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    20 April 2011, Volume 66 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spatio-temporal Evolution of the China's Inter-urban Organization Network Structure: Based on Aviation Data from 1983 to 2006
    WU Wenjie, DONG Zhengbin, ZHANG Wenzhong, JIN Fengjun, MA Xiujun, XIE Kunqing
    2011, 66 (4):  435-445.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1000KB) ( )   Save
    Spatial-temporal distribution pattern of inter-urban organization network and its interaction process with aviation development has always been a hot issue in regional economy and transport geography. Civil aviation is the fastest growing travel mode in China. Nonetheless, research on this issue have been limited by the lack of systematic data-- especially spatial data--as well as other related data sources, and by the limitation of the quantitative methods in exploring the organization and efficiency of the inter-urban organization network in transitional China. This paper is a general process evaluation and actual description of the spatio-temporal structural characteristics of the Inter-urban Aviation Network in China (IANC) from 1983 to 2006 based on complex network methods. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. 1) The IANC exhibits the densification trends featured by a small-world network. 2) It follows the "hub-and-spoke" network organization model. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen act as the multi-hubs, and the spatial connections among them act as the spokes. Urumqi and Kunming are particularly important local hubs; around them have formed two relatively independent local hub-and-spoke networks. 3) A "saddle-type" model has formed in the evolution of the IANC. Specifically, the structures of the eastern and western regions' aviation networks are better formed than that of the central region. 4) The cities in the IANC show a "community network" effect. To be more specific, hub cities, geographical neighboring cities, and cities with similar urban functions have similar urban spatial interaction characteristics. 5) The hub status of 35 important cities in the network varied with the development of the IANC. Moreover, there are great spatial disparities among tourist cities such as Huangshan and Lijiang, coastal cities such as Dalian and Qingdao, and western cities such as Lhasa.
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    Urban Spatial Expansion Process, Pattern and Mechanism in Yangtze River Delta
    CHE Qianjin, DUAN Xuejun, GUO Yao, WANG Lei, CAO Youhui
    2011, 66 (4):  446-456.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (840KB) ( )   Save
    The investigation of the process, pattern and mechanism of urban spatial expansion has become an effective method to recognize the stages of urbanization and explore the laws of urban development as the direct result of urbanization to geographic space is the spatial expansion of cities. Based on the satellite imageries data including Landsat TM or ETM, IRS-P6 of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 1980 to 2007, this article, starting from the characteristics of urban spatial heterogeneity and spatial association, revealed quantificationally the diversity of urban expansion, the heterogeneity of spatial organization and the spatial evolution of "hot spot" areas, with the help of lacunarity index, fractal dimensions, expansion intensity index, expansion speed index as well as spatial association model,. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) Since the 1980s, although central cities have dominated the process of regional expansion, this evolution still follows the law that "small scale agglomeration, large scale dispersion". (2) Along the Z-shaped axes, urban growth has experienced three stages, namely point-axis expansion, adhesions-type growth and spread expansion. In addition, an obvious regional integration was observed. (3) The gathering role of "hot spot" areas has been diminished, and areas along the Shanghai-Nanjing, Shanghai-Hangzhou, Hangzhou-Ningbo highways and the Yangtze River have become core areas that propel regional socio-economic development in YRD. (4) The driven forces varied in different development stages. It is the combination of economic globalization and regional urbanization that dominates the regionalization of the YRD.
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    Job Accessibility and Its Impacts on Commuting Time of Urban Residents in Beijing: From a Spatial Mismatch Perspective
    LIU Zhilin, WANG Maojun
    2011, 66 (4):  457-467.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (718KB) ( )   Save
    The spatial mismatch theory developed in the 1960s in western urban literature has drawn much attention to adverse impacts of employment decentralization and housing segregation on disadvantaged population such as ethnic minorities and low-income residents. Recently scholars have noticed the trend of home-work separation in Chinese cities, but most of them use commuting behavior as an indicator of job-housing mismatch. In this paper, we use population and employment data at sub-district (jiedao) level from the Fifth Population Census and the First Economic Census, and calculate the job accessibility index for each sub-district as a measure of spatial mismatch in Beijing. Based on data from a 2007 resident survey in Beijing, we also examine the extent to which sub-district job accessibility index may affect individual commuting time. Our analysis finds that job-housing mismatch is emerging in the city of Beijing but exhibits unique spatial patterns and mechanisms as opposed to the US case. Job accessibility shows great variation across sub-districts in Beijing, with inner-city neighborhoods more accessible to employment than the suburbs. In addition, regression analysis shows complex relationship between job accessibility and individual commuting. Sub-district job accessibility has no significant impact on commuting time in general, but it shows significant curve-linear relationship with commuting time of low-income residents. Higher job accessibility index may encourage longer commuting by low-income residents living in the sub-districts up to a certain threshold, beyond which low-income residents tend to commute shorter. Relative concentration of low-income residents and higher-wage jobs in inner-city residents, as well as greater reliance on public transportation in general, may explain such a complex picture.
