Table of Content

    15 October 1979, Volume 34 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Zhou Tingru
    1979, 34 (4):  279-292.  doi: 10.11821/xb197904001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1129KB) ( )   Save
    The task of palaeogeography is to reconstruct the geographic environment of the past. Some palaeogeographer maintain to treat geographical elements as complex rela-tionships integrated into one sytem which exsists in area and distinguish from other areas. They emphasize that wide variety of natural phenomena are interrelated and interacted with each other. Thus, in the study of genesis of natural phenomena and their evolution, the same integrative view should be adopted in order to form a logical framwork to solve problems of the past.In recent decades, there has been a growing tendency to employ synthesizing or integrative methods to explain the changes of ancient geograohical environment, espe-cially the palaeoclimate of quarternary Ice Age.Many new experimental methods and techniques have been developed, such as the study of microscopic fossils, the application of radiometric dating, the use of palaeoma-gnetism, the study of weathering crust and palaeosoil ect.The major research works that bave been accomplished by Chinese palaeogeogra-phers and their related scientists during last 30 years, may be highlighted in 8 areas:1) On the palaeogeographical divisions of China during Quaternary Era.2) The upheavel of the Tibetan Plateau and its profound effect,3) The study of palaeogeography in arid regions of northwest China.4) Palaxeogeographical Problems of loess in north China.5) Palaeogeographical problems of karst phenomena in Southwest China.6) Questions about the Quarternary glaciation in East China.7) Problems about the fluctuation of sea levels and changes of coastal line.8) The study of early man.I attempt to draw some general conclusions;1) Attention should be paid on the integrative role in the areal differenciation and the regularities of distribution,2) Emphasis should be placed on the research of the quaternary deposits especially the model analysis of modern sedimentation for the correlation with the past.3) Complexities of quaternary glacial, loess, and cave deposits should be recogniz-ed.4) When we study the developmet of quaternary stratigraphy and geomorpholo-gy, attentions should be laid on the formation of weathering crust and palaeosoil at the same time.5) Besides the tectonic processes which show the bold outline of relief on the earth surface under the endogene force, the formation of other physical geographic elements have also been subjected to the conditions of palaeoclimate. The later is the key in the study of ancient environment.6) To study the neotectonic processes, heavy reliance continues to be placed on influence of landforms and quaternary deposits. The compilation of elaborate neotec-tonic maps of whole China is urgently needed.7) The study of evolution and distribution of quaternary vegetation and animals should be carried on with the view point of ecosystem. Meanwhile, much efforts are needed to study ancient environment in relation to early men.8) In the study of palaeogeography, new methods and techiques should be intro-duced.
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    Xu Shuying, Zheng Sizhong
    1979, 34 (4):  293-304.  doi: 10.11821/xb197904002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (952KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the works of climatology in China since 1949 have been summarized It is divided into four sections as follows.1. Causes of climatea. Heat balance and water balanceb. Interactions between ocean and atmospherec. Monsoon of East Asia2. Climatic fluctuations3. Microclimatology and agroclimatology4. Climatic characteristics and climatic divisiona. Climatic characteristics of Chinab. Climatological atlas and regional climatesc. Climatic division
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    Zhu Zhenda
    1979, 34 (4):  305-314.  doi: 10.11821/xb197904003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (842KB) ( )   Save
    The sandy deserts which occupy about 7.7% of total land area in China have been investigated and studied with great concern by Chinese scientific personnels ever sinee the founding of People's Eepublic of China in 1949. Major contributions of these research works are summarized in the following six areas:1. Source of parent materials of the desert sands and process of formation of the sandy dunes;2. Environmental changes during historical time;3. Chief characteristics of major Chinese sandy deserts;4. Sand control in farmlands;5. Sand control along railways;6. Better use of natural resources and the establishment of new oases.
