Table of Content

    25 January 2002, Volume 57 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Analysis of Wind Erosion Caused Landscape Change and Its Relation with Spatial Distribution of Wind Energy
    ZHANG Guo-ping, LIU Ji-yuan, ZHANG Zeng-xiang, ZHAO Xiao-li, ZHOU Quan-bin
    2002, 57 (1):  1-10.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2114KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the results of the remote sensing investigations of the land-use and land-cover of 1995 and 2000, the national distribution of sandy desertified land and its interaction with other landscapes are classified, and five zonal types are distinguished. In arid and semi-arid areas of China, the intensity of wind field is one of the key factors that control the development of landscape especially in desert and its adjacent area. To better understand the spatial distribution of wind erosion landscapes as well as their dynamic changes, essential work is needed to expose the spatialy distribution of wind field and its changes. In the paper, the data of nationally distributed 400 meteorological stations of 1999 are processed. With the GIS method, the data are spatially interpolated, and the national database of wind field concerned with wind erosion is established. Wind speed and its duration are one of the most important factors that control wind erosion of soil. When the friction speed is satisfied, wind erosion occurs. Different indexes are set up to describe the intensity of wind field, such as the number of days that their daily average wind speed exceeds the value of threshold speed and the number of records that their speed surpass the threshold speed. The method suggested by the wind erosion prediction models of RWEQ is also adopted to express the intensity of wind. The results are compared, and the distribution of wind field in China is discussed. The relation of the distribution of landscape and wind field is then discussed indicating the strong wind field in Northwest China as a most important factor that causes serious landscape change especially to the diminishing of the grassland and contrarily the expansion of the sandy desertified land.

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    Natural Eco-enironmental Evaluation of West Route Area of Interbasin Water Transfer Project
    YANG Sheng-tian, LIU Chang-ming, YANG Zhi-feng, SUN Rui,ZHOU Xiao-dong
    2002, 57 (1):  11-18.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201002
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    The impact of interbasin water transfer on environment is very significant. The affected area of the west route scheme of South to North Water Transfer Project in China (SNWT) is located in the southeasten part of the Tibetan Plateau, where the altitude is high with fragil eco-environment. Therefore, it is necesary for SNWT to analyze the natural eco-environment. In the article, we apply the remote sensing and GIS to analyze the natural environment of the study area which lies in the range of 31o27'~33o58'N and 96o57'~102o30'E, covering an area of 91 200 km2. The materials we used include 8 images of TM, 1:1 000 000 basic geographic data of China, the meteorologic data from 631 stations in China (1958~1998), statistic data and natural resources maps of Qinghai and Sichuan provinces. We obtained natural environmental factors such as land cover, vegetation cover, NPP(Net Primary Productivity), temperature, precipitation and topographic terrain by remote sensing and GIS method. We use the natural environment index which contains natural factor index and the total number of natural factor analyzed to express the natural conditions of the study area. The natural factor index of land cover, vegetation cover, NPP, temperature, precipitation and altitude are calculated and the natural environment index is divided into four grades or four level sub-areas. According to the calculation result, we analyze the features of each grade of the natural environment index or the natural eco-environment of the four sub-areas, so as to provide new trajectories and new methods that can be used for reference in environmental impact assessment of the affected area of the west route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China.

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    Oasis Land Cover Change in the Southern Edge of Tarim Basin
    DING Jian-li,Tashpolat·Tiyip, XIONG Hei-gang,Hamit·Yimit
    2002, 57 (1):  19-27.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201003
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    According to inquisitional result based on remote sensing technology, this paper narrates the regulations of Yutian oasis land cover dynamic change. Considering macroscopic research, 4 main land cover types are chosen, which are desert, oasis, ecotone and water body and they represent distinct characteristics of the local place. On the basis of field survey and statistical data, the paper uses PCI software to preprocess these data and the 2 satellite images (see Fig. 1). To improve overall post-classification precision, this study uses spatial structure information of satellite images to reclassify the result by using fuzzy optimum clustering firstly and gains a rather high classification precision which guarantees the need of analysis fully. Through analyzing these images resulting from post-classification comparation, the paper sums up the concrete quantificational dynamic distributed data of 4 main land types covering a span of 9 years and regulation of the local ecological environmental system. It finally points out that the trend of Yutian regional oasis desertification expansion are related to two important reasons, i.e., impact of natural environment and impact of human activities. In order to improve the local ecological environment, people in Yutian county should take measures suitable to local conditions to protect oases environment through shelterbelt construction, development of socio-economy and sustainable development.

