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    20 June 2011, Volume 66 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Interregional Capital Flows and Regional Development Gap: Analysis of the Inter-bank Credit Flows
    CHEN Dong, FAN Jie
    2011, 66 (6):  723-731.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (777KB) ( )   Save
    It is commonly believed that so far as countries at the early stage of economic development are concerned, capital usually flows from areas with unfavorable conditions to those with favorable conditions, which leads to the Matthew effect and the widening of regional development gap. Inter-bank credit flows are an important form of inter-regional capital flows. This paper used a measuring method to disclose the direction of the inter-bank credit flows between eastern China which has favorable conditions and central and western China which have unfavorable conditions during the period of widening of regional development gaps (1978-2003), and analyzed the causes. It was found that in the years of inter-regional capital flows, no net credit outflows from the underdeveloped areas to the developed areas but the reverse patterns were found. This indicated that the inter-bank credit flow narrowed rather than widened the regional development gap at least to some extent. Further analysis found that the credit control by the Central Government and the changes of market environments formed two periods of inter-bank credit flows before and after 1994 respectively.
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    Intra-industrial Trade and Interregional Structural Isomorphism of Manufacturing Industry Based on China-IRIO2002
    ZHANG Zhuoying, SHI Minjun
    2011, 66 (6):  732-740.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (774KB) ( )   Save
    This paper interprets China industrial structure isomorphism from the perspective of intra-industry based on China interregional input-output table 2002. The results verify the existence of China's industrial structure isomorphism and reveal its discrepancy at industrial and regional levels. This study points out that the industrial structure analysis at broad industry-category level may overestimate the extent of industrial structure isomorphism. It is observed from the intra-industry assessment that the intra-industry trade has become a significant form of China's inter-provincial trade connections, although the inter-industry trade is still dominant in the natural resource oriented regions. The intra-industry trade can be affected by factors such as diversity of the positions in the industrial chain, the similarity of demand preference of different provinces etc. Through the combined analysis of industrial structure isomorphism and intra-industry trade, it is emphasized in the study that the regional integration should not be judged using industrial structure isomorphism as the only criterion. Interregional economic linkages can be achieved through intra-industry trade, which means in the case of the coexistence of industrial isomorphism and intra-industry trade, industrial isomorphism will not necessarily impede the regional integration.
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    Mechanism of Energy Efficiency Response to Industrial Restructuring and Energy Consumption Structure Change
    WANG Qiang, ZHENG Ying, WU Shidai, LI Tingting
    2011, 66 (6):  741-749.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (922KB) ( )   Save
    With the economic development of the human society, growth of population, and accelerated urbanization and industrialization, increase of asymmetric carbon cycle and global climate change caused by rapid growth of energy consumption are becoming the current hot spots of all walks of life worldwide. Therefore, improving energy efficiency has become an effective way of active response to energy saving and realization of sustainable development. This paper, by analyzing the characteristics of energy efficiency, industrial structure and energy consumption structure of China and five other developed countries, establishes a VAR model and uses impulse responses function and variance decomposition methods to reveal the mechanism of energy efficiency response to industrial structure evolvement and energy consumption structure change. Research suggests that in the last 40 years, China's tertiary industry has played a greater role than its secondary industry in improving energy efficiency. Although the development of the secondary industry has a positively weak correlation with energy efficiency, according to the experience of developed countries, the inhibition of secondary industry on the energy efficiency improvement has not yet appeared in China, which indicates that the economy still needs pushing by industry with extensive and high energy consumption. Otherwise, the energy consumption relies on coal, which also has the inhibition on the energy efficiency improving. In the end, basing on such analysis, the paper discusses the response of energy efficiency to industrial restructuring and energy consumption structure change. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) Compared with developed countries, the industrial restructuring has inhibition on energy efficiency improvement in the short term until the mid-term, then the positive impact of industrial restructuring will emerge, which will improve energy efficiency. (2) Since existence of "coal-based" energy consumption structure for a long time, its negative effect appeared later in China than in developed countries, and the evolution of energy consumption structure in both China and developed countries has little effect on energy efficiency. (3) The influence of industrial structure change is greater than the evolution of energy consumption structure, so the impact of industrial restructuring and upgrading is the key to improve energy efficiency and carry out energy saving policies.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity in Determinants of Residential Land Price: Simulation and Prediction
