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    25 April 2010, Volume 65 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Spatial Agglomeration and Influencing Factors of Japanese R&D Industry
    WANG Chengyun
    2010, 65 (4):  387-396.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004001
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    Spatial distribution and clustering phenomenon of Japanese domestic R&D enterprises are examined in this paper by the related statistical data of 3302 R&D enterprises.It is found that most of the Japanese R&D enterprises are concentrated in three districts:Tokyo Metropolis,Osaka Prefecture and Nagoya.Among them,most of the R&D companies in Tokyo Metropolis are located close to the headquarters;most R&D companies in Nagoya are close to the production plants;as for the R&D enterprises in Osaka Prefecture,some R&D enterprises are located close to the headquarters,while some others are located near the production plants.And also the R&D industrial structure in the three districts is basically consistent with the local leading industries.On the basis of theory and practice of the related industrial agglomeration in the USA,Europe,Japan and other countries,this paper studies the spatial-temporal process,influencing factors and driving forces of Japanese R&D industrial agglomeration.Economic development cycle and industrial structure determine the formation of Japanese R&D industrial agglomeration to a certain extent.However policies and market driven impetus play a critical role in the development of Japanese R&D industry.Especially Japanese government established industry-university co-operation network and regional innovation network,which has greatly promoted the development and agglomeration of Japanese R&D industry.Enterprises-based R&D institutes,particularly those in a large scale have become key point and impetus in the process of development and agglomeration of Japanese R&D industry.

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    An Integrated Analysis of Impact Factors in Determining China's Future Grain Production
    XIONG Wei1; 2; LIN Erda1; 2; JIANG Jinhe3; LI Yan4; XU Yinlong1; 2
    2010, 65 (4):  397-406.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004002
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    An integrated simulation framework was introduced to assess China\'s future cereal production.The integrated framework includes simulations of climate change,water availability,crop yield and socio-economic characteristics,and their interactions on future cereal productions.The simulations are based on a reasonable socio-economic scenario which is consistent with China\'s mid-and long-term national development plan.Results demonstrate (1) Climate change will affect cereal yield.Excluding CO2 fertilization effects,yield drops for all cereal crops,with remarkable increases in both instability of production and possibility of lower yield.Irrigation partially offsets the damages caused by climate change.The biggest yield decrease occurs for rice with A2.Including the CO2 fertilization effects,yield increases for most crops,particularly for rainfed wheat,and rice,a small promotion occurs for maize.(2) Cereal\'s water demand will change in future,along with anticipated irrigation water supply.Interactions of climate change,water availability and socio-economic development result in an unmatched change between water demand and supply.These consequently induce obvious decreases in sown area of irrigated crops or increases in rainfed crops.(3) Interactions of climate change,CO2 effects,water availability and land use change on crop production are complicated,which highly depend on the scenarios and expected periods.The biggest harmful attribution comes from water availability,least from land use change,while the combination of climate change and CO2 may increase crop production.Regarding specific crop,production decreases for rice,but increases for wheat and maize.

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    The Impacts of Exports on Regional Economic Development and Industrial Restructuring in China
    LIU Weidong1; 2; LIU Hongguang1; 2; 3; TANG Zhipeng1; 2; WANG Liang1; 2; 3 (1.Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling; Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research; CAS; Beijing 100101; China; 2.Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research; CAS; Beijing 100101; China; 3.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Beijing 100049; China)
    2010, 65 (4):  407-415.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004003
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    In the last two decades,especially since joining the World Trade Organization in 2002,China has witnessed a rapid growth in international trade of commodities,which is seen as a major driver to its economic growth.The rise of China as a major import & export country,not only changes the world\'s economic geography,but also has significant impacts on its domestic economic geography.The European Union (EU),USA and Japan are the largest trade partners of China,accounting for about half of China\'s import & export in 2008.Given the economic difficulties faced by both China and others as a result of the current world-wide financial crisis,it is meaningful to examine the impacts of Chinese exports to the EU,USA and Japan on the development of both sides.In this paper,we will focus on such impacts on regional development in China.We try to compute the contribution of Sino-EU,Sino-USA and Sino-Japan exports to provincial GDP growth and industrial restructuring in China in terms of value-added.We find the exports to the EU,USA and Japan have major contributions to economic growth and industrial upgrading in some coastal provinces,e.g.Shanghai,Jiangsu and Guangdong.