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    Hou Renzhi
    1979, 34 (4):  315-328.  doi: 10.11821/xb197904004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (811KB) ( )   Save
    Under the socialist system, city planning has a special significance. It is an im-portant index of the planned development of national economy according to socialist principles. It reflects the social life and the mental outlook of the masses. It has to do not only with the layout and planning of a new city, but also with the utilization and the reconstruction of old cities. The latter task involves a huge amount of work and very complicated problems. For in China, most of the major existing cities were developed in the feudal societies, some of them could have originated in the slave society. These ancient cities with long tranditions have their own particularties and patterns of development. To bring them to light fully is an important object in the study of urban historical geography, and would provide indispensable information for the re-construction of old cities. The present paper is based on the writer’s field experiences, it attempts to clear up certain principal problems which may be summarised as follows:(1) Taking origin and development of the site of Beijing (Peking) as an example, it unveils the evolution of geographical conditions and the important function of the fluvial systems in total surface planning of old cities, and shows how the problem of the source of water appeared in the development of cities. Even today the problem of finding new sources of water supply is still of paramount importance in city planning.(2) Taking formation of the features of Chengde as an illustration, it tries to explain the characteristics of development of the city and its nature, providing valid arguments for present day city planning and urban reconstruction.(3) Taking changes in the location of Wuhu as an instance, it illustrates the logical development from inland riverlets to big tributary entering the Cha.ngjiang, and then to the banks along the Changjiang itself, thus indicating the trend of establishing important harbours opening to the seas along the banks of the, Changjiang in future years.(4) Taking Linzi, Zhoucun, Zhangdian and Xindian, the four principal towns in the Municipality of Zibo as examples, it shows how several towns within the same area have, in different historical periods, changed their locations, leading to the develop-ment of the new city and the disintegration of the old. This phenomenon must be studied with reference with development of the whole area and to the changes in the communication of the area as a result of this process.
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    Wang Shaowu, Zhao Zongci
    1979, 34 (4):  329-341.  doi: 10.11821/xb197904005
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    This article is a study of droughts and floods in China by using chronological materials. The spatical characteristics of distributions of droughts and floods were exa-mined by empirical orthogonal function analysis for 25 stations in last 500 years, for 100 stations in last 100 years using historical documents, and for 100 stations in last 24 years using instrumental rainfall data. The first three eigenvectors combine to yield a picture of zonal distribution of droughts and floods. But the high-order eigenvectors give a rather meridional character. Comparison of eigenvectors for historical docu-ments and for instrumental data shows a good accordance. It indicates that the histori-cal documents of droughts and floods may be satisfactorily used to investigate variations of summer rainfall during historical time.Furthermore, the full set of historical documents for 500 years has been divided into five groups to search into the stability of eigenvectors. Bach group consists of 100 years, that is 1471-1570, 1571-1670 and so on. Eigenvector charts for each group show a very similar characteristics. It indicates that the spatical characters of the drought and flood distribution remain principally unchanged at least in recent 500 years.The distribution of droughts and floods in China has classified into six types:1a, floods all over country, mainly in Chang Jiang,It, floods in Chang Jiang, droughts in the North and the South,2, floods in the South, droughts in the North,3, droughts in Chang Jiang, floods in the North and the South,4, floods in the North, droughts in the South,5, droughts over all country.The chronicles of types of droughts and floods in last 500 years are given. The method of classification is reviewed and the change of frequency of types in last 500 years is discussed.
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    Zhang Xuezhong, Zhang Zhiying
    1979, 34 (4):  342-352.  doi: 10.11821/xb197904006
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    This paper states the distribution of 177 species (including their varieties) of broadleaf woody evergreens on the Qin-lin Mountain, based on the viewpoint of specific phytogeographic or floral elements. It is possible to classify these species into two groups: One may be considered as that belongs to typical subtropical floral elements which are located on the southern slope of Qin-lin Mountain (Table 3); the other may be belong to the temperate ones which are found on the northern slope of the Qin-lin Mountain (Table 4). According to the distribution of above-mentioned floral elements, the northern boundary of the subtropical zone of China is located near 1000 m. above sea level on the southern slope of central part of Qin-lin Mountain, lying approximately from Latitude 33°5’, Wudu of Gansu Province, to 33°5’ North, the southern slope of the Funiu Mountain of Henan Province.
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