    DONG Guanpeng, ZHANGWenzhong, WUWenjie, GUO Tengyun
    2011, 66 (6):  750-760.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (810KB) ( )   Save
    Hedonic land price models typically impose a spatial homogeneous price structure on land characteristics throughout the entire land market. However, there are increasing theoretical and empirical evidences that the marginal values of many crucial attributes of land parcels vary across space. Theoretically, localized and inelastic land supply results in spatial mismatch between demand and supply of land with certain attributes, which causes the spatial heterogeneous effects of these attributes. In this paper, we establish a series of models to evaluate the determinants of residential land price and the spatial heterogeneity of the determinants. First, we use hedonic models to diagose the determinants of residential land price. Second, we use the spatial expansion models and geographically weighted regression model (GWR) to depict the spatial instability in the impacts of land attributes. Third, we compare the prediction accuracy of the two models by predicting the land price of 10% random selected land parcels. We take Beijing as a case study and use the information of auctioned residential land parcels during 2004-2009 and GIS data of Beijing's public facilities. Based on the analysis, several conclusions are drawn as follows. 1) Spatial dependence of local residential land price and the spillover effect of local commercial land exert great effects on the residential land price, while the impact of the distance on CBD is insignificant, which indicates that the residential land market is probably local rather than global. 2) Among several public facilities, in terms of Nearest-Distance Accessibility Criteria, only the local prime elementary school, park and rail transit accessibility have a significant effect on the residential land price. 3) There is an obvious spatial pattern in the impacts of the land attributes on the land price, which is an evident signal of existence of land submarkets. 4) As the spatial expansion model imposes a fixed and definite function of spatial coordinates on the spatial heterogeneity in the marginal effect of land parcel attributes, it does not perform as well as GWR models in depicting spatial variation and prediction accuracy. GWR models perform best in explaining the land price variation, depicting spatial heterogeneity and prediction accuracy comparing to hedonic models and spatial expansion models. Also, GWR models provide a useful framework for delineating residential land submarket boundaries.
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    Identification of Urban Clusters in China Based on Assessment of Transportation Accessibility and Socio-Economic Indicators
    ZHANG Qian, HU Yunfeng, LIU Jiyuan, LIU Yue, RENWangbing, LI Jun
    2011, 66 (6):  761-770.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (48059KB) ( )   Save
    Urban clusters are the expected products of high levels of industry and urbanization in a country, as well as being the basic units of participation in global competition. With respect to China, urban clusters are regarded as the dominant formation for boosting the China's urbanization process. However, to date, there is no coincident, efficient, and credible methodological system and set of techniques to identify Chinese urban clusters. This research investigates the potential of an computerized identification method supported by geographic information techniques to provide a better understanding of the distribution of China's urban clusters. The identification method is executed based on a geographic information database, a digital elevation model, and socio-economic data with the aid of ArcInfo Macro Language programming. In the method, preliminary boundaries are identified according to transportation accessibility, and final identifications are achieved from limiting city numbers, population, and GDP in a region with the aid of the rasterized socio-economic dataset. The results show that the method identifies nine Chinese urban clusters, i.e., Pearl River Delta, Lower Yangtze River Valley, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, Northeast China, Middle Yangtze River Valley, Central China Plains, Western Taiwan Strait, Guanzhong and Chengdu-Chongqing urban clusters. This research represents the first study involving the computerized identification of China's urban clusters. Moreover, compared to other related studies, the study's approach, which combines transportation accessibility and socio-economic characteristics, is shown to be a distinct, effective and reliable way of identifying urban clusters.
