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    15 April 1979, Volume 34 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE KESHAN DISEASE IN CHINA: A STUDY OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY
    1979, 34 (2):  85-103.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1461KB) ( )   Save
    The so-called Keshan disease is an endemic myocardosis. It was first identified in 1935 in Keshan county, Heilongjiang province, yet, up to date, the cause for this disease has not yet been well known. This paper tries to elucidate the geographical distribution and other basic epidemiological Characteristics of the disease from geogra-phical point of view, with a view to providing a geoscientific background for checking and curing the disease according to specific local conditions.First part describes the geograpical distribution and the basic epidemiologieal characteristics of the disease in our country.Second part analyses the relationship between the Keshan disease and its physical geographical environment. By means of integrated analysis of the geographical ele-ments we find that the disease and its physical environment is very closely related. The Kechan disease is mainly distributed in and near the temperate (or warm temperate) brown and cinnamon soils regions. It forms a wide belt running from the North-East to the South-West in our country. While the typical steppe-desert region to the north-west and the typical yellow-red Soils regions to the South-Bast are disease-free.Finally, two types of physical environment are identified: that with the Keshan disease and that without it. The former contains four environmental series, while the latter six environmental series. An analysis of the pathogeny for keshan disease is also made according to the physical environmental characteristics by districts. It shows that the pathogeny is related to the chemical geographical environment, and that se-lenium might be an important factor in the Keshan disease.
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    NEW FEATURES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL REGIONS AND NEW PROBLEMS CONCERNING THE DISTRIBUTION FOR AGRICULTURAL PRO-DUCTION IN JIANGSU PROVINCE
    She Zhixiang
    1979, 34 (2):  104-117.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1051KB) ( )   Save
    Agriculture as an important and rather a specific department of material produc-tion, is obliged from the very outset of its development to natural geographical basis which is composed of stretches of land geographically zonal and non-zonal, interlocked and compounded with one another. Although agriculture owes its productivity all the time to the concerted and coordinating action of nature, it is by no means a truth that strict control and manipulation by man over the process of its production is unnecessary. Therefore it can hardly be said that the different regional productivity is largely dependant upon its being operated on natural geographical bases of different qualities.Agricultural region is a matter of objective entity. It can not be demarcated arbitrarily. The fundamental tasks of agricultural regional study must be based on the following consideration: a profound knowledge based on a thorough-going research and investigation of the formative process of an agricultural region coupled with a scientific classification of the land; an elaboration of the condition indispensable for the formation; and a scientific analysis of the present features in production with in mind a prospect of the development in the long run and the necessary technical means to effect it.Agricutural regions are individually in such different developing stages as from the lower to the higher. They are subject to constant changes, therefore of a dynamic nature. While some are in a period of steady development with only minor inter-regional changes, others are still in the course of being composed and decomposed indicating that a new region is in the making. All these features could be found in the changes undergoing in the agricultural regions both class I and class II in Jiangsu during the past ten years or more.The six first class agricultural regions set up in Jiangsu in the early 60’s may well be illustrated as fundamentally consistant with the actual geographical conditions, following an observation made in a comparatively long period of time and a recent re-checkup. A number of new changes, however, have been .observed such as the case with Xuzhou-Huaiyin region where a single dry-farming was much preferred in early days, but both dry and paddy farming are equally emphasized now. It has become a region where agricultural production has increased with rice output above all the other crops and surplus commodity food capable of being exported as against the insufficient food supply to its own consumption in early days. Owing to the different characteristics of the natural environment of the region, and in addition, some econo-mical crops likely to be centered in its northern and western parts, the region may well be devided into two first class agricultural regions, at present it is taken as two sub-regions in management, namely the North-Bast patch along Yi-Shu He and the South- West patch along the abondoned Huang He. Another instance