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    20 August 2011, Volume 66 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Comprehensive Measurement and Spatial Distinction of Input-output Efficiency of Urban Agglomerations in China
    FANG Chuanglin, GUAN Xingliang
    2011, 66 (8):  1011-1022.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1417KB) ( )   Save
    Urban agglomerations in China which perform a vital role in distribution of productive forces are the most dynamic and potential core area in future economic development, and are the key and optimized development districts in the division of main-function zones. However, while driving up rapid economic growth of urban agglomerations, high-intensity interaction caused by high-density aggregation also contributed to high-risk threats to natural environment. How do we assess the effect of high-density urban agglomerations? Accordingly, from the perspective of input and output efficiency, this paper established input and output efficiency indicator system of urban agglomerations, using CRS model, VRS model and Bootstrap-DEA, and measured the changing trend and spatial differentiation of input and output efficiency of urban agglomerations in China comprehensively. Results showed that input and output efficiency of urban agglomerations in China is low and slipping. In 2002 and 2007, comprehensive input and output efficiency of urban agglomerations in China was respectively 0.853 and 0.820, which dropped by an average of 0.033. Similarly, technical and scale efficiency of urban agglomerations in China is low and slipping; Input and output efficiency of urban agglomerations in China modified by Bootstrap-DEA model is lower but more reliable and effective. Input and output efficiency of urban agglomerations decreases gradually from the eastern region to the central and western regions of China. In 2002 and 2007, comprehensive input and output efficiency, technical efficiency and scale efficiency of urban agglomerations in eastern and central regions were higher than those in the western region, which was correlated with the regional economic development pattern in China. Otherwise, technical and production efficiency of urban agglomerations also decreases gradually from the eastern to the central and western regions. This study aims to provide a quantitative basis for assessing the effect of high-density urban agglomerations in China, and further lay a solid foundation for decision-making of improving input and output and spatial agglomeration efficiency of urban agglomerations in China.
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    The Mechanism of CO2 Emissions from Urban Transport Based on Individuals' Travel Behavior in Beijing
    MAJing, CHAI Yanwei, LIU Zhilin
    2011, 66 (8):  1023-1032.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (720KB) ( )   Save
    While increasing awareness of global climate change has given rise to a global movement of low-carbon city, the potential of urban planning on CO2 emission reduction has attracted much scholarly and practical attention. Specifically, it is argued that patterns of urban development and neighborhood-scale built environment affect access are supposed to influence people's travel behavior, and hence CO2 emissions. Since the 1980s, urban development in China has transformed from danwei-based, mixed land-use, and pedestrian and bicycle-friendly pattern toward zoning-based, automobile-oriented urban form. Such transformation may yield the growth of automobile, high-carbon travel behavior, while prohibiting de-carbonization of urban development in China. This study examines the impacts of neighborhood-scale urban form on individual travel behavior, and thereby, CO2 emissions from daily travel behavior, based on a daily activity survey of 1048 residents from 10 selected neighborhoods of Beijing in 2007. The survey covers activity diary of consecutive 48 hours including a Sunday and a Monday, while only Monday travel behavior is used for this study. Using structural equation model, the results first of all show that both travel distance and mode choice have significant effects on CO2 emissions and their effects are different. The latter's effect is much higher than the former's. What's more, travel frequency does not influence CO2 emissions significantly. Secondly, urban spatial structure has a significant effect on individuals' travel behavior and thus CO2 emissions; residents in different neighborhoods perform very differently. For instance, the travel distance of danwei residents is comparatively short, while the mode choice is mainly non-motor vehicle, thus danwei community shows much less CO2 emissions from urban transport. In contrast, the travel distance of residents in affordable housing community is much longer, while the mode choice is mainly motor vehicle, thus it shows much higher CO2 emissions. To sum up, the travel behavior of Danwei residents is to some extent low-carbon, and danwei neighborhood is a kind of low-carbon spatial structure. Therefore we should pay more attention to this unique neighborhood in China.
