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    Measure and distribution of urban elderly in poverty: An empirical study in Beijing
    GAO Xiaolu, WU Danxian, YAN Bingqiu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (8): 1557-1571.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008001
    Abstract792)   HTML2)    PDF (1994KB)(2)      

    Poverty among older people in urban areas is growing along with population ageing and urbanization in China, but the absence of proper indices and method to measure urban elderly poverty brings difficulty to the understanding of the spatial pattern of elderly poverty in cities and policy making in poverty reduction. It is necessary to consider the association of elderly poverty with education, health, family relationship and social support levels of older people and set poverty cutoff more appropriately. With a factor analysis method, we develop a resource-based poverty index to identify poor older residents on the basis of survey data in eight typical residential communities in Beijing. Then, the elderly poverty rates for different residential communities are estimated and the spatial patterns of urban elderly poverty are investigated. It is found that, (1) resource, health, independence and age factors interpret the variation of older residents, among which the score of resource factor constitutes an appropriate indicator of urban elderly poverty. (2) Elderly poverty rate differs significantly for different types of residential communities. With the spatial distribution data of various communities being considered, the poverty rate of elderly population in Beijing is estimated to be 9.55%. (3) The elderly poverty rate of town centers away from the central city is the highest and the poverty rate drops down from the outer to inner areas of the central city gradually. The density of the elderly in poverty, on the other hand, goes to the highest in town centers and the inner city areas, followed by outer central city and the fringe of the central city. These results provide evidences for the formulation of urban policies against elderly poverty in the city.

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    Quantitative simulation and empirical analysis of regional effects of administrative division adjustment from the perspective of coordinated development
    WANG Kaiyong, FENG Rundong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (8): 1617-1632.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008005
    Abstract273)   HTML0)    PDF (3900KB)(2)      

    Administrative divisions are the important foundation of national governance and social development, and the adjustment of administrative divisions is a critical way to promote regional coordinated development. Under the background of globalization and regionalization, timely adjustment of administrative divisions is a major step to reconstruct the regional development pattern and change the administrative rank potential energy of relevant regional governments. In the perspective of regional coordinated development, this paper constructs a regional administrative rank potential energy model based on the theory of regional interaction, spatial field energy model and power exponential function. Taking Hefei-Wuhu region as an example, this paper examines the change of administrative rank potential energy and its effect on regional coordinated development after the dismantling of the former Chaohu prefecture-level city. The results show that: (1) administrative rank potential energy is closely related to the administrative jurisdiction, administrative resources and the potential of regional coordinated development. (2) During 2005-2015, the growth rate of the overall administrative rank potential energy and coordinated development potential of the study area increased from 61.79% and 0.21% before the withdrawal of prefecture-level Chaohu city to 116.51% and 3.05% respectively. After the adjustment of administrative divisions, the growth rate of administrative rank potential energy is much higher than that of economic development and population increase. (3) The model of administrative rank potential energy can measure and express the adjustment of administrative divisions spatially. The result of the model is different from the complex influence brought by factors such as social development, which accords with the real status of social and economic development. The adjustment of administrative divisions focuses on both individual development and regional integration. It can not only significantly improve the administrative rank potential energy of the study area, promote social and economic development, but also help to break down spatial barriers and administrative barriers, and promote regional coordination and sustainable development.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Theoretical analysis of "natural-social-trading" ternary water cycle mode in the inland river basin of Northwest China
    DENG Mingjiang, LONG Aihua, LI Jiang, DENG Xiaoya, ZHANG Pei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1333-1345.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007001
    Abstract500)   HTML6)    PDF (2682KB)(4)      