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    The County Accessibility Divisions in China and Its Correlation with Population Distribution
    WANG Zhenbo1; XU Jiangang1; ZHU Chuangeng2; QI Yi1; XU Lu1
    2010, 65 (4):  416-426.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004004
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    Based on matrix raster data covering the whole space,this paper calculates spatial accessibility of all counties (city,urban district) in China using cost weighted distance method and ArcGIS 9.2 as platforms.Then we discuss the relation of traffic accessibility and population aggregation under the background of China\'s rapid urbanization.This is not only a practical test of the western population theory in China,but also a discovery of the phenomenon of transportation guiding population aggregation in China.The result shows that:(1) The cost weighted distance method can realize accurate conversion of spatial accessibility from qualitative description to quantitative calculation.(2) County accessibility in China has mainly low values and a distribution structure of circle layer and reverse-to-natural gradient,where "Heihe-Tengchong" line is the demarcation line.(3) According to accessibility,Chinese mainland can be divided into 3 parts:High Value Region (HVR),Intermediate Value Region (IVR) and Low Value Region (LVR).The HVR is in eastern coastal area of China;IVR is situated on the periphery of HVR,which can be further divided into Southeast Provinces Subregion (SEPSR),Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia-Shanxi Subregion (SGNSSR) and Jilin Subregion (JLSR);LVR can be divided into Yunnan-Sichuan-Chongqing Subregion (YSCSR),Inner Mongolia-Heilongjiang Subregion (IMHSR),Xinjiang Subregion (XJSR) and Qinghai-Tibet Subregion (QTSR).(4) County accessibility is closely related with population density in China.The 2.5-hour circle is the limited distance for the effects of Chinese accessibility on population aggregation.As the accessibility of a region goes higher,the circle of population aggregation affected by accessibility becomes bigger.As the accessibility of a region goes higher,the circle of population aggregation affected by accessibility becomes bigger.Meanwhile,the correlation between accessibility and population becomes smaller.The result shows that the effect of transportation conditions on population aggregation in less developed areas is far larger than that in developed areas.It also indicates that the HVR,SGNSSR,JLSR,YSCSR,and XJSR should develop their transportation systems with equalization.The SEPSR and QTSR should focus on the inner-county transportation,and IMHSR should fully implement regional transportation system construction.

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    The Gendered Vocation Space and the Feature of Power-space in Guandong
    LIN Geng
    2010, 65 (4):  427-442.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004005
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    Using the 5th census data on the spatial level of district (or county,or city),this paper analyses the relationship between gender and vocation-space including 133 samples in 21 cities.Through a comparative study between six kinds of men\'s vocation zones and another six kinds of women\'s vocation zones,the author comes to some conclusions.(1) Partial gender segregation is coexisting with the vocation-space omorphism between men and women.The work opportunities for men and women are equal on the whole,but in some fields gender segregation against women also exists.(2) The vocation-space is also a kind of power space which is productive.The power space is showed as a kind of core-periphery structure.It is formed not between men and women,but within the inner vocation-space of men and women separately.The structure is formed by a series of typical concentric circles.The high-aggregation vocations are distributed at the core area of Pearl River Delta Economic Region round the Pearl River Estuary,which become the core of space production and show a concentric-circle structure with other vocations at the peripheral area of Guangdong Province.(3) The core-periphery structure forms a kind of vocational space order which has two growth poles,Guangzhou and Shenzhen.The central area is in an absolutely dominant position,which is mainly composed of high-aggregation services or manufacture industries.And agriculture,housework and traditional business activities are mostly distributed at the peripheral area.The core-periphery structure indicates the emergence of a kind of regional social and economic relationship and it will restrict the possibilities of new procreative order\'s formations.(4) Under the influence of regional culture traits,vocations of men and women are diversified but do not form a kind of gender-biased vocation-space in Guangdong Province except the eastern area.