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    A Multi-agent Model for Urban Form, Transportation Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact Integrated Simulation
    LONG Ying, MAO Qizhi, YANG Dongfeng, WANG Jingwen
    2011, 66 (8):  1033-1044.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1130KB) ( )   Save
    Cities are consuming more energy with increasing urbanization process. The urban transportation energy is the primary part of urban energy consumption. Extensive researches found that it has strong relationship with the urban form, which fall into intra-cities level. However, little attention was paid to the relationship between urban form, transportation energy consumption, and environmental impact in the inner-city level. This paper aims to investigate the impact of urban form, namely land use pattern, development density distribution, on the residential commuting energy consumption (RCEC). We developed a multi-agent model for the urban form, transportation energy consumption and environment interaction simulation (FEE-MAS). Numerous urban forms with distinguished urban land use pattern and development density distribution are generated using the Monte Carlo approach in the hypothetical space. On one hand, the RCEC for each urban form is calculated using the proposed FEE-MAS. On the other hand, we select 14 indicators (e.g. Shape Index, Shannon's Diversity Index, Euclidean Nearest Neighbor Distance) to evaluate each generated urban form using FRAGSTATS, which is loosely coupled with the FEE-MAS model. Then, the quantitative relationship between the urban form and RCEC is identified based on 14 indicators and RCEC of each urban form. Several conclusions are drawn from simulations conducted in the hypothetical space. (1) RCEC may vary three times for the same space with various spatial layouts and density distribution. (2) Among selected 14 indicators for evaluating the urban form, the patch number of job parcels is the most significant variable influencing the RCEC. (3) The RCECs of all urban forms generated obey a normal distribution. (4) The shape of urban form also exerts influences on the RCEC. In addition, we evaluated several typical urban forms, e.g. compact/sprawl, single center/ multi-centers, traffic oriented development, green belt, in terms of the RCEC indicator using our proposed model to quantify those popular planning theories. The FEE-MAS model can also be applied for evaluating urban spatial alternatives in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact.
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    Analysis of Influencing Factors for Urban Land Price and Its Changing Trend in China in Recent Years
    SONG Jianan, JIN Xiaobin, TANG Jian, ZHANG Zhihong, DING Ning, ZHAO Jie, ZHOU Yinkang
    2011, 66 (8):  1045-1054.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (703KB) ( )   Save
    There are many factors affecting the level of land price and its changing trends, and these factors may fluctuate from time to time according to social and economic development and people's demands. In this paper, hierarchical linear models were employed to quantitatively measure the influences and interactions of 10 factors which were chosen in three aspects of urban land supply and demand and farmland protection policy, including real estate investment, population density, urban construction land area, new area for land transfer, arable land occupation tax, new construction land use fee. The level-1 and level-2 models constitute an individual development model using quarterly land price data of 105 cities of China with well-developed land markets from 2008 to 2010 and municipal influencing factors data, aiming to explore the way these factors affect the urban land price and its growth rate. The level-2 and level-3 models constitute an organization model, intending to explore contribution degree of the provincial factors chosen in this paper to land price and its growth rate. The results showed that there are multi-level factors affecting urban land price and its growth rate, and the interclass correlation coefficient shows that 12.45% of the difference in urban land price comes from provincial "background effect". Influencing factors of urban land price and its growth rate are different, and their dominant influencing factors have significant difference. Six municipal influencing factors chosen in this paper explained 82.07% of the difference in urban land price altogether, while 62.75% of the difference in urban land price growth rate. This illustrates that changes in land price growth rate is more "rational" than those of land price. Real estate investment explained 79.90% of the difference in urban land price, being the biggest influencing factor of all the municipal factors, which is the direct driving force of land prices rising. Meanwhile, both urban construction land area and real estate investment have a significant influence on land price growth rate. Farmland protection policies have a significant effect on controlling the level of land price and its growth rate. Concretely, new construction land use fee and arable land occupation tax are two of the most notable land price influencing factors at the provincial level.
