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    15 July 1964, Volume 30 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    THE GROWTH OF CITIES AND TOWNS AS RELATED TO AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SOOCHOW-WUSI DISTRICT
    CHUNG一NIN YEN, J. T. LIU, D. W. SHAN AND G. D. LU
    1964, 30 (3):  234-247.  doi: 10.11821/xb196403003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1078KB) ( )   Save
    In the explanation of the origin and development of cities and towns many geo-braphers tend to emphasize non-agricultural activities, such as industry, commerce, and transport, and non-productive activities, such as administration and culture as the prin-cipal factors. But while these are related in varying degrees with the development of cities, the importance of agriculture as a factor is not to be ignored. In this regard any generalization without taking agriculture into consideration is incomplete. As the necessities of life for urban population such as food grains, subsidiary foodstuffs and part of clothing materials are supplied by agriculture, without prosperous agriculture, there would not have been surplus manpower for manual industries in ancient times and would not be possible in modern times for the development of industry, commerce, trans-port, and so no possibility for the development of cities. The levels and characteristics of agricultural production affect in a remarkable degree the size, functions and distribu-tion patterns of cities. Some of the influences are direct; others become apparent only through some other factors;still others are not even observable although closely connected with the agricultural foundations of the region concerned. The complexity of these rela-tions calls for detailed analyses and comprehensive investigations. In order to make clear the relations between cities and agricultural development, this article, based on the field findings, offers a case study of the urban communities in the Soochow-Wusi district. Accordingly, the analyses are made as follows: 1. The relation between agricultural development and the origin and grou"th of the medium to small-sized cities and towns. 2. Their distribution patterns as influenced by agricultural production. 3. Their functions as related to agricultural development. The authors believe that the cities of a region are in a large degree the products of the increase in agricultural production and the further division of labour, although there reside in prominence a certain amount of non-agricultural population. Their growth depend upon the agricultural development of the related region, and their own non-agricultural and non-productive development.
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    A PRELIMINAY ANALYSIS OF THE AGRO-CLIMATE OF THE TSINGLING SHAN, CENTRAL SHENSI
    CHEN MING-YONG
    1964, 30 (3):  248-258.  doi: 10.11821/xb196403004
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    The present paper deals primarily with the thermal and moisture conditions of the Tsingling Shan, central Shensi, and their relationships with the main crops, such as rice, wheat, corn and cotton. Basing on the analysis of radiation, temperature precipitation, soil moisture and agrometeorological indexes in the Tsingling Shan, the author has ob-tamed the following points of view: first, besides the high mountain areas, the thermal condition in the Tsingling Shan favours the cultivation of main crops; secondly, as con-cerning the moisture condition, it is enough for one crop cultivation. Two crops will be obtained wherever the fields can be irrigated, but in the upland areas where water is not available it is necessary to wait for the summer and autumn rains so that only one crop can be raised;and thirdly, the climatic boundaries of main crops cultivation in the Tsingling Shan have been delimitated (Fig. 3-5 in the main text).
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    ON THE DROUGHTS OCCURRING IN HISTORICAL PERIOD OF HONAN PROVINCE
    HSIAO TING-KUEI, PENG FANG-TIAO, LI CHANG-FUH, CHOU BA-FU, SHENG FU-YIAO AND CHANG HERNG-BO
    1964, 30 (3):  259-276.  doi: 10.11821/xb196403005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1325KB) ( )   Save
    The nature and aracteristics of the drou,ehts of historic times in Honan Province have been anal-tically studied, especially chose occurring from the Yuan to the Ching dy-pasties, which were profusely recorded in the Chinese classics, histories, annals, re-gional chronicals and other materials of similar significance in addition to the geography of Honan Province. The main conclusions are as follows: I. All droughts covered in the studies are classified into three main categories-ordinary, serious and extraordinary dzoughts-with their respective distribution, duration and intensity taken as criteria. II. A drought occurring within the limit of one single year is called a unitary year drought; that which carries forward into other years is called a periodical drought. The serious and the extraordinary droughts are mostly- continuations of the periodical ones. III. Spring and summer droughts are the most frequent of the seasonal type of drought. IV. There have been eleven extraordinary droughts since the Yuan Dynasty, each of which affected nearly the whole of Honan Province, with a severely attacked region as an apparent center of drought extending from four to five years. Such droughts would often show a definite course of development through three stages: the initial, the middle and the dimax, and the final stage. V. In most parts of Honan Province, droughts in historic times have coincided with those occurring in other provinces of North China; droughts in southern Honan, however, have run parallel with those occurring in Hupei and Anhwei Provinces. VI. In past ages, droughts were more serious than floods. If the two occurred in the same year, the former would at first occur in the southern parts, with the latter in northern parts, and then vice versa. VII. Serious droughts have repeated themselves in a 12-year cycle; extraordinary ones in a centenary cycle. Serious and extraordinary droughts often recurred during years of sunspot minima and maxima. Dzoughts of the extraordinary type had made their appearance when the centenary solar activities were highest in intensity.
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