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    Modelling the Vegetation of China under Changing Climate
    Zhao Mao-sheng, Ronald P. Neilson, Yan Xiao-dong, Dong Wen-jie
    2002, 57 (1):  28-38.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201004
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    The Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) model has been improved for simulating the potential vegetation distribution over China. Unlike North America, the environment in East China is largely controlled by the monsoon system, which affects the vegetation distribution differently than in North America. Furthermore, in MAPSS, the boreal forest is evergreen conifer, whereas in China it is largely deciduous conifer. To make the MAPSS results more suitable over China, we modified the lowest monthly temperature, which determines the northward boundary of temperate deciduous forest from -16o to -28oC. In addition, the minimum monthly rainfall during the growing season, which is used to judge broad-leaved-deciduous from evergreen need-leleaved forest, was changed from 40mm to 20mm. Other parameters related to rainfall patterns were also changed. The results were greatly improved, when compared to the map of Chinese vegetation zonation and more than 12 years of satellite data (NDVI). Using output from the General Circulation Model, HadCM2, for simulating possible future climate changes induced by enriched greenhouse gases (GHG) and sulfate aerosols (SUL), we simulated the possible future (2020s, 2050s) potential vegetation distribution modeled by MAPSS with and without consideration of CO2-induced water-use-efficiency (WUE) changes. The results show that in East China, forest boundaries could shift northward, especially the boreal deciduous conifer forest, which may disappear from China. In the North China, and Liaohe river drainage area, forests and savannas could be replaced by grasslands.

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    Relationship of East Asian Land Cover Dynamics and Interannual Changes of Monsoon Climate
    XIANG Bao , LIU Ji-yua
    2002, 57 (1):  39-46.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201005
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    The interannual changes of precipitation and land cover in East Asia during May-September have been studied using geographical information system technology based on the time series precipitation data and AVHRR 8 km NDVI data. Simultaneously, the variance regularities of precipitation and land cover in research period have been revealed separately. Furthermore, the paper studied the relationship of interannual changes between land cover and monsoon climate that is represented by changes of precipitation using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method. The results are as follows: 1. The precipitation dynamics: (1) The interannual changes of precipitation are apparently divided into three regions, i.e., east monsoon climate region, northwest inland arid region and northern part of East Asia. (2) The interannual changes of precipitation of monsoon region in summer have shown a zonal extension from northeast to southwest, and in that range the precipitation have obvious differences from south to north. (3) The interannual changes of precipitation of northern part of East Asia in summer season present a regularity of east to west zonal distribution, and that zone has character of annual swings of north to south. In the same year, although there exists an east to west change in the same zone, the change range of precipitation is basically unanimous within the whole strip. (4) In the northwest inland arid region except Tianshan and Altay mountains, the precipitation has obvious annual fluctuation in summer, but the range is insignificant in other regions. (5) The positive anomaly percentage of precipitation tends to expand westwards in the late 1980s, i.e., summer precipitation in western China increased gradually in the late 1980s compared with that of the earlier 1980s. 2. The land cover dynamics: (1) Land cover dynamics of summer (May-September) in East Asia are apparently differentiated into three regions such as the northwest inland region, eastern monsoon region and northern part of east Asia. (2) In the monsoon region, land cover dynamics have shown southeast to northwest and south to north differentiations. As regards the whole, the interannual changes of land cover of Northeast China Plain, North China Plain, Southwest China and Huaihe basin are relatively great. (3) In the marginal monsoon area, there exists an obvious dynamic zone expanding from northeast to southwest. This is consistent with eco-environmental fragile area of northern part of China.(4) In the northern part of East Asia, the interannual dynamics of land cover have zonal distribution features. In the same zone, there exist differences from east to west, but the interannual changes are very simple. (5) From the interannual changes of land cover, an increasing trend is seen, especially in the northern part of East Asia and midwest Qinghai-Tibet Plateau except northwest inland arid region. 3. The precipitation and land cover's relations: Based on the SVD models, we have found out that the relation of precipitation dynamics and land cover dynamics are apparently divided into three regions i.e., eastern part of monsoon region, northern part of East Asia and central part of arid region.

