Table of Content

    25 August 2008, Volume 63 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Discrimination Method and Its Application Analysis of Regional Transport Superiority
    JIN Fengjun, WANG C hengjin, LI Xiuwei
    2008, 63 (8):  787-798.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2794KB) ( )   Save

    Transport infrastructure has the inherent functions to shape the regional spatial structure and determine the accessibility of all the regions,which consequently formed into the spatial configuration with different transport superiorities. Based on the review of domestic and overseas research progress, this paper presented the concept of transportation superiority from three aspects- "quality", "quantity" and "field" to reflect the scale, technical level and relative advantage of transport infrastructure. Then the paper set up the expression structure for transport superiority degree, including transport network density, influence degree of transport trunk line and transport superiority degree of location. Moreover, this paper constituted the spatial m athem atical model to evaluate transport superiority degree at the county level by utilizing GIS technology. Based on the theoretical analysis and the spatial mathem atical evaluation model, this paper studied 2,365 counties in China to analyze the spatial patterns of transport superiority degree. This study reveals that, firstly, the distribution characteristic of transport superiority degree obeys the "partial normal distribution".Few regions,which m erely account for 1.4% of the total number of counties, have prominent transport superiority degree and the traffic environment in these regions is superior for social and economic development. By contrast, one eighth of all the regions have inferior transport superiority degree and the traffic environment there is poor and im pedes local social and econom ic developm ent.The rem aining regions, which are about 70% of the country's total area, have the middle level or barely better than the middle level in transport superiority degree. Secondly, the spatial characteristic show s that the transport superiority degree decreases gradually from coast areas to inland areas. The regions of the highest transport superiority degree centralize in the Y angtze River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Area, and Pearl River Delta. The regions of the second highest transport superiority degree concentrate in Chengdu, Chongqing, and Wuhan metropolises. How ever, the spatial distribution of the second highest regions is discontinuous and the coverage of these regions is relatively sm aller than the regions w ith the highest transport superiority degree. The provincial capitals and some high-density cities/counties/towns enjoy the third highest transport superiority and follow the same spatial patterns as the regions of the second highest transport superiority. Through the above analysis, we could recognize the spatial m echanism of transport infrastructure and better understand how to leverage the advantages or circuit/change the disadvantages of transport infrastructure in regional development. Also this research may provide scientific guidance to all kinds of planning activities.

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    Factor Decomposition of Rural Regional Income Inequality Changes in China
    LIU Hui
    2008, 63 (8):  799-806.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808002
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    This paper focuses on the changes of rural regional income inequality and attem pts to decompose them into different com ponent factors based on Giniindex. A new method is proposed to decompose the influence of each factor on inequality changes into its structure effects and its real inequality effects. In order to explore the factors behind the changes in rural incom e inequality in China, the overall rural income inequality is decom posed into contributions by different incom e sources: w ages, household operations, properties, and transfers. This analysis is only for the period of 1993-2005 due to a serious data difference before 1993. A pplication of the m ethod to C hina's rural regional inequality in the period 1993-2005 reveals that household operations still represents the dom inant source of rural incom e although its influence on rural inequality is decreasing. In recent years, w ith the decline of household operation concentration index and its percentage share, it had positive effects in reducing the total regional inequality. A lthough w age incom e only accounts for som e 26% -40% of the total disposable incom e, its contribution to the overall incom e inequality ranges from 43% to 50% . This im plies that the w age incom e played the m ost im portant role in China's rural regional incom e inequality. How ever, for the changes of rural inequality, the contribution percentage of the wage component did not display any upward trend although its absolute share in the total income increased straightly. There is no strong evidence to show that wage incom e enlarge rural regional incom e inequality. O n contrast, regional concentration in w age incom e did help reduce total regional incom e inequality since the m id-1990s. The contribution of w ages incom e in raising regional inequality m ainly com es from incom e share increase. These increases are a direct consequence of developm ent process of urbanization and industrialization. In the future, as long as the concentration decline effects continue to exceed the share increase effect, w age m ust contain positive effects in reducing overall incom e inequality. Thus, to prom ote industrialization and urbanization in less developed areas and encourage farm ers to gain m ore w ages from local enterprises and outgoing em ploym ent w ould be one of the im portant approaches in reducing rural regional inequality. In recent five years, the role played by properties and transfers in rural incom e inequality increased fast and steadily. H ow ever, these tw o com ponents have different influence m anner. The increasing contribution from properties is m ainly due to the increase of its share. A s to the transfer incom e influence, the increase of its share enlarged rural incom e inequality, but the evident decline of its concentration reduced regional inequality. Therefore, m ore financial transfer and social services from the central governm ent to less developed areas w ould be m ore and m ore effective in tackling rural regional inequality in C hina.

