Table of Content

    15 January 1981, Volume 36 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Chen Si-kang
    1981, 36 (1):  1-12.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (683KB) ( )   Save
    In this article we discuss the problems of allocation of production forces using themethods of system sciences. The article is divided into six parts. Part I covers economiccriterion and principles for the allocation of productive forces. The economic criterionis to minimize the total production and shipping cost as well as the occupied capitalstock which is calculated in the consumption place of each product.In part II we try to formulate allocation model of productive forces-production sitenear consumption place (model 1). It ia a linear programming model. In this modelthere are sis sets of constraints.1. The received amount of certain product in each consumption place is equal toits required amount.2. The amount shipped from each production site is equal to its amount of pro-duction.3. The amount of production in each production site cannot exceed the productivecapacity.4. The productive capacity constructed in each production site cannot exceed thelimit.5. The total amount of capital required to construct the productive capacity inall production sites cannot exceed the fixed amount.6. Nonnegativity of variables.The objective function of this problem is to minimize the total production cost andshipping cost multiplied by recovered period of capital plus occupied capital stock.This model can be solved by simple method. In this part we show the necessary-condition to obtain the optimum solution of this problem.In part III we try to formulate the allocation! model of productive forces-pro-duction site near material base (model 2).In part IV are concerned with the allocation model of productive forces - pro-duction site near consumption place and material base (model 3).In part V we discuss the allocation model of productive forces when the enterprisesare grouped according to size, e.g., large, medium and small (model 4). Each one hasdifferent production cost and different investment per unit of product.
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    Cheng Kezhao, Yang Zhaoxiu, Zheng Xiui
    1981, 36 (1):  13-21.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (554KB) ( )   Save
    The eolian lakes are well developed on the Qinghai-Xizang plateau. From thePliocene period up to the present, there have been two periods of mineralization. Thefirst one took place in the Pliocene period, in which the minerals, such as gypsum, glau-ber salt and halite were major products. The second period took place from the latePleistocene up to the present, during which boron, lithiem, potasium were highly concen-trated -one of the most significant characteristics of this period. The saline lakeson the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau can be classfied into two zones: the sulfate-chloride typein northern Xizang. Some of the saline lakes in this district developed on the basis ofthe Neogene fossil lakes, while others are newly grown in the Quaternary. Most of themare tectonic lakes. Rocks and hot springs are the main sources of the saliue lake mineral.
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    Lin Zhenyao, Wu Xiangding
    1981, 36 (1):  22-32.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (742KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the climatic regionalizatioi. of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is basedon the climatic data of 191 stations upto 1970, while these of the Xizang area, upto 1975.The temperature index is taken as the first criterion for regionalization. This in-dex includes the number of ≥10℃ days and the mean temperature of the warmest month. On this basis, Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is delimited into three climatic zones,i.e. plateau temperate, plateau subfrigid and plateau frigid. While the southern slopesof the Himalaya is distinguished separately into north tropical and subtropical mon-tane climatic regions.Aridity and annual precipitation are used as the second criterion for regionalization.Aridity is the ratio of the potential evaporation and the precipitation in which thepotential evaporation is obtained from the H. L. Penman’s formula. Based on this,climatic zone is distinguished into humid, sub-humid, semi-arid, arid and dry types.Finally, according to the integration of temperature and humidity index, Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is divided into 13 climate regions. The results of the climatic regiona-lization are shown in Fig. 3.
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    Department of Marsh Researeh
    1981, 36 (1):  33-46.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (835KB) ( )   Save
    The Sanjiang Plain, with an area of 51,300 square kilometers, lies at the northeas-tern borderland of China. It abounds with natural resources, yet in recent years, thereare such signs of deterioration in natural environment as the increasing of drought andwind erosion, decreasing of runoff and vegetation cover, etc.Inaddition, most part of marshlands in this region have a tendency of developinginto meadows and swamping meadows.So far as drought is concerned, the influence of atomspheric circulation plays aleading role, while the influence of human activities plays a second role.In order to prevent the deterioration of ecological environment, it is imperative totake the following measures: rationalized utilization of natural resources and all-rounddevelopment of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, fishery;building up a water conservancy system of combining drainage with storage, developingirrigation and enlarging the area of rice farming and combining the utilization of farm-land with the maintance of its fertility; protesting specific marshland by setting upreed production bases and marshland conservations.
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    Zhou Shuzhen, Zhang Xiubao, Guo Shulin
    1981, 36 (1):  47-58.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (674KB) ( )   Save
    The fog of Shanghai can be classified into following four types: radiation fog(accounting for 44.8%), frontal fog (accounting for 24.8%), advection fog (accountingfor 17.6%), advection-radiation fog (accounting for 12.8%). As shown by the recordsduring recent 77 years, there are 43.5 foggy days per year on average. But its annualvariation is very remarabL. e.g., there are 107 foggy days in 1950, while only 17 foggydays in 1917; the former is more than six-fold as much as the latter. There are twofoggy seasons yearly: one occurs from October to December, and the other from Marchto May. Fogs rarely appear in summer (July and August). In this paper the re-gularity and causes of the seasonal and diurnal variation of fog in Shanghai are dis-cussed.The regional differences between urban districts of Shanghai and its suburbs areobvious. There are far more foggy days each year in its urban districts and the foggyseason there is also much longer. The distribution of foggy days is closely related to thefrequency of wind direction, wind velocity and coefficient of air pollution. Meteorologi-cal observations for a long period have proved that the fog in Shanghai urban districtsmay be formed in lower relative humidity (such as 67%), but in the suburbs of Shang-hai, only in very high relative humidity (98%-100%). Finally, it is pointed out thatthe fog of Shanghai is closely related to its geographical environment and the featuresof general circulation of atmosphere.