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    Influence of Rail Transit on Nearby Commodity Housing Prices: A Case Study of Beijing Subway Line Five
    FENG Changchun, LIWeixuan, ZHAO Fanfan
    2011, 66 (8):  1055-1062.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (854KB) ( )   Save
    The paper, taking the Subway Line Five in Beijing as an example, studies the effect of rail transit on adjacent commodity housing prices. Firstly, based on results of previous studies and field study of Beijing Subway Line Five, our study areas are confined to a 2-km radius from subway line. Moreover, through analyzing commodity housing prices and their influences, a system of impact factors that could most possibly make a difference on commodity housing prices is set up. Those ten influencing factors include the shortest distance from housing project to the nearest subway station, distance from housing project to city-level commercial center, the number of bus lines within 1 km of the project, floor area ratio of the project, whether there is a key primary and secondary schools within 1 km of the project, whether there is a regular primary and secondary schools, whether there is a hospital, whether there is a park and its decoration condition as well as property type. Secondly, through conducting mean difference significant test on the dummy variables, we can exclude three of them which prove to have no significant impact on housing prices, including the number of key primary and secondary schools, ordinary schools, and parks within 1 km of housing projects. Thereafter, a multiple regression model is built to make correlation analysis of commodity housing price and the other seven influencing factors. Finally, after dealing with a total of 193 sample data, the result of the regression model shows that rail transit has the greatest effect on adjacent commodity housing price. Based on this result, we propose that real estate development along rail transit should fully consider the great effect that rail transit has on commodity housing price.
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    Discipline and Anti-discipline: Spatial Politics of Urban Street Vending in Guangzhou since the 1990s
    HUANG Gengzhi, XUE Desheng
    2011, 66 (8):  1063-1075.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (780KB) ( )   Save
    In the recent Western urban geography, the revanchist or post-justice politics of space targeting urban subaltern groups has become a critical concept for understanding urban changes since the 1980s. Current literature has demonstrated the diversity of the revanchist city or urban revanchism which emerges in specific place with“actually existing”form. However, the excluded disadvantaged groups have been always placed in a passive position where they seem to have no agency to respond to the revanchist politics. This article aims to demonstrate the contrariety and instability of such an exclusionary, revanchist politics of space, through the study of spatial politics of urban street vending in Guangzhou since the 1990s. Based upon Lefebvre's space theory, the analysis is conducted within a structure-agency framework. We integrate the methods of analysis of related policy and institution and observation, semi-structure and in-depth interview of street vendors, city managers, residents and indoor shop owners. It is argued that an exclusionary politics of public space essentially includes mutual-contradictory factors consisting of the structural discipline force and anti-discipline force as agency. On the one hand, the revanchist politics of street vendors has been embedded in the process of urban environment improvement strategy for solving the potential crisis of development in the 1980s. A discipline mechanism with an analogous form of panopticism is appropriated by municipal government to regulate and exclude street vendors for the sake of strategic space. On the other hand, the counter spaces are formed through the everyday and episodic form of resistance by street vendors. The former is characterized by tactics of waiting game and docile inobservance, while the latter is marked by individual violence and collective protest. As a result, strategic space is redefined as a tool space by street vendors for sustaining individual survival, alleviating poverty and pursuing freedom. The contrariety of the revanchist politics of space is in its origin a social product, while the conflict situation it engendered will to a large extent lie on the extent to which the discipline and anti-discipline forces coordinate or confront in the practice.
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    Policy and Spatial Effect of Expressway Planning Network in China
    WANG Chengjin, DING Jinxue, YANGWei
    2011, 66 (8):  1076-1088.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (800KB) ( )   Save
    Since the mid-1990s, each province of China has acted on its own free will in expressway planning and construction, which results in some serious problems for regional sustainable development and land planning. In this paper, we analyzed the scale and spatial network of expressway planning and compared the national network with provincial network of expressway. The result shows that the scale of expressway network in the long-term period will reach 17.4 × 104 km and form a dense expressway network like the cobweb. The expressway planning of provinces in the central and western China expands greatly from the initial scale. Moreover, we discussed the spatial influences of the gigantic expressway planning network with indices of accessibility, service capacity and spatial partition. The results demonstrate that the scale of planned expressway network by each province is too large and many new planned routes chiefly link small towns and the backland areas. The planned provincial expressway network deviates from the spatial distribution of China's economic development, population and city system. Particularly, the planned scale and spatial cover capacity of expressway network deviates from its economic and technologic attributes. Finally, we revealed the development mechanism on the regulation of each province's expressway planning and expansion of the expressway planning scale. The discussion result shows that the planning system of expressway, finance system for construction, charge policy, strategies to the financial crisis in 2008 and the criterion for assessing political achievement lead to the regulation of expressway planning and the enlargement of each province's planning scale.