    The continuous and intense human activities have greatly changed the structure, path and driving force of the natural water cycle evolution, which conversely influences the water security of human being. With the process of globalization and market economy, human activities not only affect the artificial development of water and soil resources, but also extend to the economic field. The "flow" of water trade contained in product has become an important internal factor that drives the evolution of the regional water cycle and affects regional water security. Traditional water cycle research, which focused on the watershed scale, is difficult to reveal the linkage, two-way feedback mechanism and co-evolution dynamic mechanism in water cycle among different regions. Starting from the phenomenon of continuous and water-intensive agricultural products export in Northwest China, this research elaborates the phenomenon, the process, the structure and their driving forces of the unitary natural water circular, nature-human society binary circular, and trading water circular within multi-regional social economic complex systems by theoretical analysis. We explicated the theoretical framework for constructing the "natural-social-trading" ternary water cycle in the inland river basin, including mode of process, driving force of water cycle, conceptual model, influencing factors and ecological environment effects. Furthermore, we discussed the frontier of water cycle research in inland river basin based on ternary water cycle model-social hydrology. We advocated that the future study on water cycle and water resources should focus more on the external forces driving the water cycle of the inland river basin and its two-way mutual feedback and co-evolution, providing theoretical references for the decision-making of water security, ecological environment security and ecological civilization construction in inland river basins.

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    Relief degree of land surface and its geographical meanings in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
    FENG Zhiming, LI Wenjun, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1359-1372.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007003
    Abstract695)   HTML3)    PDF (4161KB)(6)      

    Relief degree of land surface (RDLS) is one of the key indicators in the fields of suitability assessment of human settlements (SAHS) as well as resources and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) evaluation at the regional scale. Currently, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the determination of the optimal window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation and its correlation analysis with two topographical parameters, e.g., elevation and relative height difference. These issues further affect the effective representation of the RDLS in the delineation of local to regional topographic relief. Therefore, an objective understanding of the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China greatly contributes to promoting the construction of national ecological security barrier and regional green development. In this study, based on the 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM Version 2), the optimal window size for calculating and evaluating the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was accurately determined using the average change-point method, and the first 30 m RDLS thematic map for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was generated accordingly. Next, the interrelation between the RDLS and elevation and relative height difference was quantitatively examined. Based on that, the effective representation or geographical meanings of the RDLS in the plateau were defined. The results/conclusions include: (1) The optimum window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation in the study area based on the 30 m GDEM is a rectangular neighborhood of 41×41 pixels, equaling to an area of about 1.51 km2. The average change-point analysis approach shows that the optimum window size for regional RDLS analysis is unique. (2) The average RDLS of the study area is approximately 5.06, along with over 60% of the plateau ranging between 4.5 and 5.7. On the whole, the topographic relief increases from the northeast to the southwest and west parts. Gentle to small-relief landforms are mostly seen in the Qaidam Basin, the Southern Tibet Valley, and the Hehuang Valley (Yellow and Huangshui river valleys). Also, the differences in the local surface relief in varied latitudinal sections (along the mountain range) are small, while those at longitudinal level are big, showing hierarchical and regular fluctuations (crossing the mountain trending). (3) Correlation analyses showed that different values of the RDLS in the plateau correspond to geomorphic units with different elevations and relative height differences. The profile characteristics of the mountains in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on different terrain reliefs indicate that the height above sea level of low mountains steadily increases first, then experiences sudden rise and severe fluctuation in surface relief, and finally forms the orderly ups and downs of the extreme mountains, e.g., the Himalayas.

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    Geographical missions and coupling ways between human and nature for the Beautiful China Initiative
    GE Quansheng, FANG Chuanglin, JIANG Dong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 1109-1119.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006001
    Abstract849)   HTML40)    PDF (1934KB)(172)      

