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    Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1941-1961.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910001
    Abstract863)   HTML158)    PDF (9943KB)(779)      

    Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

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    Exploration on the theoretical basis and evaluation plan of Beautiful China construction
    Chuanglin FANG, Zhenbo WANG, Haimeng LIU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (4): 619-632.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904001
    Abstract1143)   HTML226)    PDF (5913KB)(1185)      

    Beautiful China construction (BCC) is of fundamental importance for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation and a Chinese practice of the 2030 UN sustainable development agenda. The Chinese government has made strategic arrangements for the BCC with a five-pronged approach. President Xi Jinping proposed the schedule and roadmap for the BCC at the National Ecological Environmental Protection Conference. But at present, the theoretical basis, evaluation index system, evaluation criteria and construction effect of the BCC are not clear. This paper puts forward the basic connotation of the BCC from a broad and narrow perspective, regards the theory of man-earth harmony and Five-dimensional integration as the core theoretical basis of the BCC, and further constructs the evaluation index system of the BCC, which includes five dimensions: ecological environment, green development, social harmony, institutional improvement and cultural heritage, and uses the United Nations human development index (HDI) evaluation method to scientifically evaluate the construction effect of 341 prefecture-level cities (states) in China in 2016. The results show that the average value of the BCC Index (Zhongke Beauty Index) is 0.28, which is generally at a low level. The average of the sub-indexes of the ecological environment beauty index, the green development beauty index, the social harmony beauty index, the system perfect beauty index and the cultural heritage beauty index are respectively 0.6, 0.22, 0.29, 0.22, and 0.07. The sub-index values are all low, and the regional development is quite different, which indicates that the construction process of Beautiful China is generally slow and unbalanced. In order to implement the schedule and roadmap for the BCC with high quality and high standards, it is recommended that we construct and publish a general evaluation system for the BCC process, carry out dynamic monitoring and phased comprehensive evaluation of the BCC process, compile and publish the evaluation standards for BCC technology, do a good job in the comprehensive zoning of Beautiful China, carry out pilot projects for the construction of Beautiful China's model areas according to local conditions, and incorporate the achievements of Beautiful China into the assessment indicators of all levels of government.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern of cropland abandonment in China from 1992 to 2017: A Meta-analysis
    Xuezhen ZHANG, Caishan ZHAO, Jinwei DONG, Quansheng GE
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 411-420.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903001
    Abstract3995)   HTML601)    PDF (2529KB)(3128)      

    Cropland abandonment has increasingly occurred in China, which potentially affects national food and ecological security. This study collected existing publications focusing on cropland abandonment. Then, we extracted the key characteristics of cropland abandonment events, including time, location, magnitude, and driving force. The meta-analysis was carried out on these items to disclose the spatio-temporal pattern and main drivers of cropland abandonment in China in the last three decades. We found that there were a total of 163 counties in which cropland abandonment occurred according to the existing literature. These counties were mostly located in southern China and, in particular, exhibited a pattern of a T-shape on 90 degree anticlockwise rotation. The vertical axis exhibited a north-south belt across southeastern Gansu Province, eastern Sichuan Province, Chongqing, western Guizhou Province, and northern Yunnan Province. The horizontal axis exhibited a west-east belt along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River across southern Hubei Province, northern Hunan Province,w and central to southern Anhui Province. In the provinces of Hunan, Sichuan, and Anhui, cropland abandonment can be found in 24, 23, and 21 counties, respectively; in Hubei, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, and Yunnan provincial-level areas, there are more than 10 counties with cropland abandonment. The formation of the “T” structure underwent two stages. Before 2010, there were 102 counties with cropland abandonment that mainly existed along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River, where the horizontal axis occurred. Since 2010, there have been 63 counties with cropland abandonment, mostly existing in the north-south belt from southeastern Gansu to northern Guizhou, where the vertical axis occurred. The spatio-temporal patterns of cropland abandonment events matched well with the labor emigration from agriculture in the context of regional economic development and industrial restructuring. The low economic efficiency of agriculture and the shortage of agricultural labor are two common drivers leading to cropland abandonment in 86% and 78% of counties, respectively.