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    Fine Grid Dynamic Features of Population Distribution in Shenzhen
    MAO Xia1; XU Rongrong2; LI Xinshuo1; WANG Yu2; LI Cheng1; ZENG Bo2; HE Yuhua1; LIU Jinquan1
    2010, 65 (4):  443-453.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004006
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    Shenzhen is the most densely populated city in China.In order to respond to emergencies,such as natural disasters,real time high resolution dynamic information of population distribution is needed.This paper analyzes the fine grid dynamic characteristics of Shenzhen population distribution,using the information of population density in respect of which the temporal resolution is an hour and the spatial resolution is a kilometer provided by the "Dynamic Monitoring System of Population Distribution Based on Mobile Stations".The mobile subscribers in Shenzhen total to 10.8259 million.The average population density is 5545 people/km2,and the maximum density reaches 165,000 people/km2.High density areas which have more than 50,000 people/km2 are mainly the business centers,custom ports,railway stations,and large residential communities.The value of the maximum population density depends on the size of grid used,for example the value of 1 km2 grid is about 18 times than the value of 1000 km2 grid.Some 50% of the population in Shenzhen is concentrated in 10% of the city\'s spatial area,and 60% resides in the areas where altitudes are between 50 m to 100 m.The building density and the road density on the grid are linearly correlated with population density,that is,1000 people are added when the building density increases by 1%,and about 2,000 people are added when the road density increases by 0.01%.The total population of a city is relatively stable during a period of time,the variation of which is commonly less than 4% and the daily variation is about 1%.Shenzhen is a typical immigration city,and the total population will decrease by 48% during the Chinese New Year because a lot of people will go back to their hometowns or traval around.This paper selects 9 typical grids to analyze the daily variation of the population and they are as follows:custom ports have a morning peak,and people going outbound crowd here at about 8 a.m.;bazaar areas have a noon peak;business centers have an evening peak with a net inflow/outflow over 20,000 people/hr;residential communities have a noon trough,and the density of population is always bigger on the weekends than on the weekdays;in the government offices and public service areas,there are fewer people on the weekends than on the weekdays and the population is decreased by 75% during the Chinese New Year;the factory area has a peak of population at about 4 a.m.because of the peak load shifting;outing area is more crowded during the holidays and weekends;in the out-of-the-way area,the daily variation of population is very little;and in the farming area,there is a morning trough of population at about 9 a.m.which corresponds to the traditional farming habits.

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    Vulnerability Assessment of Petroleum City's Economic System Based on Set Pair Analysis:A Case Study of Daqing city
    SU Fei1; 2; ZHANG Pingyu1
    2010, 65 (4):  454-464.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004007
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    Set pair analysis (SPA) is to study the certain and uncertain relationship among different things and is introduced to assess the economic system vulnerability (ESV) of petroleum city,through which the approximate degree of ESV to the optimal set is calculated to describe the vulnerable level of the economic system by combining multiple indices.Vulnerability analysis framework in sustainability science has many properties of multi-scale,multi-element,multi-flow and multi-cycle,which presents a new research paradigm for petroleum cities.Based on a detailed discussion about the conception of ESV,the essay establishes an economic system vulnerability assessment model of petroleum cities from the aspects of sensitivity to and response capacity for the gradual depletion of the regional minable petroleum resources by using the SPA.Then it uses entropy method to evaluate the indicators and to calculate their weights for assessment of the ESV of petroleum city.Taking Daqing city as an example,this paper analyses the economic system vulnerability during the period of 1991-2007.The results indicate that the ESV of Daqing city shows a declining trend since 1991,from 0.619 in 1991 to 0.402 in 2007.The influence of response capacity on Daqing\'s economic system vulnerability is more evident than that of sensitivity.Growth rate of crude oil production,GDP per capita and overall labor productivity are the leading factors for the economic system vulnerability of Daqing city.The results of obstacle degree of regional response capacity indicate that the density of fixed asset investment was the most important obstacle factor during 1991-2005,and that the restriction of the industrial structure mainly appeared before 2000.The conclusions are that the economic system vulnerability of Daqing city is declining,but still at the vulnerable level.So,Daqing city should put emphases on the development of the sensitive and obstacle factors.

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    Spatial Segmentation of Urban Housing Market and Its Formation Interpretation:A Case Study of Xiamen City
    PENG Minxue
    2010, 65 (4):  465-475.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004008
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    This paper establishes a research hypothesis on the basis of submarket theory.Principle Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis are employed to detect the characteristic of urban housing market.A comparison was made between tenure oriented submarket model and cluster analysis submarket model.Then the Multi-Hedonic-Regression is adopted to test the significance of the submarket models.The character price functions and the distribution density of submarket samples are employed to analyze the spatial characteristic of housing market.The result shows that Xiamen city can be clustered into 4 sub-markets which display a hierarchical sequence across the city scope with inner and outer areas highly segmented.It is indicated that multi-tenure housing composition,imbalanced housing land expansion and inelastic planning control all contribute to the spatial segmentation.Furthermore,the author points out that housing policy procedure should take account of the spatial segmentation issues.