    Beautiful China Initiative (BCI) aims at sustainable development with blue sky and green land, lucid waters and lush mountains, prosperous society and rich people, and harmony between humans and nature. The BCI is a Chinese practice to implement the SDGs 2030 of the United Nations, and an important method to promote the harmonious development between humans and nature and to win the gold and silver mountains by maintaining clear waters and green mountains. Geography, an applied cross-discipline serving the country's socio-economic development, has comprehensive and regional characteristics. Geographers shoulder the historical mission of building a beautiful China, and are duty-bound to take the lead in becoming pioneers and practitioners of the BCI. The theory of pericoupling and telecoupling between humans and nature is the theoretical foundation of the BCI. The interdisciplinary and comprehensive integration of geography is the practical means for the BCI. The complex system simulation and optimization of geography provide a scientific tool for coupling ways between humans and nature of the BCI. The main coupling ways for geography to promote the BCI include: carry out major scientific and technological projects and coupling demonstrations; perform dynamic assessment and monitoring of the coupled human and natural systems for the BCI; draw up the strategic coupling roadmap and the action plan of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for the BCI; build a concept of beautiful land to comply with the objectives of the National Territorial Space Plan of China; develop a comprehensive regionalization of coupled human and natural systems in accordance with local conditions, and build a group of beautiful urban agglomerations and national parks; undertake pilot projects for the construction of Beautiful China and summarize the regional coupling models for the BCI. These coupling paths will ensure that the whole country and each of its provincial-level region are getting closer to the target according to the schedule and roadmap for building a beautiful China, and diverse regions will achieve the overall goals in the competition.

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    Research progress of human-earth system dynamics based on spatial resilience theory
    LIU Yanxu, FU Bojie, WANG Shuai, ZHAO Wenwu, LI Yan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (5): 891-903.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005001
    Abstract807)   HTML35)    PDF (1459KB)(293)      

    The concept of human-earth system represents a dynamic structure formed by the interaction between human and earth within a specific region. Considering the complexity of the system, it is necessary to construct a more powerful indicator system to describe the interaction and reflection processes between human and earth systems. The term of spatial resilience can be understood as the overall ability of regional space to absorb, recover or transform natural and social disturbances. Spatial resilience targeted at securing the structural stability of human-earth system, and it also provides a new approach for the shaping of targeted theoretical models and quantifiable indicator system in the study of human-earth system. This study reviews the research progress of spatial resilience from three perspectives, including: ecological policy and ecosystems spatial resilience from a natural perspective; environmental changes and spatial resilience of community production and living from a social perspective and the spatial resilience integrated indicator system from a comprehensive description perspective. Then the article puts forward three important directions of spatial resilience research in China, including understanding the spatial state that guaranteed system sustainability, identifying the spatial thresholds of human-earth system dynamic process, and satisfying the national demands of ecological protection and social development. This study also discusses the spatial resilience indicator system in various human-earth system functional areas from aspects of system structure, function and threshold. By the deepening of the theories and methods of spatial resilience, the human-earth system dynamics can be further understood, so as to improve the regional level accuracy on simulating the socioeconomic, environmental and political paths, and provide key theoretical and methodological support for the decision-making of sustainable development at global, national and regional levels.

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    Vertical variation of land cover in the Central Himalayas
    ZHANG Yili, WU Xue, ZHENG Du
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (5): 931-948.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005004
    Abstract501)   HTML25)    PDF (4104KB)(182)      