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    Border Effect of Inner City: Research Based on Spatial Spillover of Real Estate Price
    HONG Guozhi, LI Xun
    2011, 66 (4):  468-476.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (877KB) ( )   Save
    The administrative region economy leading to market segmentation is a common phenomenon in China. Based on spatial spillover effect of real estate price, this paper uses housing exchanged price data of Guangzhou city in 2005 to explore the border effect of administrative region within city by applying extended Hedonic model and semi-variogram function. The results based on analysis of spatial correlation and spatial spillover of housing price indicate that there is significant border effect between administrative districts of Guangzhou city in 2005, which suggests the existence of market segmentation. What's more, the border effect between central parts is much less than that of the peripheral ones. The natural condition and urban-rural relation contribute to the significance of border effect.
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    Trade Barriers and the Global Production Network: A Case Study of Bicycle Trade between China and Canada
    GAO Boyang, LIUWeidong, GLEN Norcliffe, DU Chao
    2011, 66 (4):  477-486.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (642KB) ( )   Save
    In previous researches, the framework of global production network was established based on free trade and neo-liberalism. However, the globe is not flat. Trade barriers broadly exist and deeply influence the economic globalization. In this article, we explore the issue of trade barriers and its impacts on global production networks. We try to sketch a theoretical interpretation of the trading arrangements under trade barriers, and illustrate the argument with material gathered during our recent investigations into the production networks that connect the bicycle industry in China with Canada. Our research shows that: (1) with trade barriers, the traditional network pattern organized by producers and distributors has changed. Third parties, including trade agency, trade show, bank, and so on, took active part in the trading process and became one of the important poles of the global production networks. (2) Originally, the very metaphor of a network seems to allow more flexibility than a chain, although even so, the breaking of connections in a network often viewed as unfortunate in previous research. However, in our research, we found that the production networks linkage are very flexible. The linkages amongst the very actors in the trading systems are frequently negotiated and switched. At the same time, quality control and labor welfare have become more important than cost control. (3) The spatial organization of the global production network shows differently in two aspects. On one hand, the producers are more labor-oriented and market-oriented than before. On the other hand, the third parties intend to gather along financial clusters and services clusters.
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    An Empirical Study on the Economic Impact of the Events with Input-output Model: A Case Study of Canton Fair, China
    LUO Qiuju, PANG Jiawen, JINWenmin
    2011, 66 (4):  487-503.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (974KB) ( )   Save
    Many studies have been focused on events' economic impact assessment at home and abroad, but recently it has received some controversies and arguments. Relevant research in China is just at an initial stage. Canton Fair which is held twice every year is the biggest exhibition in China with long and deep influence on Guangzhou city. It is one of the typical cases of large-scale events as well. Based on the cases of 104th and 105th Canton Fair, this article focused on the expenditure of buyers, exhibitors, trading delegations and the organizers, and then assessed its direct and indirect economic impacts with the Input-Output Model. This study revealed that one large-scale and regular business event could have tremendous driving effects on different industries as well as significant and long-lasting direct and indirect economic impact on the host city. The direct and indirect economic effects at one event of Canton Fair were 5.526 billion yuan and 10.798 billion yuan respectively, or 16.324 billion yuan in total. The proportion of direct to indirect impact was 1:1.95. The total economic impact of the Canton Fair accounted for 1.98% of the GDP in Guangzhou in 2008. The ranking of the driving effect from the participants were buyers, exhibitors, representatives of the company, organizer and trade group. What's more, this paper gave detailed discussion on the results.