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    Land Pressure and Its Alleviating Approaches for the Mountainous Region of Northern China
    ZHU Hui-yi
    2010, 65 (4):  476-484.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004009
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    The mountainous region of northern China including mountain areas in the Haihe and Huaihe drainage basins covers an area of 28×104 km2,where soil erosion is the overwhelming environment issue.Since the 1950s,soil and water conservation projects,such as those based on small watersheds,have partly improved the situation of soil erosion,but there is still 13.47×104 km2 of eroded area due to land use and land cover changes under the pressures of both population growth and economic development.Therefore,to alleviate regional land pressure becomes more important in the restoration of regional environment.In this paper,we evaluate the grain production pressures,economic development pressures and soil conservation pressures for 27 sample watersheds listed in those soil conservation projects,and then compare their land pressures and actual production abilities to find out which alleviating approaches were adopted and which approach performed the most important.Empirical analysis reveals that land pressure was spatially non-balanced,but there was a balancing trend between land pressure and production ability.If none of alleviating approaches had been adopted,only 76% of the watersheds could bear grain production of 300 kg/a per capita,another 24% of the watersheds could only bear grain production of 225 kg/a per capita,while about 18% of the watersheds could bear their economic development pressure that is equal to average labors\' alternative cost.Out-migration of labors,fruit production and locally specified tour were the major approaches to alleviate land use pressures,and labors migration performed the most important.Those approaches alleviated not only grain production pressures and economic development pressures of the watersheds,but also soil conservation pressures.

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    Driving Mechanism of Cultivated Land Conversions in Jiangxi
    ZHAN Jinyan1; SHI Nana1; DENG Xiangzheng2
    2010, 65 (4):  485-493.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004010
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    Cultivated land conversion is considered to be one of the major problems threatening agricultural development,food security and supporting functions of cultivated land conversions in Jiangxi.Recognization on the driving mechanism of cultivated land conversions is far from complete.This paper integrates geophysical information with socio-economic processes and policy changes to build an econometric model to explore the driving mechanism of cultivated land conversion from 1988 to 2005.Three equations are included in the econometric model to uncover the driving mechanism for agriculture production process,the conversion process from cultivated land to built-up area and the conversion process from cultivated land to forested land/grassland,which includes explained variables to identify the three main processes and the driving forces from social-economic,demographic,geophysical,managerial domains.The estimation results from the econometric model shows that the population size is one of the predominant driver for the three processes,and socio-economic factors play a decisive role in a short period of time.The synthesized influences from the multiple driving factors produces an enhanced or offsetting resultant effects for the ecological processes.The research results show that the agricultural population size and investment are the key influencing factors for agricultural production,while population size,the ratio of the plains area to total land and land management policy are the key explanatory variables in the conversion process of cultivated land to built-up area;and the proportion of agricultural population,terrain slope,food production and non-agricultural industry are the important influencing variables in the process of conversion from cultivated land to forested land/grassland.

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    Discussion on Several Key Scientific Issues of Eco-compensation Mechanism in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture
    DAI Qiwen1; ZHAO Xueyan1; 2
    2010, 65 (4):  494-506.  doi: 10.11821/xb201004011
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    The participation costs model,including the opportunity costs,transaction costs and implementation costs is constructed to determine the ecological compensation standards in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.Based on the efficiency of ecological compensation funds,we construct an applied site selection tool,which takes into account three variables that vary in space:environmental services provided,risks of losing those services,and participation costs,with town as a basic unit,to determine and choose the scope of ecological compensation.On the basis of the model,this study classifies Gannan into five compensation zones by cluster analysis:priority compensation zones,sub-priority compensation zones,secondary compensation zones,critical compensation zones and potential compensation zones,and analyzes the characteristics of the above five types of compensation zones.Besides,Gini coefficient for ecological compensation payments is designed according to the conception of Gini coefficient and used to evaluate the fairness levels of payments distribution in the communities receiving payments and compensation zones.The evaluation model of compensation funds efficiency is built to assess the efficiency of five compensation areas at different levels.Results are drawn as follows:(1) The opportunity cost (621.3 yuan/hm2·a) and the grassland ecosystem services value (4776.4 yuan/hm2·a) are taken as upper and lower limits of compensation criterion,combined with the participation costs of farmers and herdsmen,and the compensation standard of grassland ecosystem is 1999.8 yuan/hm2·a.(2) (2) The five types of compensation zones coincide with the order of efficient compensation as well as the order of the ecological importance.The main priority compensation zones of grassland ecosystem cover larger pasture,the grassland sizes of towns compensated are larger,but few participants are involved,however secondary compensation zones cover nearly half of the grassland ecosystem,towns and the population.In terms of spatial distribution,the main priority compensation zones are mainly in pastoral areas,while non-priority zones are mainly in the farming-pastoral areas,agricultural areas and forest areas.(3) There are great differences in the distribution of compensation payments among participants (suppliers of grassland ecosystem services),however the payments are evenly distributed in compensation zones of grassland ecosystem.(4) The order of compensation efficiency of grassland ecosystem is consistent with priorities of compensation areas.The priority compensation zones is most efficient,and their payments are more than 14 times (38.18) those of the environmental benefits for each yuan in the critical zones,followed by the sub-priority zones,being 21.02 for each yuan.

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