    The Qomolangma Mountain region within the Central Himalayas is characterized by obvious altitudinal variation, habitat complexity, and land cover diversity. This region is therefore one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in the world. Besides, because this region has the most complete natural vertical spectrum in the world, it is ideal for studying the vertical structure of alpine land cover. Utilizing land cover data for 2010 (30 m resolution) along with digital elevation model outputs, three division methods were defined that encompass the northern and southern slopes of Qomolangma Mountain. These comprised the ridgeline method, the sample transect method, and the sector method. The study investigated altitudinal distributions, similarities and differences, and changes in the degree of land cover on the northern and southern slopes of the Himalayas area using the software ArcGIS and MATLAB tools and division models. The main results of this analysis are listed as follows:
    Firstly, the distribution of land cover in mountainous areas was characterized by an obvious vertical spectrum structure, with the south-six and north-four pattern of vertical spectrum of land cover in the Central Himalayas marked by the influence of human activities. Secondly, zonal distribution was exhibited by forests, grasslands, sparse vegetation, barren land, glaciers, and snow covers from low to high altitudes. It was markedly different in the composition and structure of land cover vertical spectrum between the northern and southern slopes of this mountain area. The vertical spectrum of land cover types on the southern slope was complete and diverse, but it was relatively simple on the northern slope. The study shows that given the same land cover type, the amplitude of elevation distribution on the southern slope was wide, while that on the northern slope was narrow. The distribution of land cover types on the southern slope was low. Thirdly, the results show that the area distribution ratio of each land cover type varied with elevation according to change mode. Vertical distribution patterns of land cover types on the southern and northern slopes were therefore divided into four categories, with glaciers, snow, sparse vegetation, and grasslands conforming to unimodal distribution patterns. The bare land also followed a unimodal distribution pattern on the southern slope, but it followed a bimodal one on the northern slope. Fourthly, all kinds of vertical belt structures and land cover divisions on the southern slope were similar, but they were different from one another on the northern slope due to division methods. In comparison with field survey data, results reported here for the sector method were more in line with the actual situation.

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    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 0-.  
    Abstract236)   HTML42)    PDF (776KB)(123)      
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    Development of aeolian geomorphology in China in the past 70 years
    DONG Zhibao, LYU Ping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 509-528.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003006
    Abstract1492)   HTML265)    PDF (1256KB)(447)      

    Wind is the second largest fluid shaping the earth's landscape besides water. The aeolian landform formed by wind is widely distributed in the global arid regions, and more than 40% of the land area is affected by the aeolian process in the world. Owing to a close relationship with the human's living environment, aeolian geomorphology has received continuous attention from the international academia since the end of the 19th century. Although aeolian landforms are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of China, the relevant study started in the late 1950s. This paper summarizes the development of aeolian geomorphology during the past 70 years in China, which has experienced three stages: the initial stage before reform and opening-up; the development stage between the reform and opening-up to the end of the 20th century; and international stage since the beginning of the 21st century, even partially beyond the international standard nowadays. There are many influential achievements in China, including dunes movement, regional comprehensive study on aeolian landforms, formation and evolution process of unique aeolian landforms, Gobi, the secondary flow around dunes and the exploration of extraterrestrial planets. Aeolian research in China has the potential to lead the international aeolian research in the future, but the aeolian geomorphologists must have following strategic thinking on meta-synthesis, the guidance of the earth system science, the global view and development of the outer space era.

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    Understanding geographic coupling and achieving geographic integration
    SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YANG Xiaofan, YE Sijing, GAO Peichao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 3-13.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001001
    Abstract1718)   HTML122)    PDF (3429KB)(779)      

    Coupling, as a classic physical concept, provides a suite of ideas and methods for describing interactions of multi-agents across disciplines. In contrast, the concept of integration is not from a certain discipline, but it is widely used in many natural and socioeconomic sciences fields due to its great generalization capacity. Both concepts are frequently mentioned in Earth science. Geography, as a multi-disciplinary research area between natural and socioeconomic sciences, owns regional, comprehensive, and complex characteristics. The understanding of coupling varies across geographic sciences. This paper presents an advanced understanding from six geographic perspectives based on different disciplines and scenarios, which is helpful to accurately explore patterns, processes, and mechanisms of land surface system. Firstly, this paper clarifies six perspectives on geographic coupling, and presents corresponding research cases, which include geographic spatial coupling, geographic features coupling, geographic interfaces coupling, geospatial scale coupling, geographic relationship coupling and geographic coupling interpretation. Secondly, the paper interprets the concept of integration from a geographic perspective, and introduces a pathway to achieving an integration in Heihe River Basin's research practice. Finally, the paper proposes intrinsic connections between geographic coupling and geographic integration.