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    Urban Socio-spatial Structure of Nanjing during the Modern Era: Analysis Based on the Data of Urban Population Investigation in 1936
    SONG Weixuan, XU Di, WANG Liye, ZHU Xigang
    2011, 66 (6):  771-784.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (940KB) ( )   Save
    Since Park and Burgess created human ecology in the 1920s, the school of urban ecology has established many urban inner spatial models, such as concentric zone model, sector model and multiple nuclei model, through a great deal of empirical research,. Studies on urban socio-spatial structure by means of factorial ecology constantly have been conducted in China since the 1980s. Due to data accessibility of the case city, population and space data of the studies above are almost the population census data or the housing census data after the start of the reform and opening up, and the study period is centralized to the recent 30 years. Up to now, there have been relatively few scholars who do the quantitative study on urban spatial structure in modern China.
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    Beyond Spatial Segregation: Neo-migrants and Their Social Networks in Chinese Cities
    LI Zhigang, LIU Ye
    2011, 66 (6):  785-795.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (827KB) ( )   Save
    Against the context of the speed-up urbanization, neo-migrants in China, i.e. those born after the 1980s, emerge as a major actor shaping contemporary urban China. Unlike their predecessors who flooded into cities as Diaspora, neo-migrants become deeply grafted into cities. Being a major concern of Chinese society, such neo-migrants and their social relations have never been systematically explored. Based on a survey of eight migrant villages in Guangzhou, the largest capital of southern China, this study sheds light upon the social network and related issues for neo-migrants. In particular, it tries to examine the impacts of the enclave or accumulation space upon the social networks of migrants. Through a series of quantitative studies, it is found that the social networks of neo-migrants is becoming diversified, modernized and varied across the urban space. In contrast to the old generation migrants, more connections can be found between the neo-migrants and various social strata, especially those beyond the enclaves. As such, it is argued that the social network of neo-migrants is moving beyond the boundary of migrant enclaves or villages, so that a new trend of social integration between migrants and the local society can be found. Moreover, it is argued that new migrant enclave today is by no means as insulated or segregated as in history, as migrant enclaves is gradually reconstructed when neo-migrants establish new types of social ties beyond the spatial boundaries. Nevertheless, sociospatial segregation between migrants and local residents still can be found, and the significance of traditional social networks for migrants, i.e., kinship or laoxiang relations, is still evident, though the extent of which has been largely alleviated. In addition, migration history, social economic status and social cultural characteristics also have significant impacts upon the restructuring of migrant social networks. As such, it is concluded that that the trend of moving beyond the spatial segregation in terms of neo-migrants' social networks will be a progressive, piecemeal and time-lasting process.
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    Multi-agent Based Simulation of Retail Spatial Structure
    ZHUWei, WANG De
    2011, 66 (6):  796-804.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (613KB) ( )   Save
    Although central place theory has been proposed for a long time, empirical research and planning practices on central place systems in the real world under the complex multi-factor interactions are difficult to carry out. Conventional simulation-based research methods use linear programming technique to derive and investigate central place systems through optimizing certain objective functions. But their limitations on model complexity restrict their further application in empirical research and practice. Multi-agent technology provides a new perspective. This paper proposes a multi-agent retail spatial structure simulation system, which can derive structural distributions of shopping centers through simulating the behavior of shopping centers and consumers. The shopping centers in the simulation system have three levels and can adjust locations and service levels according to the revenues. Consumers generate different levels of shopping needs periodically and choose shopping centers based on travel distance. The simulation process starts with a number of shopping centers. After recursively simulating the behavior and interactions of centers and consumers, equilibrium is reached with the distributions of shopping center levels and locations emerged. As a validation of the system, simulations are carried out on five typical scenarios of consumer spatial distribution, including even distribution, single-center distribution, satellite distribution, grouped distribution, and belt distribution. Results show the system is stable with reasonable shopping center systems generated.
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    Spatial Structure of Commodity Market Based on Space Syntax: The Case of Yiwu International Trade Mart
    CHEN Huajie, SHI Yishao
    2011, 66 (6):  805-812.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (726KB) ( )   Save
    As a quantitative spatial analysis method, space syntax has been widely applied in many fields of urban design and architecture, however, there are less application studies for spatial structure and layout of the commodity trading markets. This paper quantitatively analyzes inner spatial structure characteristics for the Yiwu International Trade Mart through the integrated approach of GIS and space syntax, and discusses the application of space syntax in the study on spatial structure and form of the commodity trading markets. The results show that: (1) the overall spatial structure and layout of the Yiwu International Trade Mart have lower spatial intelligibility; (2) some local areas and entrances have poor convenience; (3) accessibility for several accessorial facilities is not perfect. For these deficiencies, the paper proposes some optimal recommendations. In addition, the paper provides a reference for planning and design of other commodity markets.