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    Economic Transition and Convergence of Regional Industrial Structure in China
    HE Canfei, LIU Zuoli, WANG Liang
    2008, 63 (8):  807-819.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808003
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    China has undergone substantial industrial restructuring since the economic transition. The triple process of marketization, globalization and decentralization has a significant influence on the changes of industrial structure in Chinese provinces. Marketization and globalization may motivate provinces to develop industries based on their comparative advantages while decentralization may work in the opposite way. There are forces that stim ulate the structural convergence among Chinese provinces and also forces that lead to industrial structural divergence. Using data from the first econom iccensus conducted in 2004, this paper finds out that Chinese provinces are quite similar in their industrial structures. Industries contributing to the convergence of industrial com positions am ong Chinese provinces differ in different time periods. Provinces with similar industrial structure share a num ber of common characteristics. Statistical results indicate that m arketization has enhanced the role of com parative advantage endow ed in natural resources, stim ulating the divergence of industrial structures of Chinese provinces with different resource endowments while encouraging provinces with comparable endowments to develop similar industries. How ever, decentralization generates economic fragmentation of domestic markets, fueling inter-provincial protectionism and rational im itation, and leading to the convergence of industrial structures am ong Chinese provinces.Globalization has two effects.On the one hand, the globalized provinces have been converging in their industrial structures. On the other hand, the globalized provinces have rather different industrial structures from the underperform ed provinces in exports and utilization of FDI. The em pirical results im ply that econom ic transition and its consequences are critical in understanding the industrial restructuring in China.

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    The Classification and Analysis of Areal Topology in Extended Metropolitan Area of Pearl River Delta
    WANG Kaiyong, CHEN Tian
    2008, 63 (8):  820-828.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808004
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    With rapid economic globalization and urbanization,the competition between single cities has been converted into that of city-regions. The concept of Extended Metropolitan Region (EM R ) appeared w ith the dem and of national strategic developm ent, and it has been w idely accepted in regional planning and function-oriented zoning. Therefore, it is an important issue to study the classification and evolvem ent of areal topology of EMR for strengthening regional m anagem ent and spatial planning. So far, few studies on feasible and scientific classification and identification m ethod of areal topology have been developed. In order to identify the prom inent problem s and potential threat in the spatial use in the future, planners and policy-m akers need im proved m ethods for analyzing the areal topology of EMR . B ased on the review of literature, this study presents classification m ethod of areal topology w ith R S and GIS m ethods. Taking Pearl R iver Delta as an exam ple, it discussed the detailed m ethod and procedures of data-processing. D ue to shortage and w asteful use of land the governm ents in Pearl R iver Delta are eager for alternative m easures to control disordered use and spatial spraw l of urban land. It w as found from this study that Pearl River Delta are undergoing large scale urbanization characterized by continuous spraw ls betw een m etropolises, scattered industrial spaces and living spaces along the m ain transportation line or around the central city, m erging of sim ilar kind of areal topologies. W ith the m ethod, some rules of the areal topology and their spatial organizations of the Pearl River Delta EMR were identified. Furthermore, we proposed some counterm easures of spatial m anagement and adjustment. This study show ed the usefulness of com bining remotely sensed satellite im ages with GIS analysis in m onitoring and analyzing areal topology and landscape patterns. It also show ed that rem ote sensing can be effectively used to study spatially explicit urban land-use policies.Furtherm ore, the application of satellite im ages and Google Earth enhanced the regional scale analysis that w as not available by previous research on urban policies.