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    Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1941-1961.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910001
    Abstract2505)   HTML360)    PDF (9943KB)(2127)      

    Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Exploration on the theoretical basis and evaluation plan of Beautiful China construction
    Chuanglin FANG, Zhenbo WANG, Haimeng LIU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (4): 619-632.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904001
    Abstract2067)   HTML314)    PDF (5913KB)(1975)      

    Beautiful China construction (BCC) is of fundamental importance for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation and a Chinese practice of the 2030 UN sustainable development agenda. The Chinese government has made strategic arrangements for the BCC with a five-pronged approach. President Xi Jinping proposed the schedule and roadmap for the BCC at the National Ecological Environmental Protection Conference. But at present, the theoretical basis, evaluation index system, evaluation criteria and construction effect of the BCC are not clear. This paper puts forward the basic connotation of the BCC from a broad and narrow perspective, regards the theory of man-earth harmony and Five-dimensional integration as the core theoretical basis of the BCC, and further constructs the evaluation index system of the BCC, which includes five dimensions: ecological environment, green development, social harmony, institutional improvement and cultural heritage, and uses the United Nations human development index (HDI) evaluation method to scientifically evaluate the construction effect of 341 prefecture-level cities (states) in China in 2016. The results show that the average value of the BCC Index (Zhongke Beauty Index) is 0.28, which is generally at a low level. The average of the sub-indexes of the ecological environment beauty index, the green development beauty index, the social harmony beauty index, the system perfect beauty index and the cultural heritage beauty index are respectively 0.6, 0.22, 0.29, 0.22, and 0.07. The sub-index values are all low, and the regional development is quite different, which indicates that the construction process of Beautiful China is generally slow and unbalanced. In order to implement the schedule and roadmap for the BCC with high quality and high standards, it is recommended that we construct and publish a general evaluation system for the BCC process, carry out dynamic monitoring and phased comprehensive evaluation of the BCC process, compile and publish the evaluation standards for BCC technology, do a good job in the comprehensive zoning of Beautiful China, carry out pilot projects for the construction of Beautiful China's model areas according to local conditions, and incorporate the achievements of Beautiful China into the assessment indicators of all levels of government.

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    Cited: CSCD(11)
    Spatio-temporal pattern of cropland abandonment in China from 1992 to 2017: A Meta-analysis
    Xuezhen ZHANG, Caishan ZHAO, Jinwei DONG, Quansheng GE
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 411-420.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903001
    Abstract4777)   HTML681)    PDF (2529KB)(3624)      

    Cropland abandonment has increasingly occurred in China, which potentially affects national food and ecological security. This study collected existing publications focusing on cropland abandonment. Then, we extracted the key characteristics of cropland abandonment events, including time, location, magnitude, and driving force. The meta-analysis was carried out on these items to disclose the spatio-temporal pattern and main drivers of cropland abandonment in China in the last three decades. We found that there were a total of 163 counties in which cropland abandonment occurred according to the existing literature. These counties were mostly located in southern China and, in particular, exhibited a pattern of a T-shape on 90 degree anticlockwise rotation. The vertical axis exhibited a north-south belt across southeastern Gansu Province, eastern Sichuan Province, Chongqing, western Guizhou Province, and northern Yunnan Province. The horizontal axis exhibited a west-east belt along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River across southern Hubei Province, northern Hunan Province,w and central to southern Anhui Province. In the provinces of Hunan, Sichuan, and Anhui, cropland abandonment can be found in 24, 23, and 21 counties, respectively; in Hubei, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, and Yunnan provincial-level areas, there are more than 10 counties with cropland abandonment. The formation of the “T” structure underwent two stages. Before 2010, there were 102 counties with cropland abandonment that mainly existed along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River, where the horizontal axis occurred. Since 2010, there have been 63 counties with cropland abandonment, mostly existing in the north-south belt from southeastern Gansu to northern Guizhou, where the vertical axis occurred. The spatio-temporal patterns of cropland abandonment events matched well with the labor emigration from agriculture in the context of regional economic development and industrial restructuring. The low economic efficiency of agriculture and the shortage of agricultural labor are two common drivers leading to cropland abandonment in 86% and 78% of counties, respectively.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Explanation of land use/cover change from the perspective of tele-coupling
    Enpu MA, Jianming CAI, Jing LIN, Yan HAN, Liuwen LIAO, Wei HAN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 421-431.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903002
    Abstract2538)   HTML320)    PDF (1686KB)(1723)      