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    Comparison of Three Spatial Interpolation Methods for Climate Variables in China
    LIN Zhong-hui, MO Xing-guo, LI Hong-xuan, LI Hai-bin
    2002, 57 (1):  47-56.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201006
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    Spatial interpolation of climate data is frequently required to provide input for regional plant growth models. As no single method among so many available ones to spatial interpolation of climate variables is optimal for all regions and all variables, it is very important to compare the results obtained using alternative methods applied to each set of data. For estimating 30-year of 10-day mean air temperature and monthly photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) fluxes at specific sites in China, we examined ordinary Kriging (OK) and other two relatively simple methods, one is inverse distance squared (IDS) technique and the other is gradient plus inverse-distance-squared (GIDS) technique. Based on the mean absolute errors from cross-validation tests, the methods were ranked as GIDS>OK>IDS for interpolating 10-day mean temperature, and IDS>GIDS>OK for interpolating monthly mean PAR fluxes. GIDS gives the lowest errors which averaged 1.3 oC for 10-day mean temperature. IDS gives the lowest errors averaged 0.46 MJ/(m2·d) for monthly PAR fluxes. Although OK errors were more consistent for temperatures of different seasons, yet GIDS had lower errors during crop growth seasons. Compared with OK, GIDS was simple to apply for interpolating 10-day mean temperature. Since PAR was affected by so many factors, the performance of GIDS and OK were not as good as we expected. It also implied that the complex methods could not ensure the best results. The multiple linear regressions carried out for GIDS revealed strong gradients in temperature and PAR fluxes varied by month in a fairly consistent way. For all 10-days, r was above 0.94 for temperature, and temperatures decreased with increasing latitude, longitude and elevation. The elevation coefficient for temperature during the year ranged from -0.0033~-0.0048 oC/m. For PAR, r was lower than that for temperature. The coefficients of PAR for latitude, longitude and elevation ranged from positive values to negative values during the year. Using a 1 km Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for China, the first 10-day mean temperature and monthly mean PAR flux of July were estimated for each pixel to assess the performance of the three interpolation techniques. From temperature maps, we can see that GIDS gives more reasonable estimates in valleys and mountainous area than the other two techniques. The temperature map generated by GIDS shows the elevation effects of temperature in West China especially in valleys and Tibet Plateau. The strong temperature trends towards the northeast in East China and PAR trends towards the northwest were also shown in the maps.

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    Recent Magnification of Flood and Drought Calamities in Xinjiang, An Analysis of Anthropogenetic Effects
    JING Feng-qing, ZHU Cheng, MU Gui-jin, HU Ru-ji
    2002, 57 (1):  57-66.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201007
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    Since 1980's, there is a magnifying trend of the flood and drought calamities in Xinjiang, which is concordant with that that is occurring in China or in the world. Usually, the global warming is considered as the cause of this trend. However, local human activities are also main reasons of this trend, which should be detected carefully. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to examine the human causes of recent magnification of the flood and drought calamities in Xinjiang based on some statistic data. Generally, magnification of the natural calamity is accompanied by the place change of the human activities in arid land. In the ancient time, the first thing human had to do was probably to choose a safe place for their living. At that time, therefore human lived on some places where the influence of natural hazard was seldom exerted on the people. As the time passing, the human's ability to tame and to affect the nature is increasing with the advancement of the technology. The scope of human activity expands as the man move forward to the center of desert along the river. Thereby, the risk encountering the extreme geophysical event is increased. At present times, the rapidly growing human impacts on ecosystem of the planet are further accelerated. Since 1950, a series of environmental issues, including serious desertifacation, saltification, dust storm, etc., have occurred in Xinjiang owing to the rapidly increase of population and immoderate expansion of the irrigation farmlands. The degradation of environment has become the main restricts of economic development of Xinjiang, which therefor has decreased the ability of human to mitigate the impacts of disasters. This study reveals that the recent magnification of the flood and drought calamities in Xinjiang can be imputed to the rapidly growing of population, the immoderate expansion of the farmland, the inappropriate policies and so on. Although, global change has also exerted, to some extent, impacts on this magnifying. A preliminary prospect to the future of the trend of the flood and drought influence is also outlined in this paper.