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    Restructuring of Socio- spatial Differentiation in Beijing in the Transition Period
    FENG Jian, ZHOU Yixing
    2008, 63 (8):  829-844.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808005
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    B ased on the data at the level of sub-district of the third population census in 1982 and the fifth one in 2000, the authors try to analyze the characteristics of socio-spatial differentiation in B eijing M etropolitan A rea and calculate several indices, including the inform ation entropy, the absolute differentiation index and the relative one, and the index of residential segregation, to indicate the features of the restructuring of socio-spatial differentiation in B eijing M etropolitan A rea.The authors prove that the scale of sub-districts is still an im portant spatial unit for studying urban socio-spatial structure in China w ith enough maneuverability. The analysis of the 2000 census data show s both the pattern of socio-spatial differentiation of each kind of residential population, including density of residential population,m igrant population,fam ily size,old people,population of each kind of educational level,and the minorities,and that of the em ploym ent and housing status under the background of suburbanization and the transition of urban econom y in Beijing M etropolitan Area. The authors find out that the degree of socio-spatial differentiation of Beijing Metropolitan Area in most social indices decreased in the period 1982-2000, except for several indices including the old, sex ratio, family size and the farm ers on the basis of the absolute differentiation m odel. In the sam e period, on the basis of the relative differentiation m odel, they find out that the spatial distribution of m igrant population,the m inorities,population w ith higher education level, and the em ploym ent population of the secondary and the tertiary industries tend to accord w ith the spatial pattern of total urban population, w hile the old, the illiterate and the farm ers do not. From 1982 to 2000, the residential m ixture of m ost dem ographic indices tend to be increasing, w hile that of the old, the m igrants and the farm ers does not.G enerally speaking,the change of the inform ation entropy indicates that urban social spatial structure tend to be m ore com plex w ith m ore and m ore heterogeneity, w hich accords w ith the findings of sim ilar research on the basis of the analysis of B eijing's social areas.M ost im portant of all,by contrast,the analysis by differentiation m odels show us m ore details about urban socio-spatial differentiation and its restructuring, w hich can also be indicated from the restructuring of the relationship betw een the socio-spatial differentiation and the distance from the city center. Finally, the authors put forw ard a theoretical fram ew ork based on the evolution of system , m arket and culture in order to explain the restructuring of socio-spatial differentiation of Beijing Metropolitan Area in the transition period.

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    Spatial Concentration Characteristics of Urban Land Use along Highways in Rapidly Urbanized Region of Shenzhen
    LV Xiaofang,WANG Yanglin, PENG Jian, WU Jiansheng
    2008, 63 (8):  845-855.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808006
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    Land use and land cover change research needs to paid m ore attention to identify spatial characteristics. Spatial concentration characteristics of urban land use along highw ays, as an im portant econom ic corridor in rapidly urbanized region, are helpful to identify spatial pattern of econom ic activities and expanding rules of urban land use in the future. This paper analyzed the spatial concentration characteristics of urban land use pattern along highw ays in Shenzhen in 2005 by m eans of landscape pattern m etrics and association rule of spatial data m ining. The paper m easured spatial statistical characters and neighborhood characteristics of urban land use pattern along m ain highw ays in three dim ensions respectively, including single land use type, co-location land use types, and com bined land use types. The results are as follow s: Industrial area w as the prim ary land use type along highw ays in Shenzhen. Export-oriented tow nship enterprises accelerated the urbanization process of rural areas outside the special zone. The area of urban public facilities for education and m edical treatm ent w as com paratively sm all,w hich disturbed the harm ony of urban econom ic functions generally.The landscape m etrics of single land use type in all buffer belts presented particular distance-based character, and they also show ed a gradually reducing trend. There w ere som e sem i-concentration centers,especially in the region 500-1000 m eters aw ay from highw ays,and this could be taken as an im portant spatial threshold for further research. Co-location distribution pattern show ed that tw o different urban land use types are m uch closer in adjacent buffer belts near highw ays. Industrial areas are extrem ely concentrated in adjacent and m uch m ore long-distance buffer belts aw ay from highw ays, and follow ed by the concentration of residential districts in the neighborhood. That phenom enon w as extrem ely obvious outside the special zone in Shenzhen. C oncerning spatial characteristics of com bined land use types, this study indicated strong spatial autocorrelation of each urban land use type in the study area. The com binations of industrial area w ith other land use types w ere com paratively com m on, w hich reflected the spatial pattern of econom ic activities of m ain industrial areas in Shenzhen, especially outside the special zone,and presented the effects of local industrial cluster.