    The existing research on the mechanism of LUCC cannot fully illustrate dynamics of land use/cover driven by long-distance interaction in the global context. To fill this gap, a theoretical framework of tele-coupling interpretation is intentionally introduced in this paper. Starting with a general overview of previous studies on the mechanism of LUCC in perspectives of human society development, and followed by the empirical evidence for these mechanisms, this paper proposes an initial framework of tele-coupling interpretation. It is concluded that remote connection, globalization, and urbanization are the three major forms of tele-coupling that have driven LUCC. Specifically, in terms of environmental interactions between long-distance natural systems, climate change and large-scale climate events have cross-regional impacts. For example, they can directly affect vegetation dynamics by changing climate factors such as temperature and precipitation, resulting in the climatic tolerance range of vegetation, which in turn could change the distribution pattern of vegetation, leading to the land use/cover change. For socio-economic interactions between distant human systems, the globalization process may drive the land use/cover change through transmission and feedback of various flows of information, technologies, capital and goods at different levels of administrative spaces. Regarding to urbanization, it could alter the land use/coverage in remote areas directly or indirectly through the process of production factor aggregation. Based on these elaborations, this paper further puts forward the key contents and basic steps of the application of tele-coupling framework in LUCC research. Firstly, a "time-space-event" trinity analysis path of land use/cover change is established, which links the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use/cover with the sequence of events that drive the change. This kind of analysis seeks to use specific social, economic, and natural events to explore the driving forces to land use/cover change. The operational analytical method with five steps is thus proposed for this purpose. Secondly, the distance decay curve method and the event sequence classification method inside and outside the area should be applied for decomposing driving forces to the near-remote land use/cover change. Finally, a comprehensive network-based inter-system study or cross-system synthesis is badly needed to better understand land use/cover change at the regional (global) scale. Cross-system synthesis is the key step to realize the transformation from micro case studies to a macroscopic comprehensive integration, and its primary mission is to clarify the mutual feedback of factor flows between multiple systems and their impact on land use/cover change. In conclusion, the new method is expected to achieve a synchronous explanation of land use/cover change driven by multiple long-distance systems, in an aim to have a holistic and better understanding of the human-nature coupling system at the regional (global) scale.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Ecological risk assessment based on terrestrial ecosystem services in China
    Feng CHEN, Hongbo LI, Anlu ZHANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 432-445.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903003
    Abstract2695)   HTML338)    PDF (1928KB)(1986)      