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    Models for Landscape Connectivity and Their Applications
    YUE Tian-xiang, YE Qin-hua
    2002, 57 (1):  67-75.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201008
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    The models for landscape connectivity are distinguished into model for line connectivity, one for vertex connectivity, another for network connectivity and still another for patch connectivity. Because the models for line connectivity, for vertex connectivity, and for network connectivity have been long studied and have become ripened, the model for patch connectivity is paid special attention in this paper. The patch connectivity is defined as the average movement efficiency (minimizing movement distance) of animal migrants or plant propagules in patches of a region under consideration. According to this definition, a model for landscape connectivity is mathematically deduced, which applies to GIS data. The application of model for patch connectivity in the new-born wetland of the Yellow River Delta shows that patch connectivity has a negative interrelation with human impact intensity and landscape diversity.

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    The Morphological Response of Typical Mud Flat to Sea Level Change in Jiangsu Coastal Plain
    YANG Gui-shan, SHI Ya-feng, JI Zi-xiu
    2002, 57 (1):  76-84.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201009
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    The morphological and ecological response of tidal flat and coastal wetlands to sea level rise is one of the basic aspects of the impacts of global warming on coastal zones. Jiangsu coastal plain, located in the middle of China's coastal area, is the vastest area with most diversiform ecological types of mud flat in China, even all over the world. Therefore, research on the morphological response of mud flat to sea level change in this area undoubtedly is typical and of global significance. Based on the 112 times of field elevation measurements to 19 typical sections since 1980, using statistic methods, the morphological response of typical accretion and erosion section of mud flat to sea level rise was discussed in this paper. The estimated results show that, there are good correlations between accretion rate (both the horizontal and the vertical) of mud flat and sea level change in the study area, just the correlation is diverse in different sections or different parts of the same section due to the various distributions of current velocity and silt flux. The general tendency of the response of mud flat to sea level rise is that the accretion will tend to slow down and erosion will tend to be intensified. To typical accretion section, when sea level rises, the parts of mud flat above mean tidal line will still accrete, but the accretion rate will decrease except the part around mean high tidal line, the speediest rate of accretion occurs in the part between mean high tidal line and that one of the neaps. Whereas, the parts below mean tidal line will experience more intense erosion. The convex profile of mud flat will become more and more steeper and curving due to the upper side accreting and the down side eroding. To typical erosion section, the response of mud flat profile to sea level rise will present a opposite trend. The parts above mean tidal line will be eroded intensively, but the parts below mean tidal line will accrete. The concave profile will become more and more straight.

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    The Mechanism of the Model of Dual-nuclei Structure
    LU Yu-qi
    2002, 57 (1):  85-95.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201010
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    The model of dual-nuclei spatial structure is a kind of phenomena of spatial structure that is composed of a regional central city, a port city and their relations at a certain region.It is generally founded in the coastal belt, the region along the Yangtze River in China and other countries and regions in the world. From the view of the mechanism, the phenomena of dual-nuclei spatial structure comes from spatial compag of a regional central city and a port city. Because giving attention to centered nature of a regional central city and fringe nature of a port city, it can carry out complements in station and function. From the view of type of formation, the dual-nuclei spatial structure can be classified into two types, namely, endogenic pattern and ectogenetic pattern. China and America are their typical deputies. From the latter, it derives the special phenomena of dual-nuclei spatial structure that is made up of the new capital and the old.The formation of dual-nuclei spatial structure has something to do with the drainage basin. According to it, we can build up an ideal model about the formation of dual-nuclei spatial structure that is based upon the drainage area. The integrated action which includes the natural condition character of drainage area, the change of transport structure and the direction of mostly transport route can make the forming area of dual-nuclei spatial structure spread from the drainage area to other common area.