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    Spatially-Integrated Social Sciences and GIS: A Personal Perspective
    WANG Fahui
    2011, 66 (8):  1089-1100.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (750KB) ( )   Save
    One of the most important advancements in recent social science research (including applied social sciences and public policy) has been the application of computational methods in studying the complex human or social systems. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has played an important role in this movement because of its capability of integrating and analyzing various datasets, particularly spatial data. Social sciences with a spatial focus can be grouped as "spatially-integrated social sciences". Drawing from research projects supported by various federal grant agencies in the U.S., this paper uses examples to demonstrate the value of GIS in social sciences including economics (urban economics), history and linguistics, sociology (criminology) and public health.
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    The Spatial Structure and Mental Image of Regional Development in Hubei Province
    GONG Shengsheng, ZHOU Jun, ZHANG Tao
    2011, 66 (8):  1101-1110.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (882KB) ( )   Save
    Hubei province is an important fulcrum for the rise of Central China, but the play of fulcrum role depends on the strategic choice of its spatial structure. Applying the growth pole theory, point axis system theory, grade development theory and city constellation theory, we analyzed the spatial structure of Hubei province, and the research indicates that, the A-shaped point-axis spatial frame, which connects five polar cities of Wuhan, Yichang, Xiangyang, Jingmen and Yichang and takes the line of Wuhan-Xiangyang-Shiyan as its upper axis, Wuhan-Yichang-Enshi as its lower axis, and Xiangyang-Jingmen-Yichang as its vertical axis, is the best spatial structure for the regional development in this province. Using statistical data, we analyzed the major economic and social total quantity and density indicators in Hubei in 2008, and found that, regions along the "A-shaped point-axis structure" are the essence of social and economic development in Hubei, and the gradient variations between polar cities along "A-shaped point-axis structure" reflect the variations among the eastern, central and western parts of Hubei. Using "A-shaped point-axis structure" to coordinate the regional development in Hubei in the future, the static spatial mental image is "A-shaped frame, Hubei's constellation" and "A-shaped frame, Hubei's backbone"; the dynamic spatial mental image is "ladder extending west, gradient advancing"; the overall spatial mental image is "three wheels driving, one arrow taking off".
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    Assessment of Urban Land Use Efficiency in China
    WU Dewen, MAO Hanying, ZHANG Xiaolei, HUANG Jinchuan
    2011, 66 (8):  1111-1121.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (878KB) ( )   Save
    Urban land use efficiency has direct influence on socio-economic development and construction of residential conditions in cities. Based on data envelopment analysis of the input-output and scalable efficiency of land use in 658 cities across China, some results are obtained as follows. First, the input-output efficiency of urban land use in China is low by large and ascends by the level of city scales, high in Eastern China and low in Central and Western China. The input-output efficiency of urban land use, however, is abnormally high in small cities. Second, there are a variety of factors contributing to low input-output efficiency of urban land use in China, ranging from redundant personnel investment in the secondary and tertiary industries, excessive fixed asset investment and construction land, to deficiency of environmental output which are more dramatic in different big cities by tiers. Third, the scale efficiency of land use in most of the cities in China is rising. The scale efficiency of urban land use is high in Eastern China and low in Central and Western China, descending by the level of city scales. It is of great significance to evaluate and analyze the factors contributing to different land use efficiency nationwide, three large regions and different tier cities, which will provide realistic ground for governments at all levels to stipulate urban development policies.