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    Location Orientation of E-shops in China's Major Cities Based on Neighborhood Facilities: Case Studies of Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Beijing
    LU Zi, LI Xiaonan, YANG Lihua, YANG Dong, DENG Lili
    2011, 66 (6):  813-820.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (679KB) ( )   Save
    This paper employs two basic approaches: fuzzy location-orientation method based on neighborhood facilities and fuzzy multiple attribute decision making (MADM) method. The study focuses on spatial agglomeration analysis of e-shops which have tangible stores at Taobao website. The Taobao e-shops located in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Tianjin have six categories of goods: digital products, household collections, clothing, skin care, stationery and sports. These e-shops can be divided into four location types: complete, overlapping, transitional and partial. Based on these four types, this paper reveals the biased characteristics of location-orientation of various e-shops and the changes of location orientation influence factors in information era, and further explores the optimal location choices of digital product e-shops which have obvious location distribution. The research findings are as follows. (1) Different goods categories have significant differences on e-services network location choice (ESNLC), and decentralization and agglomeration coexist. Agglomeration only happens at precious commodities such as digital categories and it still relies on traditional neighborhood facilities. By contrast, the majority of ordinary commodity e-shops barely have overlapping location layout, and have already shown a new location-oriented regular pattern, which no longer follows the traditional location theory. (2) The e-services network location choices under different commercial models differ from each other. The influences on ESNLC of c2c e-commerce model tend to be more different from the traditional location choice, which indicates that c2c e-commerce is the foundation of changes of location-orientation influence factors of e-shops. In addition to the old transmission network, sources of supply, market concentration factors, skilled labor factors and trust factors would become the mainstream. (3) Triangular fuzzy numbers can be used to calculate the optimal location of precious goods e-shops, such as digital product category, which have aggregated neighborhood facilities and obvious location orientation. The optimal location is selected from the overlap location to complete location. The larger the number of neighborhood facilities is, the stronger the location-orientation is. (4) In the electronic age, the traditional location theory will be extended or improved to be fully interpreting the location phenomenon of electronic service network.
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    Research on Interactive Relationship between Terrain Cognition and Spatial Behavior in Small-Scale Environment: A Case Study of Pukou Campus in Nanjing University
    JIANG Zhijie, ZHANG Jie, LI Li, NIE Shouhong
    2011, 66 (6):  821-830.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (871KB) ( )   Save
    Although the interactive relationship between terrain cognition and spatial behavior plays an important role in human-environment relationships, few studies have explored this issue which has been recently paid more attention in behavioral geography. To examine such relationship in daily activities, the Pukou Campus in Nanjing University is chosen as a study area. On the basis of pre-research, the stratified proportional sampling method is used to obtain the samples in the survey of the terrain cognition and spatial behavior respectively, while sketch mapping and verbal description methods are also employed to collect the data. Then the data were analyzed by using the coding method of the geographical elements and attributes, public maps of terrain cognition and spatial behavior, overlay and buffer analysis, bias correlation. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The rank orders of elevation cognition of terrain have been coded in subject's cognitive map, and most parts of spatial pattern of terrain in the case area have been recognized. (2) Most major points of campus activities are correlated with requisite activities, while more minor points of campus activities are in relation to spontaneous activities and social activities. The routes of requisite activities which lined the living area and teaching area are straight-line and distributed in south of the campus. Moreover the routes of spontaneous activities which lined more stadium and landscape are scattered in campus. (3) There is interactive relationship between terrain cognition and spatial behavior. The spatial pattern of behavior is influenced by terrain cognition, but such influence is mediated by the motive and cognition of efficiency. The spatial behavior is among the dominant factors of terrain cognition and vise versa, and its effect is mediated by the motive and period of behavior. (4) It is the location of dorm instead of gender and subject that significantly influences the interactive relationship between terrain cognition and spatial behavior. Finally the insufficiency and future direction of research is discussed.
