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Table of Content

    25 August 2007, Volume 62 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Development Spatial Regionalization of Yancheng City and Relevant Consider ation
    GU Chaolin, ZHANG Xiaoming, LIU Jinyuan, ZHANG Congguo
    2007, 62 (8):  787-798.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708001
    Abstract ( 545 )   PDF (3448KB) ( 580 )   Save

    In the summary of the 11th Five-Year Plan, land can be spatially divided into four kinds of main function regions, including optimal development region, important development region, restrictive development region, and prohibited development region, which is another innovation in traditional regionalization theory and will better serve national economy and social development. This paper takes the view that main function regionalization commits to solve regional problems, coordinating regional development with scientific viewpoint of development. Hence, theories and approaches of main function regionalization need to be updated from time to time. The paper explores the theories and approaches of main function regionalization through the example of the Coastal Development Spatial Regionalization of Yancheng city. First, comprehensive economic regionalization. Economic regions are divided by using traditional comprehensive economic regionalization theories and approaches to decide approximately the directions of development and distribution of different economic regions. Second, regulatory development regionalization. We consider the function, requirements of landscape and ecological system, contemporary conditions of land use, distribution of radical allusion, pollution in the nearshore area, distribution of seaports, conservative water supply resources, nature reserves and ecological reserves of the comprehensive economic regions above, and decide related prohibited development region and restrictive development region. Third, development potential regionalization. Taking administrative villages and towns as basic units, based on multi-factor analysis, we use the three main factors to make development potential divisions including carrying ability of resources and environment, existing development density and intensity, and future development potentials. Finally, the main function regions are planned on the basis of these three kinds of regionalization. The paper also proposes that a main function region is actually a kind of division of regional development policies, whose regionalization is a mere regional division and a spatial platform for the three kinds of planning —economic and social development planning, land use planning and urban comprehensive planning—to integrate together.

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    The Development of For eign Tr ade in China's Seven Economic Regions and Its Regional Pattern Changes, 1965- 2004
    LU Qi, ZHANG Chaoyang, YANG Chunyue, ZENG Lei
    2007, 62 (8):  799-808.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708002
    Abstract ( 497 )   PDF (2705KB) ( 642 )   Save

    Based on the calculation and analysis of the statistical data on foreign trade and GDP in China and the primary study on the foreign trade development concerning China and the three major regions, the authors discussed the following issues concerning the foreign trade development in seven economic regions of China and its regional pattern changes in different periods from 1965 to 2004 in this paper, as the growth of foreign trade value, the changes of degree of foreign economic dependence, the changes of regional distribution and the causes to the changes. The major conclusions by the authors are: (1) the change of national development strategies turned the enclosed China into an open country; (2) the amounts of foreign trade have been increased both nationally and regionally, however, there is no fundamental change to the relative positions of the seven regions in the national foreign trade; (3) the gap of foreign trade has not been narrowed, but enlarged among these seven regions, particularly between Southeast China and other regions; and (4) with the development of market-oriented economy, the disparity between Southeast China and other regions has been accelerated.

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    Evolution and Developing Mechanism of Por t Distr ibution System in China
    WANG Chengjin
    2007, 62 (8):  809-820.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708003
    Abstract ( 841 )   PDF (3278KB) ( 798 )   Save

    Port system is an important research field of transportation geography, and its distribution system is very important. But the research of evolution course over a long period has been scarce at home and abroad and needs to be strengthened, so study on this topic can contribute to the identification of the developing stage of port system and provide scientific basis for its future optimization. In this paper, based on expounding on research history of port systems in foreign countries and China, the author discussed the developing course of port system in China since the Qin and Han dynasties, and analyzed their spatial feature in detail, including port system and main ports, from the river ports to the seaports system. According to the present study, the author identified six developing stages with different spatial distribution characteristics: (1) from the Qin and Han dynasties to the Northern and Southern Dynasties; (2) from the Sui and Tang dynasties to the Song Dynasty; (3) from the Yuan Dynasty to the middle period of the Ming Dynasty; (4) from the middle period of the Ming Dynasty to the Sino-British Opium War; (5) from the Sino-British Opium War to the year 1949; and (6) since the year 1949. The research about developing mechanism of port system from historical point of view is always the important and key contents of port study. So, the author analyzed the developing and evolution mechanism of port distribution system in China from five aspects: (1) economic development and allocation of industry are the fundamental reason for the development and evolution of Chinese ports; (2) spatial interaction between political central district and economic central district leads to the development of grain transportation by river and canal systems, which promotes the ancient ports especially the canal ports to develop and flourish; (3) international trade is always the main impelling factors of seaports development and evolution in China since the Qin and Han dynasties; (4) since the Sino-British Opium War, foreign aggression from the Western countries and the control of port governance power lead to the abnormal development of Chinese port system; and (5) development and competition from other modern transport mode such as railway and express way speed up the bloom of seaports, but the decadence of inland river ports, especially the canal ports. In the final, the author summarized the primary developing rules of ports distribution system in China, dealing with its spatial evolution route including seaports and river ports, the main ports, driving mechanism from the interior and exterior of China, opening characteristics, location of ports and developing stages.

