) for small-scale map-ping, the vertical zone of natural landscape should be the main object. As for the landelement, it seems not feasible to be mapped.3. Legend design and nomenclature. Legend design and nomenclature should reflectthe comprehensive character of the land. Both the sequent legend and the two-row ormulti-row index legend can be used. Each has its advantages and shortcomings. Butin compiling the land type maps of the whole country, it is convenient to use the sequentlegend.4. The synthesis of the land type maps. We have attempted to synthesize the landtype maps according to the regional principle and the type principle. This involves theshape and boundary of the mapping units, the unification and adjustment of the legendsymbols, and so on. All these problems need to be studied further.
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    CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL GEOCRAPHY INREGIONS OF KASCHIN-BECK’S DISEASE
    Wang Mingyuan, Zhang Shen
    1981, 36 (2):  180-186.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (478KB) ( )   Save
    Kaschin-Beck’s disease is a non-communicable endemic and distributes widely inchina. This study indicates that the chemical geography in the disease-occurring re-gions is characterized by lower content of sulfur and selenium and high content ofstrontium in drinking water, soil and grain as compared with healthy regions. Thegeographical epidemicity of this disease may be controlled by high content of sulfur andselenium in environment. This disease can also be prevented and cured to a certain extentby chemical compounds containing sulfur. As the cause of this disease has not yet beenwell known, the relationship between this disease and some trace elements, which relatesto sulfur in the field of biogeochemistry, should be further studied.
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    INTERANNUAL VARIATIONS OF RAIN SPELL DURINGPREDOMINANT SUMMER MONSOON OVER CHINAFOR RECENT THIRTY YEARS
    Guo Qiyun, Wang Jiqin
    1981, 36 (2):  187-195.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (567KB) ( )   Save
    Firstly, by using the normal decade rainfall data for eastern China to analyze theseasonal change of rainfall. Investigation shows that the maximum rainfall zone usuallystagnated for some days in South China when it moved from south to north, and did soin Changjiang Basin and North China respectively. These three periods of stagnationcoincided roughly with the time interval of predominant monsoon in above mentionedregions. But in Changjiang Basin the length of stagnating period was much shorterthan other two regions and even so a slight movement of maximum rainfall zone observedagain.Secondly, the rain spells for South China, Changjiang Basin and North China weredecided by using the pentad rainfall data year by year from 1951 to 1979. The begin-ning and ending dates, intermissions and persistences of rain spells were obtained. Therainfall sum for each raiii spell was calculated too. It is found that the charcteristics ofrain spells varied from one year to another obviously. The beginning dates of rain spellsexperienced the biggest interannual variations, especially in South China. The varia-tions of rain spells of one region rarely correlate with another.Thirdly, an analysis of long period rain spell variations shows that the trend wasmore predominant in Changjiang Basin. In general, the beginning of rain spell wasearlier, the duration was longer and the rainfall sum was much bigger in 1950s inChangjiang Basin and South China. On the contrary, the beginning of rain spell waslater and the length of rain spell was shorter, the rainfall sum was smaller in Chang-jiang Basin in 1960s. At the same time, the beginning of rain spell was earlier and thepersistence of rain spell was longer, but the rainfall sum did not increased much inNorth China. In 1970s, in both South China and North China the rain spells startedlater and ended later also. In the last decade the rainfall sum at Changjiang Basin hasa moderate value between the 1950s and1960s.
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    THE TRANSMISSIVE AND REFLECTIVE THEORETICS OF LIGHTFOR VARIOUS STRUCTURES OF THE FOREST CANOPY
    Cui Qiwu, Zhu Jinwei
    1981, 36 (2):  196-208.  doi: 10.11821/xb198102008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (691KB) ( )   Save
    Tn this paper, the theoretieal distributions of direct and diffuse light in the forestcanopy were described. The resutls obtained can be summarized as follows:1. The transmissions of light in the forest eanopy.The relative light under foreet eanopy was ealculated as function of leaf area in-dex, sun elevation and characteristie angle (α、β) of leaves.
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