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    Evolutionary Stages and Dynamic Mechanisms of Thematic Cultural Tourist Areas: A Case Study of Lingshan Scenic Area in Wuxi
    HUANG Zhenfang, YU Zhaoyuan, HUANG Zhenlin, ZHU Ye, XU Bo, YUAN Linwang
    2011, 66 (6):  831-841.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106012
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    With the seasonal adjustment of Tramo/Seats and multi-peak fitting methods, this paper analyses the evolutionary stages and fluctuant characteristics of Wuxi Lingshan Scenic Area from 1998 to 2008. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows. 1) In terms of the tourist evolutionary stages of Lingshan, it has entered the mature stage after the preliminary and upgrading evolutionary stages. 2) The stage evolution has always been a key component of a thematic cultural tourist area in its life cycle, which displays the tendency phase division in the long term and the fluctuant variations in the short term. 3) The key dynamic factors that affect the evolutionary stages of thematic cultural tourist areas may include cultural resources, market demand, tourist investment, product improvement, etc. Furthermore, based on the theory of the tourist destination life cycle, we establish a theoretic model of the development and evolution of thematic cultural tourist areas. Therefore, the life cycle of a thematic cultural tourist area can be divided into five stages, i.e., the exploration and starting stage, the substantial development stage, the fast development stage, the balanced development stage and the follow-up (declining or recessing) development stage. Influenced by more factors than one, the evolution of a thematic cultural tourist area is jointly motivated under the interactions and phase transformations of various dynamic factors, and also led to its stage evolution and fluctuant growth. Finally, a thematic cultural tourist area can maintain sustained development by enhancing its cultural characteristic, strengthening the cultural driving force, cultivating the overall development power and shaping its multi-dynamic growth mechanism.
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    Evaluation of the Ecological Security of Island Tourist Destination and Island Tourist Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Zhoushan Islands
    XIAO Jianhong, YU Qingdong, LIU Kang, CHEN Dongjing, CHEN Juan, XIAO Jiangnan
    2011, 66 (6):  842-852.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (746KB) ( )   Save
    Island tourist has become a pillar industry in many island areas, and island tourist sustainable development is the current focus of research in this area. On the basis of the concept on the regional rigid ecological footprint and the regional elastic ecological footprint, the models of general ecological security coefficient (GESC) of island tourism destination and special ecological security coefficient (SESC) of island tourism destination were constructed in this paper, and then the assessment framework and judgment criterion were proposed on the ecological security of island tourist destination (ESITD) and island tourist sustainable development (ITSD). Furthermore, based on the idea of ecological footprint, the models of island tourist ecological footprint were established. Finally, the paper conducts an empirical analysis of Zhoushan Islands (Zhoushan Islands are the only city established on a group of islands in China. It has special sea and mountain scenes, including two national level scenic spots Mount Putuo and Shengsi Archipelago, two provincial level scenic spots Daishan Island and Taohua Island and other 1000 scenic spots) in the base year 2008, which applies the models, the framework, and the criterion. Some results can be obtained as follows. (1) The GESC of island tourism destination is 0.6816, and the ecological deficit is 287849.0216 ha, with ecological carrying capacity being 46.71%, indicating that the Zhoushan Islands have reached the state of ecological insecurity and non-sustainable development. (2) The SESC of island tourism destination is 0.9806, and the ecological deficit is 12189.2343 ha, with ecological carrying capacity being 1.98%, showing that the Zhoushan Islands have reached the state of endangering ecological security and endangering sustainable development. (3) The ESITD and ITSD of Zhoushan Islands belong to Type VI.
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    Geographical Report of 311 Earthquake in Japan
    GU Chaolin
    2011, 66 (6):  853-861.  doi: 10.11821/xb201106014
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    This paper uses the latest research results from the Northeast Geographical Society of Japan to report the 311 earthquake in Japan. It introduces the earthquake disaster, disaster area, characteristics of four disaster sub-areas, social and economic impacts of the disaster, and focuses on the dead and missing in an aging and low birth rate society, leading automotive industry, marine featured industry, medical care facilities and centerial city of Sendai.
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