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    Industry Relevancy Analysis of Producer Services in China
    SHEN Yuming, QIU Ling, WANG Maojun, REN Wangbing, SHANG Yuli
    2007, 62 (8):  821-830.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708004
    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (2654KB) ( 540 )   Save

    In a flexible and information-oriented economy, producer services, used as intermediate inputs for the production of other goods or services, plays a key role in expanding division of labor, increasing productivity and inducing regional economic development. Based on the input-output tables of China in 1997 and 2002, the study applied the input-output method to industry relevancy analysis of producer services in China. The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, the growth of producer services speeded up evidently from 1997 to 2002. The output of producer services was consumed by manufacturing industries leadingly, matching to the current situation that manufacturing industries took a dominant position in national economy. Because of feeble impulse to the development of tertiary industry by producer services, final use, but not intermediate use, drove basically the growth of tertiary industry nowadays. Secondly, the part consumed by manufacturing industries focused on conventional services, wholesale and retail trade services, transport and storage, rather than knowledge-intensive and technology-intensive services, reflecting the inferior consumption structure of manufacturing sector. Nevertheless, with the drop of intermediate use by manufacturing sector, the part consumed of intermediate use by services sector ascended from 1997 to 2002, which reflected the upgrade of producer services. Thirdly, according to the intermediate demand rate and intermediate input rate, most industries in producer services promoted the development of national economy markedly, in despite of low value added. Finally, owing to the remarkable forward effect and backward effect, special attention should be paid to boosting the growth of business services.

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    Industr ial Specialization of New Economic Industry in China
    WANG Zheng, LI Gangqiang, XIE Shuling, YANG Nian, YAN Dan
    2007, 62 (8):  831-839.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708005
    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (2338KB) ( 535 )   Save

    The phenomenon of New Economic Industry brings industrial specialization in China. In this paper, we study models of regional specialization that are composed of location quotient model, probability distribution and ergodic probabilities model, transition matrix and Shorrocks model. We calculate the location quotients that evaluate the level of the specialization of information industry and high science and technology industry. Then we adopt discrete-time Markov chain to simulate the probability distribution of location quotient and get the transition matrix. We calculate the ergodic probabilities and Shorrocks indexes that are used to estimate whether the specialization of regional industry has converged to the steady states. Based on the analyses of all indexes of Chinese information industry and high science and technology industry from 1998 to 2005, we find that Chinese New Economic Industry has taken on a developing progress of regional agglomeration and specialization since 1998. This will still last a period in the future, and the level of specialization will be further strengthened. The regional development of Chinese New Economic Industry is unstable, and the grades of regional development are large. Only a few provinces have a high level of development that is far above the average level of the whole country. Most regions of China still remain at a low level. From 1998 to 2005, almost every province has a general development in specialization. Regional difference of New Economic Industry becomes smaller. Regional agglomeration has developed in the past eight years, and it is an obvious characteristic of New Economic Industry. Compared with the correlative data of lumbering in USA, we draw a conclusion that Chinese New Economic Industry develops quickly, however, the states that have the great mobility are extremely unstable as a result of existence of high values of Shorrocks indexes. High science and technology industry is comparatively more stable than information industry. Information industry has a greater speed. States of regions have changed greatly, and regional specialization division has not been finished yet.

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    Linking the Doubly Constr ained Gr avity Model and the Tr anspor tation Model for Tr ip Distr ibutions: A New Approach
    LIANG Jinshe, HE Canfei, ZHANG Hua
    2007, 62 (8):  840-848.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708006
    Abstract ( 672 )   PDF (2202KB) ( 630 )   Save

    The premise condition of doubly constrained gravity model is the same as that of transportation model in linear programming, but the results derived from the models are diverse because of the different behavior assumptions of travelers. It has been proved by Evans that the parameter β in doubly constrained gravity model represents the relative importance of total transportation costs and the possibility of the trip distribution. Based on dual programming of transportation problem and uncertain utility method put forward by Beckmannn & Wallance and Golob & Beckmannn, this study establishes the relationship between doubly constrained gravity model and transportation model. This paper discovers that the parameter " in doubly constrained gravity model goes to positive-infinity and the total transportation costs of trip distribution derived from doubly constrained gravity model meet minimum level as the standard deviation of probability density distribution function for traveler's utility goes to zero. This paper points further out that the balance factors in doubly constrained gravity model reflect market adjustment of the price for travel ends services and the consumer surplus of travelers. Using this method, trip distribution on airlines between seven cities in China in 2003 is simulated. The result also indicates that the difference of travel ends and consumer preferences, substitution of transportation tools, and variety of travel purposes may lead to simulation error and the error can be reduced by transportation cost parameter adjustment.