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    Peng Gongbing, Lu Wei
    1981, 36 (1):  59-69.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101006
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    The authors have explained the basic ideas that centrifugal force potential and its hori-zontal components might influence on the pressure fields and atmospheric active cen-tres, and analysed the rules of the variation in intensity of atmospheric active centresin northern hemisphere as the pole displaced, and corroborated the evidences of their in-fluence by means of the climatic data of pressure distribution.The authors have also discussed the influence of centrifugal force potential causedby pole displacement upon the distribution of pressure departure in Iceland Areas, andgiven a further physical explanation of the migration of the centres of Iceland depres-sion. The calculations indicate that in some weak years of Southern Oscillation thevalues of the centrifugal force potentical and its south components or north componentsof the pole displacement in island and its north-west areas are almost positive, and thevalues of east components or west components dominatly negative. The values ofcentrifugal force potential of pole displacement in Darwin are mainly negative.Again, with respect to 10-year smoothing average values, in the years with largeamplitude of the pole displacement the high pressure centres above Southern PacificOcean are located somewhat to low latitude; On the contrary, in the years with largeamplitude they are located somewhat to high latitude. Corresponding to the periods of6? years of the pole amplitude, the southern boundaries of the North Pacific high-pressure also has a similar variation, i.e. in the years with large amplitudes of the poledisplacement, the southern boundaries of the North Pacific high-pressure are locatedsomewhat to low latitude, and vice versa.Corresponding to the periods of nearly 14 months, 6-7 years and 35 years of thepole displacement, there are similar periodical vibrations of the pressure in certain areasof China as well as the positions of some atmospheric active centres in the world.Finally, the authors have pointed out the possibility of making long-range forecastby means of the rules of the pole displacement and some problems which should be paidattention to in making weather forecast
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    Huang Xing-zhen, Pan Zhong-hai
    1981, 36 (1):  70-78.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101007
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    This article studies the grain size distribution curves of the eolian sands and thechief features of the grain size parameters in southwestern part of the Maowusu Desert.The following conclusions are obtained.1. The eolian sands in this area are chiefly shaped by winds of two contrasting direc-tion, the Northwestern and the Southeastern, of which the former being dominate.2. The chief characteristics of the eolian sands are: sorting is excellent; transpor-tation process is uniform, with saltation dominating; and hence they can be identifiedand differentiated from the fluvial sands.3. The grain size distribution curves might be used for investigating the materialsource of the eolian sands.
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    Li Huaijin, Shi Yongnian
    1981, 36 (1):  79-89.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (583KB) ( )   Save
    A method was suggested for calculating the intensity of solar radiation and itsdaily value on inclined surface. For this purpose the formulae (5), (6), (7), (8) and(9) were derived.
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    In Xiu-yun, Tang Qicheng
    1981, 36 (1):  90-100.  doi: 10.11821/xb198101009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (672KB) ( )   Save
    The region of west Sichan and North Yunnan with an total area about 500, 000km2 is located in South-west of China (96?-105癊,25?-36癗).The river runoff of this district is mainly fed by the precipitation, which is closelyrelated to the monsoon climate. The Daxueshan Mountain-Daliangshan Mountain lineis a demarcation line. In the west of this line, it is mainly influenced by the South-west monsoon, as rainy season comes later and the precipitation is more concentrated inthe summer, the seasons of dry and humid are very distinct, so the unevenness of thecoefficient value of the annual runoff (Cv) is high. While in the east of the line, it isinfluenced by the South-east monsoon, the distribution of annual rainfall is relativelyeven.This area is a mountainous region, with many high mountains and plateaus Theirelevation differences are very great. Especially in the region of the HengtouanchanMountain. Under the influence of climate and other natural factors, for example, re-lief, vegetation, soil etc, its vertical zonation is very evident.Below 3000 meters is the subtropical region of this area, the runoff increases as theelevation increases, and mostly in the form of storm runoff.Above 3000 meters, the storm runoff decreases and the runoff hydrograph presentsfeeble variation.The amount of annual runoff has the tendency of reducing from east toward westand south. But at the west of Gaoligong Shan Mountain, the amount of rain fall mightreach 1,000mm.The annual mean precipitation of this region is 883 mm, runoff depth is 481 mm,annual water yield is about 240 billion ms. T he variation of river runoff in many yearsis not considerable. In general, the coefficient of skew (C.) except in north Yunnanwhich is above 0.3, is from 0.1 to 0.25, as compared with eastern part of China, it israther small.The runoff flow and water resources of this region are very abundant. Thereforeit is an excellent region for the fully development and utilization of water resources.Below 3000 meters is the subtropical region of this area, the runoff increases as the
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