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    Explanation of land use/cover change from the perspective of tele-coupling
    Enpu MA, Jianming CAI, Jing LIN, Yan HAN, Liuwen LIAO, Wei HAN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 421-431.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903002
    Abstract1919)   HTML267)    PDF (1686KB)(1436)      

    The existing research on the mechanism of LUCC cannot fully illustrate dynamics of land use/cover driven by long-distance interaction in the global context. To fill this gap, a theoretical framework of tele-coupling interpretation is intentionally introduced in this paper. Starting with a general overview of previous studies on the mechanism of LUCC in perspectives of human society development, and followed by the empirical evidence for these mechanisms, this paper proposes an initial framework of tele-coupling interpretation. It is concluded that remote connection, globalization, and urbanization are the three major forms of tele-coupling that have driven LUCC. Specifically, in terms of environmental interactions between long-distance natural systems, climate change and large-scale climate events have cross-regional impacts. For example, they can directly affect vegetation dynamics by changing climate factors such as temperature and precipitation, resulting in the climatic tolerance range of vegetation, which in turn could change the distribution pattern of vegetation, leading to the land use/cover change. For socio-economic interactions between distant human systems, the globalization process may drive the land use/cover change through transmission and feedback of various flows of information, technologies, capital and goods at different levels of administrative spaces. Regarding to urbanization, it could alter the land use/coverage in remote areas directly or indirectly through the process of production factor aggregation. Based on these elaborations, this paper further puts forward the key contents and basic steps of the application of tele-coupling framework in LUCC research. Firstly, a "time-space-event" trinity analysis path of land use/cover change is established, which links the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use/cover with the sequence of events that drive the change. This kind of analysis seeks to use specific social, economic, and natural events to explore the driving forces to land use/cover change. The operational analytical method with five steps is thus proposed for this purpose. Secondly, the distance decay curve method and the event sequence classification method inside and outside the area should be applied for decomposing driving forces to the near-remote land use/cover change. Finally, a comprehensive network-based inter-system study or cross-system synthesis is badly needed to better understand land use/cover change at the regional (global) scale. Cross-system synthesis is the key step to realize the transformation from micro case studies to a macroscopic comprehensive integration, and its primary mission is to clarify the mutual feedback of factor flows between multiple systems and their impact on land use/cover change. In conclusion, the new method is expected to achieve a synchronous explanation of land use/cover change driven by multiple long-distance systems, in an aim to have a holistic and better understanding of the human-nature coupling system at the regional (global) scale.

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    Ecological risk assessment based on terrestrial ecosystem services in China
    Feng CHEN, Hongbo LI, Anlu ZHANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 432-445.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903003
    Abstract2253)   HTML294)    PDF (1928KB)(1707)      

    The ecological risk assessment was previously explored according to ecological entity characteristics, such as point source threat and regional landscape pattern change, and ignored the factors related to the human well-being. The academic contribution of the essay is to integrate ecosystem services into assessment system of ecological risk in a new perspective. In this paper, the spatial mapping of ecosystem services on China's land is reconstructed with the aid of GIS and RS. Moreover, the ecological risk analysis model is established in order to quantitatively expound the spatial pattern of the ecological risk based on ecosystem services, and identify ecological risk control priority regions at different confidence levels. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2010, the average annual value of total terrestrial ecosystem services index in China was between 0-2.17, and slightly fluctuated between 0.30-0.57 over the years. Some 24.7% of the regions with significantly increasing value included Taiwan, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, inland Xinjiang of northwest China, 37.1% of the regions with significantly decreasing value, including northeast China, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central and eastern regions of China; (2) The risk losses of ecosystem services were exposed to different situations under different confidence levels. When the confidence level was 90%, the potential loss ratio of the total ecosystem services index was 24.19%, and the ecological risk index was 0.253. Furthermore, by analyzing the relationship between confidence level and ecological risk index, when the confidence level was high, the probability of risk was reduced correspondingly, but the losses correspondingly increased when risk occurred; (3) We investigated the scenario as an example under the 90% confidence level. The different eco-regions with the risk characteristics are as follows: the top six eco-regions with average ecosystem services risk index are Inner Mongolia Plateau, North China Plain, Loess Plateau, Northeast China Plain, Hengduan Mountain Region, and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The proportions of the eco-regions with extreme risk are 55.89%, 26.63%, 24.35%, 20.62%, 18.70% and 25.12%, respectively.