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    The Spatial Pr ivation and the Cor r esponding Controlling Paths in China' s Urbanization Process
    FANG Chuanglin, LIU Haiyan
    2007, 62 (8):  849-860.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708007
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (3993KB) ( 657 )   Save

    China has stridden forward rapid urbanization with the industrialization and urbanization, and the regional privation has derived from urbanization. This regional privation, which is based on a type of the location each other in the geographical space, policy absence, and some compelling executive means, is that the advantaged group and region act on the disadvantaged group and region from regional resource, financing, technology, talents, projects, policy preference, ecology, environment capacity, pollution with imputed, and it is a series of unjust and unreasonable economic and social actions. Concretely, this privation actions embodied in big city vs. small city, city cluster vs. metropolis, urban vs. suburban, suburban vs. rural, development zone vs. farmer and farmland, universities town construction vs. farmland, real estate exploitation and village rebuilding in city vs. farmer and urbanites, developed region vs. developing region, the region with rich resources vs. the region of lack resource, employer vs. off-farm worker and their spirit deprivation because of regional discrimination. Sarcastically, the privation possesses the characteristics of compellability, monopoly and hierarchy, and seeming-rationality. It focuses on land, water, resource, eco-environment, capital, talents, labor, financing, technology, important constructing projects, etc. Inanition and out-control of policy form inertia of privation, profit drive results in motivation of privation, overdraft of the disadvantaged group leads to seedbed of privation, and these are the main reasons for the formation of privation. The results of privation are spatial maladjustment, resources unbalanced conglomeration, out-control of policy, invalidation about rule, unbalance in regional and social development, breaking faith with people, and these will result in a bigger and bigger gap between the rich and the poor. Finally, based on ideology, policy, system, spatial diffusion and harmonious development, the author brings out some corresponding controlling paths that hammer at eliminating regional privation in China's urbanization process, including respecting the developing rights of the disadvantaged group and let them see the brightness; establishing the preferential policy universally aiming at the backward region and the disadvantaged group; forming a kind of back-feed mechanism, namely, "supporting the advantaged and caring for the disadvantaged, establishing fairness and harmony". Synchronously, the author thinks that it should also estimate the bad and good polarization impartiality, and push a kind of balanced developing pattern, so that China can construct a harmonious society and stride to the road of fine urbanization. The last but not the least, the article brings out the existing regional privation action and reason firstly about China's urbanization road and this will provide a scientific basis for decision-making on China's urbanization road.

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    Spatial Patterns of Built- up Ar eas around Beijing
    TAN Minghong, ZHU Huiyi, Liu Linshan, GUO Guangmeng
    2007, 62 (8):  861-869.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708008
    Abstract ( 644 )   PDF (2843KB) ( 480 )   Save

    The urban effect on land use pattern is always one of the key fields of geographical science. The ratio of built-up areas is very high around a large city, so it is important to analyze and explain the patterns of built-up areas around the city, which may be helpful for understanding the effect. Through building five buffers from inner to outer parts around Beijing, this paper discusses the pattern of built-up areas of Beijing, and explains the pattern from the natural, historical, and economic aspects. The main conclusions include: 1) there are four belts with higher density of built-up area, which is in accord with "horse road" of the Qin Dynasty in BC 200; 2) the continuity of spatial distribution of built-up areas is not interrupted by the division of administration; 3) buffer between 30 and 40 km may be the borderline of urban effect on the plane surface, although the effect can touch some farther regions through transportation lines; and 4) there are two peaks of urban land shares in the buffers between 10 and 20 km, and between 30 and 40 km.