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    Evaluation, Optimization and Simulation of the Spatial Layout of Transport Hubs in China
    DING Jinxue, JIN Fengjun, WANG Chengjin, WANG Jiao'e
    2011, 66 (4):  504-514.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (905KB) ( )   Save
    Transport hubs are important elements of an integrated transportation system. How to locate transport hubs rationally has great significance to construct an efficient integrated transportation system. The layout optimization of transport hubs has been a focus field of transportation engineering and transportation geography. However, the current research on transport hubs' layout has limits to one single transport mode and has not considered the integration of all transport modes. As a result, the transport hubs' construction has the problem of fragmentation, duplication and even contradictory. Based on regional comprehensive transport hubs, this paper designs a series of indices, composed of 20 indicators. All these 20 indicators belong to three categories: transport network, passenger and freight traffic, and socio-economic development. The basic unit is 337 prefecture-level cities, and the maximum coverage model is adopted (one of the spatial layout optimization models). Under the condition of limited space, the model tries to find a way to locate infrastructure with the aim of making people as many as possible enjoy infrastructure service in a certain distance. First, this paper evaluates the potential of the 337 prefecture level cities for being comprehensive transport hubs with the maximum coverage model, and then identifies the optimal number of comprehensive transport hubs and their spatial distribution with the service radius of 80 km, 120 km, 160 km and 200 km separately. Second, the paper summarizes the general rules between the number of transport hubs and the objective values, and finally chooses 42 transport hubs for China. Third, this paper divides the hierarchy of the 42 transport hubs and simulates their spatial effect of area, population, and GDP, and the result shows better than that of the comprehensive transport hubs by national planning.
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    Dynamic Mechanism and Present Situation of Rural Settlements Evolution in China
    ZHOU Guohua, HE Yanhua, TANG Chengli, YU Tao, XIAO Guozhen
    2011, 66 (4):  515-524.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (866KB) ( )   Save
    This paper makes a deep analysis of the influencing factors in rural settlements evolution, including natural environment constraints, infrastructure, regional cultural inheritance and integration, urbanization and rural industry transformation, land use reformation and innovation, rural household behavior conversion, macro-control policy factors, and so on. Based on the differences between their effective way and degree to rural settlements evolution, these factors are classified into base factors, new-type factors and mutation factors. The driving of base factors is mainly focused on traditional inheritance of rural settlements, the new-type factors mainly have effect on rural settlements transition, and the mutation factors may bring about sudden change. All these factors constitute "three-wheel" driving mechanism of rural settlements evolution, and shape three typical driver paths, which are slow smooth path under the base factors, new path to rapid development under the new-type factors, sudden change path under the mutation factors.
    The paper also investigates the overall situation of rural settlements evolution in the aspects of the settlement system, settlements scale, settlements morphology, settlements function, settlements culture, settlements environment, and so on. And the general process of rural settlements evolution is divided into four stages, i.e., initial stage, transitional stage, development stage and mature stage.
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    The Traditionality Evaluation of Culture Landscape Space and Its Holistic Conservation Pattern: A Case Study of Qiandeng-Zhangpu Region in Jiangsu Province
    WANG Yuncai, Patrick MILLER, Brian KATEN
    2011, 66 (4):  525-534.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (791KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid development of urbanization, industrialization, commercialization and modernization, the cultural landscapes have witnessed great changes and are gradually disappearing and marginalized, fragamented and isolated. For the complex process and a number of factors of traditional cultural landscape space modernization, taking the production space, accommodation and living space and ecological space as the main body of traditional cultural landscape space, the reaearch sets up the traditionality evaluation system of cultural landscape space, consisting of indicators of agriculture, industry, business, tourist, power and transportation, building and courtyard, settlements, natural ecological space artificial eco-space and the relationship with the natural environment. Based on the traditionality evaluation sysytem, this research takes the Qiandeng-Zhangpu region in Jiangsu Province as a typical case study and selects the building space, water networks and agricultural landscape as three key factors for traditionality evaluation in this region, which are considered as the most important factors of local culture landscape. (1) As a conclusion of factor evaluation, the traditionality of building landscape, water networks and agriculture landscape is divided into three levels by traditionality index, which are absolute traditionality,moderate traditionality and completed moderned landscape. (2) As a conclusion of holistic evaluation, the traditional culture landscape space is divided into pieces and with high fragamentation level and obvious regionalized characteristic, which form a number of isolated patches of traditional culture landscape. At the same time the traditional culture landscape areas with high traditionality are located in the marginal area and all these traditional culture landscape patches are isolated and surrounded by modernizing landscapes.