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    The Evolvement of Spatial Structure and the Significance of Guilin's Domestic Tourist Origins
    BAO Ji-gang, ZHENG Hai-yan, DAI Guang-quan
    2002, 57 (1):  96-106.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201011
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    This paper uses the first-hand data of 1987 and 1999 to analyze the spatial evolvement of Guilin's domestic tourist origins of the years concerned. It is revealed that the number of tourists increased steadily after 1980, while the 1980s were the golden era of Guilin's domestic tourism development. The spatial concentration index (SCI) of tourist origins indicates a drop of 12% from 1987's 43.50 to 1999's 38.27, which means that after 12 years, Guilin's tourist origins have expanded and have become more stable, while the spatial distribution has become less concentrated. Taking into account the increment percentage of tourists from each tourist origin, the paper develops a formula to calculate the attraction radius (AR) of tourist destination (TD) revised from the formula of standard distance given by Stephen Smith (1989). Using the railway distance between Guilin and the capital city of each province as the mean of the traveling distance from each region, the paper shows that Guilin's AR raised by 40.84% from 1987's 568.12 km to 1999's 800.14 km. From the view of macroeconomics, we consider the following as the possible reasons for the drop of Guilin's SCI and the rise of its AR: firstly, as a long-established tourist destination, Guilin's word-of-mouth reputation played a very important role in attracting tourists. Secondly, the rapid increase of living standard and the practice of long weekends/vacations has brought China to a golden era of domestic tourism where more people travel more frequently than before. Thirdly, the social and economic development in areas such as Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Shandong, has made it possible for Guilin to attract more tourists from them. As a result, the spatial distribution of Guilin's domestic tourists origins has developed a pattern that is different from the law of distance decay. Fourthly, the degree of increment in a tourist origin is mainly due to two factors--spatial distance and the level of economic development. A place near a tourist destination may have a low increment of market share because of its low level of economic development. A place far from a tourist destination may have a high increment of market share because of its high level of economic development. The intervening opportunity is probably the fundamental factor to analyze this phenomenon. According to the conclusion, the paper proposes some guidelines for Guilin's tourism marketing. Finally, the paper discusses briefly the difference of evolvement in the domestic tourist markets between Guilin and Huangshan.

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    Measuring the Total Economic Value of Restoring Ejina Banner's Ecosystem Services
    XU Zhong-min, ZHANG Zhi-qiang, CHENG Guo-dong, SU Zhi-yong, LU An-xin, LIN Qing, ZHANG Hai-tao
    2002, 57 (1):  107-116.  doi: 10.11821/xb200201012
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    The contingent valuation method (CVM) is a direct interview approach that can be used to provide acceptable measures of the economic value of preservation of natural resources. While the estimates from CVM may not be perfect, neither are estimates from any other economic or physical science model. The need for an assessment of the nonmarket benefits of restoring Ejina Banner's ecosystem is clear. In this paper, we take it as a case to analyze the WTP of restoring ecosystem service. Obtaining accurate benefit estimates using CVM requires detailed descriptions of the resource being valued. In our survey, we use a 12-page paper with maps depicting the reason why Ejina Banner ecosystem deteriorated, the means by which ecosystem services could be restoring from their current level. The actual valuation portion of the survey has three elements: (1) portrayal of the resources to be valued, (2) description of the particular mechanism to be used to pay for the resource; and (3) the question format used to elicit the respondent's money amount of willingness to pay. Due to concern over the influence of institutional and culture setting, the method of payment we adopted is payment cards in the survey. We employed a parametric model to estimate the welfare of restoring Ejina ecosystem. Their functional relationships between WTP values and the characteristics of responses are built respectively. Results from 700 in-person interviews indicate that per household would pay an average of RMB 37.96 yuan per year, US$ 40.15 for the main river household, 32.10 yuan for the rest of the Heihe basin. The aggregate benefit to residents of the Heihe basin is 15.98 million yuan annually for 20 years. Taking into account the ecosystem discount rate, the aggregated benefit of restoring Ejina Banner ecosystem is 1637 million yuan. These estimates suggest that the general public in Heihe valley would be willing to pay for restoring the Ejina banner ecosystem. Finally, we put forward some suggestions on how to apply the contingent valuation method in developing countries, and believe future efforts may apply CVM efficiently accompanying with benefit-cost analysis.

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