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    Spatial Patterns and Driving Forces of Land Use Change  in China in the Early 21st Century
    LIU Ji-Yuan-1, Zhang-Ceng-Xiang-2, Xu-Xin-Liang-1, Kuang-Wen-Hui-1, Zhou-Mo-Cun-3, Zhang-Shu-Wen-4, LI Ren-Dong-5, Ya-Chang-Zhen-6, Xu-Dong-Sheng-7, Tun-Shi-Xin-8, Jiang-Na-9
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200912001
    Acta Geographica Sinica    0, 0 (): 1155-1163.  
    Abstract34)           
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    Chinese Human Geography in Transition
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200910003
    Geographical Research and Optimizing Practice of Rural Hollowing in China
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200910005
    Analysis of Evolutive Characteristics and Their Driving Mechanism of Hollowing Villages in China
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200910006
    GAN Zhong-Yin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2009, 64 (8): 896-898.   doi: 10.11821/xb200908001
    Abstract356)      PDF (1787KB)(562)      
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    Spatial Structural Characteristics of Chinese Aviation Network Based on Complex Network Theory
    WANG Jiao-E, MO Hui-Hui, JIN Feng-Jun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200908002
    Spatial-temporal Differentiation of the Systemic Harmonious Degree between Cities and Industry along the Railway Lines in Xinjiang
    LEI Sai-Jia, ZHANG Xiao-Lei, LEI Jun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200908003
    Economic Development Disparities of Huaihai Economic Zone
    SUN Shanshan1, ZHU Chuangeng2, LI Zhijiang2
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200908004
    Simulation on China's Economy and Prediction on Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission under Optimal Growth Path
    SHU Yong-Ban, WANG Zheng, LONG Li, WANG Li-Juan, JU Xiu-Ping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200908005
    Concentration and Decentralization of Population in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region and Its Determinants: A Regional Density Function Approach
    SUN Tie-Shan, LI Guo-Beng, LEI Meng-Hua-
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200908007
    Social Network Structure and Cooperation Model of Cross-border Tourism Region: A Case Study of Tiantangzhai in Dabieshan
    YANG Xiao-Zhong, ZHANG Cha, WU Tie-Gong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200908009
    Distribution of Soil Active Organic Carbon of Alpine Grassland on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    WANG Jianlin1, Ouyang Hua2, WANG Zhonghong1, CHANG Tianjun1, LI Peng1, SHEN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2009, 64 (7): 771-781.   doi: 10.11821/xb200907001
    Abstract644)      PDF (1518KB)(777)      

    Based on the data from 36 sampling points, we analyzed the distribution of soil active organic carbon (SAOC) of alpine grassland on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results are shown as follows. (1) In the horizontal direction, the SAOC was significantly different between grassland types and natural transects. In general, its content appeared high in southeast and low in northwest with an overall plaque-like distribution pattern. The high-SAOC areas are mainly in the hinterland of the northern plateau and the Himalayan north basin area. (2) In the vertical direction, the SAOC distribution of 0-40 cm sections of different grassland types and different natural areas could be divided into descending type, ascending type and lower-higher-lower type. There were significant differences between the SAOC contents of the 0-10 cm layers and the 30-40 cm layers. (3) Using the regression model-based standard coefficient method, we analyzed the impact of climatic factors on the SAOC content of alpine grassland, indicating that the precipitation contributed more than the temperature in the alpine grassland SAOC.

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    Cited: Baidu(28)
    Self-developing Ability of Rural Households and Its Impact on Growth of the Household Income: A Geographical Study
    LI Xiaojian1, 2, ZHOU Xiongfei1, QIAO Jiajun2, WANG Li2, WANG Yuchan1
    Acta Geographica Sinica    doi: 10.11821/xb200906001
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