is that the Li Xia He agricultural region (in the middle part of Jiangsu) has been developed into a production base for producing commodity grain and cotton. More than 5 million mou of paddy field where rice was grown once a year in the past has now been converted into a field essentially growing both rice and wheat successively in one year, Meanwhile some sections of the border line between this region and regions on the seaside seems to have been pushed a little eastward. Furthermore, agricultural region in Tai Lake area, and Zhenjiang-Yangzhou area, on the seaside and along the Chang Jiang have witnessed changes of different magnitude.It is not unnatural that in different periods of time, the agricultural regions are sure to meet with some different problems of production distribution. The three major problems in the agricultural regions in Jiangsu have in commonare as follows:(I) Problem of cropping system and distribution of crops In Jiangsu cropping system and distribution of crops are centered in an effort to raise the utilization rate of field. The multiple-cropping index for th
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    AN ANALYSIS ON MAIN FEATURES OF RUNOFF IN THE TIAN SHAN
    Tang Qicheng
    1979, 34 (2):  118-128.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (665KB) ( )   Save
    The Tian Shan is a famous mountain range in the arid region in China. Prom its southern and northern slopes, there flow many perennial rivers such as Hi He, manas He, maidu He, Weigan He, aksu He and so on.Total annual runoff volume amounts to 56,300 million m3.One of main features of runoff in the Tian Shan is that its vertical zonation being very prominent. The rivers are mainly fed by alpine glacial meltwater, which is also another main feature of runoff in the arid region in China.
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    THE CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS IN THE HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA
    Gong Gaofa, Chen Enjiu, Wen Huanran
    1979, 34 (2):  129-138.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (676KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the historical documents, the tree rings, the fluctuating water levels of lakes as well as modern instrumental data, the climatic fluctuations in the Heilongjiang province during recent 400 years are analyzed. The climate since 1909 (the first year with modern instrumental observations) has been warmer than that of 17th-19th centuries. During recent 400 years, the 17th century was the coldest, while the temperature of the 18th century was quite similar with that of the 20th century, although a little bit lower. The 50's-60's of the 17th century was the "climax" of the so-called "Little Ice Age", with the growing season more than one month shorter than today, and the ice-thickness of the Heilongjiang (Amur River) more than one metre thicker.In the present century, there has been two cycles of thermal changes. Before 1945, the annual temperature has been increasing, while after that year, decreasing. Comparing the 1960-1975 period with that of 1945-1959, the cumulative tempera-tures ^ 10℃was 100℃ lesser, and the growing season 5 days shorter.If we take the ratio of the total times of flood to the total times of both flood and drought in the historical documents as the moisture index, it is 0.74 before 1880, and 0.55 after that year, it shows that the latter period has been drier.According to the fluctuating water levels of lakes and modern precipitation data, western part of the Heilongjiang province, has undergone three cycles of wet-and-dry alternation since the 19th century. After 1960, the climate has tended to be drier.
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    ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF MAP PROJECTIONS
    Li Changming
    1979, 34 (2):  139-155.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (906KB) ( )   Save
    Through analyzing the invariants in map projection and according to the condi-tions whether there are any directions along which length of segements is true, the author finds that the projections can be mainly divided into three categories, i.e., elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic. A new way of studying map projection has been derived and the problems remained in Prof. Wu's monograph "mathematic carto-graphy" (1964, in Chinese) are solved.
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    A STUDY ON THE MUDFLOW OF THE JIANGJIA RAVINE, DONGCHUAN DISTRICT, YUNNAN PROVINCE
    Li Jian, Chen Qinde, Kang Zhicheng
    1979, 34 (2):  156-168.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2234KB) ( )   Save
    The mudflow of the Jiangjia Ravine, Dongchuan District, Yunnan Province, is one of the typical large-scale mudflow in China.
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    ON THE CORRELATIVE EQUATION OF THE HEAT AND WATER BALANCE
    Cui Qiwu, Sun Yanjun
    1979, 34 (2):  169-178.  doi: 10.11821/xb197902007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (574KB) ( )   Save
    In his article "On the Climatology of Heat Balance", A. S. Monin criticized M. I. Boudko's corresponding work "On the Climatology of Heat Balance".
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