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    Char acter istics of Urban For est Landscape Pattern and Optimization of Urban For est Spatial Structur e: A Case Study of Nanjing City
    ZHAO Qing, ZHENG Guoqiang, HUANG Qiaohua
    2007, 62 (8):  870-878.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708009
    Abstract ( 764 )   PDF (2544KB) ( 713 )   Save

    Urban forest research is a rising research area. One of the trends of urban forest research is researching urban forest by using landscape ecological methods. Landscape pattern analysis is the basis of urban forest landscape ecological researches. By utilizing RS and GIS technologies and theories and methods of landscape ecology and vegetation ecology, we analyzed the characteristics of the urban forest landscape pattern of Nanjing city, and discussed the ways and methods for urban forest landscape ecological researches. The main content and results of this paper are as follows: (1) Based on the landscape ecological classification principles, two urban forest landscape types and four subtypes were identified; (2) urban forest classification survey was carried out, and urban forest landscape distribution maps and spatial attribution data were obtained by using RS and GIS technologies; and (3) choosing a set of indices of landscape spatial pattern, the characteristics of the urban forest landscape pattern of the study area were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. On the basis of these characteristics, we put forward some measures and suggestions for the urban forest landscape planning and construction. We think that the Nanjing urban forest has the following characteristics: proper coverage, higher naturality, higher fragmentation, and intensive disturbance by human activities. We also think that the large landscape patches of high naturality should be strictly protected and the design of landscape corridors of different scales is a key measure for the urban forest to effectively perform its landscape ecological functions.

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    Impacts of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Services Value in the Nor theast China Tr ansect (NECT)
    YUE Shuping, ZHANG Shuwen, YAN Yechao
    2007, 62 (8):  879-886.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708010
    Abstract ( 684 )   PDF (2310KB) ( 686 )   Save

    Ecosystem services are basis of human living and development. Land use and its changes have deep effect on the ecosystem structure and functions, even its services. According to the different land use patterns in the Northeast China Transect (NECT), this paper selects Fusong county, Panshi city, Gongzhuling city, Tongliao city and Linxi county as typical regions and analyzes the effects of land use change on ecosystem services during the past 30 years by using the GIS and RS. This paper selects the evaluation method based on money. According to partial global ecosystem services value evaluation results obtained by Costanza et al. and the state of the study area, this paper uses per unit area ecosystem services value of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems to analyze the change of ecosystem services value in the study area. The result shows that the land use pattern has changed greatly in NECT from 1976 to 2000. The area of cultivated land and the town and construction land increased rapidly in Fusong county and Panshi city, while the woodland and grassland decreased greatly. The woodland and grassland tend to change into the cultivated land in Gongzhuling city. The area of woodland in Tongliao city increased and the grassland decreased, while it is on the contrary in Linxi county. This change is related to the policy implementation of converting slope farmland into forestland and grassland. Viewed from the land use degree, we can see that all typical counties have increased from 1976 to 2000, especially in Panshi city and Tongliao city. The analysis on ecosystem services indicates that per unit area ESV in different types of regions differs greatly. The fundamental distribution rule is, from big to small, the forest region, the farming-forest region, the pastoral region, the farming-pastoral region and the farming region respectively. This has close relationship with the ecological value coefficient of different land use types and the land use degrees. From the dynamic change, the ESV of the cultivated land, the woodland and the grassland all change greatly in all kinds of typical regions in NECT. The total value has tended to decrease in all regions except Tongliao city. The analysis on the sensitive coefficient shows that the ESV is short of flexibility in the study area and the result is credible.

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    Scenar io Analysis on the Replacements of Industr ial Land: The Case Study of Tengfei Economic Development Zone in Changting, Fujian Province
    ZONG Yueguang, XU Jiangang, YIN Haiwei
    2007, 62 (8):  887-896.  doi: 10.11821/xb200708011
    Abstract ( 453 )   PDF (2811KB) ( 475 )   Save

    Scenario analyses are usually used for macro-analysis. They are especially effective in dealing with uncertainties. To explore this methodology and make it more suitable for analysis, we use multiple value approach including social, economic, environmental benefits/costs in a decision space and synthesize the land value functions for an actual micro-analysis in the case study. Scenario processes and their characters of industrial land use are compared with that of residential land use by using three scenario patterns namely the best, the worst and the most likely. In the most likely scenario, Tengfei Economic Development Zone, located in Changting County, Fujian Province, would achieve its balance of income and outcome until the end of 16 years. This situation of land use and investment would exceed the budgetary revenue capacity of the local government leading to a serious overdraft scenario. From the curve of the ratio of income and outcome of industrial land use and residential land use, the ratio of residential land use will be 8-10 times over that of industrial land use in the first five years. This ratio will reduce gradually until two folds in the end of 20 years. Accordingly, some parts of industrial land use, such as unused land within two years and used land by those factories which are still in the poor condition within three years in Tengfei Development Zone, should be replaced by residential land use step by step. Therefore, the scale of industrial zone will be reduced from 2.5 km2 to 1-1.5 km2 in order to achieve a high efficiency of land use and a sustainable development further.

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