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    Arable Land Evaluation Based on the Household Land Use Behavior in Daxing District of Beijing
    KONG Xiangbin, LIU Lingw ei, QIN Jing
    2008, 63 (8):  856-868.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808007
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    Due to the large food need, arable land quality is very im portant in China, so how to evaluate its quality has been studied by many researchers. How ever, different regions of China are at different stages of development with different land use objectives. The first is yield maximization stage, and the household land use objective is to m eet fam ily food consum ption needs. The second is yield and profit optim ization stage, and the household land use objective is to m ake m ore profits on the basis of m eeting basic fam ily needs. The third is profit m axim ization stage, and profit is the only land use objective for the household. B ased on the theory of different developm ent stages and land use objectives, a "Pressure-Status-Effect-R esponse" m odel w as developed in this paper to evaluate arable land quality at household level. The arable land quality index system evaluation w as constructed according to the fram e of "PSER " and Daxing District of Beijing was taken as a case study area. The household questionnaire survey and soil survey w ere done to get the data about change of household land use and soil fertility. The indicator of Pressure, Status, Effect and R esponse w as studied based on the arable land index system . The result show ed that the arable land Pressure indicator increased from 63.19 in 1982 to 73.57 in 2000,and decreased from 73.57 in 2000 to 67.85 in 2006, the variance of arable land Pressure indicator increased from 13.92 in 1982 to 41.12 in 2000, and up to 58.59 in 2006; the Status indicator of arable land increased from 56.82 in 1982 to 76.46 in 2000 and up to 81.20 in 20006, the variance of arable land status indicator increased from 58.39 in 1982 to 111.42 in 2000 and up to 209.45 in 2006; the indicator of arable land effects increased from 42.39 in 1982 to 64.34 in 2000, but it w as stable in 2006.The arable land indicator change from 1982 to 2000 and 2006 show ed that the arable land quality w as affected by the governm ent policy, the governm ent introduced "the household responsibility system " policy to increase the household input level, due to the poor arable land quality before 1982; w ith the introduction of the household responsibility system , the arable land quality increased from 1982 to 2000, but the arable land quality variance increased because of the household land input difference; the arable land quality kept stable from 2000 to 2006, but arable land quality variance increased quickly. The new governm ent policy of the household land scale m ust be introduced to increase the arable land quality as general.

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    Urban Land Expansion Model Based on Multi- agent System and Application
    ZHANG Hnghui, ZENG Yongnian, JIN X aobin, YIN Changlin, ZOU Bing
    2008, 63 (8):  869-881.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808008
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    The traditional urban land expansion model has paid m uch attention on a staticstate, and few scholars have focused research on land use change situations through tim e. A lthough the urban land expansion model based on cellular autom ata perform s dynam ic feature, the m odel fails to display the m ultivariate change results produced from different agents' behaviors. O n account of the above reasons, this research has built up a set of spatial-tem poral land resource allocation rule and developed a dynam ic urban land expansion m odel based on m ulti-agent system , w hich can sim ulate the interactions am ong agents. W hat's m ore, this m odel is applied to analyze and sim ulate urban land expansion process taking dow ntow n of C hangsha city as a study area. The results show that this m odel can not only reflect basic characteristics of urban land expansion, but also help to explain the reasons for urban land expansion process and understand the effect of agents' behavior on urban land expansion,w hat's m ore,in contrast to sim ulation results w ith land use classification m ap from rem ote sensing im ages, the accuracies of the sim ulation reached over 68% according to the cell-by-cell com parison,w hich m akes it possible to provide land use decision-m ake support to governm ent and urban planners.

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    Embedding Urban Planning Objective by Integrated Artificial Immune System and Cellular Automata
    LIU Xiaoping, LI Xia, ZHANG Xiaohu, CHEN Gangqiang, LI Shaoying, CHEN Yimin
    2008, 63 (8):  882-894.  doi: 10.11821/xb200808009
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    A rtificial Im m une System can be used in pattern recognition and self-adaptive learning for its strong com puting pow er such as im m une recognition,clonal selection,im m une learning and im m une m em ory, w hich is quite suitable for studying the com plex geographical progress.A nd C A is proved to be convenient and effective for studying com plex system . A s a result, m odel based on integrating A IS w ith CA was built to sim ulate the urban evolution and planning in this paper.A s planning objective w as em bedded into A IS algorithm , antibody w ill gradually evolve tow ards w hich by changing the evolutionary variation m echanism . Then urban developing spatial pattern based on different planning scenarios can be sim ulated,w hich w ill supply decision support for urban and land use planning.This paper designed six different scenarios for city developm ent, and used A IS-based C A m odel to sim ulate the Pearl R iver D elta's urban developm ent (1988-2002) under different planning scenarios. It also com pared the urban com pactness under different sim ulation results: "C ity C enter" and "C ity C enter- Expressw ay" m odels incline to result in a m ore com pact form of urban; O n the other hand, "Tow n C enter" and "R oad" m odels com e into being a relatively scattered and decentralized form of urban areas. Sim ulated results indicate that "C ity C enter- Expressw ay" is the best developm ent m ode for the Pearl R iver D elta.

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