    Based on the above analyses and with the viewpoint of setting up traditional culture landscape networks as a holistic way to conserve the traditional culture landscape at the regional level, the research discusses the holistic conservation pattern which is composed of cultural landscape strategic points, corridor of cultural landscape, sources and sinks of cultural landscape and stepping stone system. The holistic conservation patterns are helpful to conserve the traditional culture landscape space systematically and coordinate the modern landscape networks and natural landscape networks.
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    Comparison of Domestic and Overseas Tourism Research from 1980 to 2009
    WANG Degen, CHEN Tian, WANG Jinlian, LIU Changxue
    2011, 66 (4):  535-548.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (787KB) ( )   Save
    According to six major journals (domestic: Acta Geographica Sinica, Scientia Geographica Sinica, Geographical Research; overseas: Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Travel Research, Tourism Management), this paper makes the comparison of the status tourism research at home and abroad from 1980 to 2009 based on the author, field of research, method of research and area of research. Then, it compares the evolution of tourism research during three phases (1980-1989, 1990-1999 and 2000-2009). It is shown that in the evolution of research field, there are four declines and four ascensions abroad while three declines and four ascensions domestically. However there is similarity in the evolution of method of research and area of research, indicating the evolution of Hourglass model in area of tourism research at home and abroad, namely, the field of research relates to the global firstly, then reduces to single region and extend to cross-regional or the global lastly. The qualitative method such as description is declining and the quantitative method such as the mathematical statistics and the structural model is ascending at home and abroad. Finally, the paper prospects the trends of tourism research at home and abroad in the future from 4 factors which are field of research, area of research, and method of research and challenge of research.
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    A Rule-based Land Cover Classification Method for the Heihe River Basin
    HOU Yuting, WANG Shugong, NAN Zhuotong
    2011, 66 (4):  549-561.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104011
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    A novel rule-based land use/land cover classification approach is presented in this study. Rule tables were generated based on geographic characteristics of each class of the China land use classification schema and its possible transferability into other classes of the USGS schema. The USGS land use/land cover (LULC) data product, with a 1-km spatial resolution, was used to locate clustering centers, referred as NDVI fingerprints, of each land use class. A minimum distance approach was then applied to the 1 km NDVI of the year 2009 and 90 m DEM of the Heihe River Basin (HRB), with rule tables considered, to produce a land use/land cover map with schema and attributes consistent with USGS's. The produced map can be used in atmospheric models and land surface models. A comparison to the previous work and satellite images indicates that our rule-based approach is better in distinguishing land cover characteristics, especially for snow-cover, frozen soil and desert types.
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    Assessing Non-market Value of Cultivated Land in Ecologically Fragile Areas of Three Gorges Reservoir
    LI Guangdong, QIU Daochi, WANG Ping
    2011, 66 (4):  562-575.  doi: 10.11821/xb201104012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1018KB) ( )   Save
    Economic compensation is an effective way to break the external benefits spillover of cultivated land protection which is mainly composed of non-market value of cultivated land, so it is of great reference value for reasonably fixing the economic compensation criterion in cultivated land protection. In this paper, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is used to evaluate the non-market value of cultivated land in ecologically fragile areas of the Three Gorges Reservoir according to 712 valid questionnaires. Several conclusions can be drawn as follows. (1) The cognition of different residents about the significance of protection cultivated land and the non-market value of cultivated land is in varying degrees, which is decided by how the economic, cultural, social, governmental, psychological and other factors act on the residents dwelling in ecologically fragile poverty-stricken areas. (2) The farmers’willingness rate to pay for the non-market value of cultivated land reaches 76.77% , while that of urban residents accounted for only 64.87%. Such a phenomenon results from the cognition that respondents would rather combine their own interests with cultivated land value, than pay great attention to the protection of cultivated land. (3) Through Probit Regression and Logit Regression analysis, it is also shown that economic and social characteristic of respondents plays an important role in their decision of whether to pay for the cultivated land protection, and income level is the dominant factor in farmers' decision, but that of urban residents is rooted in their awareness of the importance of cultivated land protection and their donor history. (4) Willingness to pay (WTP) of farmers and urban residents are 157.92 yuan/(household·a) and 206.28 yuan/ household·a) respectively. Respondents' WTP for the non-market value of per hectare cultivated land reaches 607.65 yuan/(hm2·a) and the overall non-market value of cultivated land reaches up to 104.26×108 yuan in ecological fragility of the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
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