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    Changes in Agricultural Regions of Southern Ontario in Canada
    WANG Pengfei, SHEN Yuming
    2011, 66 (8):  1122-1230.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (777KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper we analyzed changes in agricultural regions of southern Ontario in Canada from 1999 to 2009 based on fieldwork of beef cattle, dairies, hogs, grain corns, tobaccos and fruits for farms along with statistical data to fully understand the structure of this regional change. The results of the survey lead to the following conclusions. First of all, as the farms of southern Ontario are highly mechanized and commercialized, agriculture of southern Ontario is commonly organized in a traditionally mixed farming system. Along with urban development, part time farmers occupied an increasing proportion among all farmers. Earnings from works outside farms become very important for many farmers nowadays. Reasons for this change in agriculture of southern Ontario is concluded as a result of improving the breed of domestic animals and strains of grains, developing the infrastructure of rural regions and industrialized agriculture, subsidizing agriculture by states, globalizing international trade of agricultural products. In addition, the difference of agricultural products in different regions of southern Ontario is due to the difference in natural conditions and process in development, influence of urbanization, also the factors in political and economic environment under international trade. These factors are considered as the major effects for agricultural region divisions.
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    Land Resources Assessment Model for Mountainous Areas Based on GIS: A Case Study of Liangshan Yizu Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province
    LIU Bintao, LIU Shaoquan, TAO Heping, SHI Zhan, GUO Shili, CAOWeichao
    2011, 66 (8):  1131-1140.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (742KB) ( )   Save
    Land resources are key factors of the resources & environment capability in mountainous areas. They determine socio-economic development and sustainable development in the mountainous areas. So, land resources security assessment is an important task in mountain areas development planning. In this paper, a new land resources security assessment model for mountainous areas is developed based on geographic information system and statistical data. Firstly, the paper analyses the import factors for land resources security in mountainous areas. Then, the construction land security index and the food security index were been given in this paper. In order to compute the land security index, a dynamic weight was promoted, which can be computed for urbanization. The weight of construction land security index is the ratio of urbanization, and the weight of food security index is the ratio of non-urbanization. Taking Liangshan Yizu Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan Province of China as a study area, we used the model to compute the construction land security index, food security index and land resources security index. The results show that the safest and safer land resources in Liangshan cover 17.65% of the counties, or 17.23% of the total land area, but land resources in unsafety and critical safety covers 58.82% of the counties of Liangshan, or 55.03% of the total land area. The result also indicates that topography is the most important factor affecting land resources security in this region, and the unsafe land resources areas are consistent with very poor areas. To improve the land productive potential, economical and intensive utilization of land resources are important measures for sustainable development & resources and environment security in mountainous areas.
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    The Source of the Forward-security of Farmers' Livelihood and Settlement Integration: Based on the Survey of 477 Farmers in Bailin Village, West Suburbs of Chongqing
    WANG Cheng, WANG Liping, LI Xiaoqing, LI Yangbing, SHAO Jing'an, JIANGWei
    2011, 66 (8):  1141-1152.  doi: 10.11821/xb201108013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (925KB) ( )   Save
    Farmers' livelihood assets decide their choices of livelihood means and maneuver behavior. The consumption of settlement construction, as one of the main consumption investment of farmers, is enslaved to the quantity of farmers' livelihood assets provided. How to realize rational consumption of settlement construction of farmers based on the investigation of their livelihood assets has become the key to enhancing the efficiency of land resources in rural areas and improving the production and living conditions of farmers. Therefore, by taking Bailin Village in Chongqing city as an example, by the methods of 'PAR (Participatory Rural Appraisal)+3S' and using geo-coordinates as a unique code, this paper did a farmer survey from July to December, 2009, and then set up a 'farmers-land' geo-database to link farmers' attribution and space characteristics of land managed by farmers. Accordingly, this paper, based on the database, constructed the index system to quantize farmers' livelihood assets, then compartmentalized the farmers' styles and analyzed the demand of different farmer's rural settlements, and then realized the integration of farmers' rural settlements. The results indicated that the allocation structures of farmers' livelihood assets differentiated greatly. The livelihood assets of 8% of the farmers preponderated over an average value and 23% at medium level. Meanwhile, mainly based on the natural asset product and accompanied with other assets, the farmers were divided into four types, that is non-agricultural diversification farmer type (31%), part-time development type (23% ), non-agricultural specialization development type (22% ), agricultural diversification development type (16%) and agricultural specialization type (8%). According to different sources of farmers' livelihood together with national and local strategies, the types of farmers' rural settlements, including community type (non-agricultural specialization development type and non-agricultural diversification development type), group type (agricultural specialization development type), service type (agricultural diversification development type) and ribbon-type (part-time development type) , were constructed in the study areas.
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