    The ecological risk assessment was previously explored according to ecological entity characteristics, such as point source threat and regional landscape pattern change, and ignored the factors related to the human well-being. The academic contribution of the essay is to integrate ecosystem services into assessment system of ecological risk in a new perspective. In this paper, the spatial mapping of ecosystem services on China's land is reconstructed with the aid of GIS and RS. Moreover, the ecological risk analysis model is established in order to quantitatively expound the spatial pattern of the ecological risk based on ecosystem services, and identify ecological risk control priority regions at different confidence levels. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2010, the average annual value of total terrestrial ecosystem services index in China was between 0-2.17, and slightly fluctuated between 0.30-0.57 over the years. Some 24.7% of the regions with significantly increasing value included Taiwan, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, inland Xinjiang of northwest China, 37.1% of the regions with significantly decreasing value, including northeast China, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central and eastern regions of China; (2) The risk losses of ecosystem services were exposed to different situations under different confidence levels. When the confidence level was 90%, the potential loss ratio of the total ecosystem services index was 24.19%, and the ecological risk index was 0.253. Furthermore, by analyzing the relationship between confidence level and ecological risk index, when the confidence level was high, the probability of risk was reduced correspondingly, but the losses correspondingly increased when risk occurred; (3) We investigated the scenario as an example under the 90% confidence level. The different eco-regions with the risk characteristics are as follows: the top six eco-regions with average ecosystem services risk index are Inner Mongolia Plateau, North China Plain, Loess Plateau, Northeast China Plain, Hengduan Mountain Region, and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The proportions of the eco-regions with extreme risk are 55.89%, 26.63%, 24.35%, 20.62%, 18.70% and 25.12%, respectively.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Spatial Patterns and Driving Forces of Land Use Change  in China in the Early 21st Century
    LIU Ji-Yuan-1, Zhang-Ceng-Xiang-2, Xu-Xin-Liang-1, Kuang-Wen-Hui-1, Zhou-Mo-Cun-3, Zhang-Shu-Wen-4, LI Ren-Dong-5, Ya-Chang-Zhen-6, Xu-Dong-Sheng-7, Tun-Shi-Xin-8, Jiang-Na-9
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2009, 64 (12): 1411-1420.   doi: 10.11821/xb200912001
    Abstract1781)      PDF (1560KB)(2487)      

    Land use and land cover change as the core of coupled human-environment systems has become a potential field of land change science (LCS) in the study of global environment change. Based on remotely sensed data of land use change with the spatial resolution of 1km ×1km on national scale among every five years, this paper designed a new dynamic regionalization according to the comprehensive characteristics of land use including regional differentiation, physical, economic, and macro-policy factors as well. Spatial pattern of land use change and its driving forces were investigated in Chia in the early 21st century. To sum up, land use pattern of this period was characterized by rapid changes in the whole country. Over the agricultural zones,e.g., Huang-Huai-Hai Plains, the southeast coastal area and Sichuan Basin, the built-up and residential areas were considerably expanded to a great proportion in the northwestern oasis agricultural zones and the northeastern zone led to a slight increase of arable land aea in the northern China. Due to the "grain for green" policy, forest area was significantly increased in the middle and western developing region,Where the vegetation coverage was substanially enlarged, likewise. This paper argued the main driving forces as the implementation of the strategy on land use and regional development, such as the "Western Development", "the Revitalization of the Northeast" policy, coupled with rapidly economic development during this period.

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    Acta Geographica Sinica    0, 0 (): 1155-1163.  
    Abstract55)           
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    A Tribute to the Geographers for Their Contributions to China and Mankind:  Centennial Celebration on The Geographical Society of China
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2009, 64 (10): 1155-1163.   doi: 10.11821/xb200910001
    Abstract707)      PDF (1684KB)(884)      

    Since 1909, China has witnessed rapid development of geography as well as hard times of the subject. The geography in China has undergone four stages, namely the launch of contemporary geography, the founding of New China to the late 1970s, reform and opening up to the late 1990s, and the early 21st century. On the occasion of the centennial celebration of The Geographical Society of China, the author dedicates this article to the geographers who have made contributions to China and the world during the past 100 years.

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    Chinese Human Geography in Transition
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2009, 64 (10): 1175-1183.   doi: 10.11821/xb200910003
    Abstract909)      PDF (1382KB)(1057)      

    Chinese human geography, as a branch of geography, has played an important role in the service of development for the country since the reform and opening up, at the same time, the process of national development has flourished the disciplines of human geography. However, much discussion has taken place on the status of human geography, in particular the debates have been long focused on human geography research methodology. In the context of globalization, the world needs to understand China, and China needs to enter the world system, thus in this process human geography will become even more important than ever. This paper explores the development process of human geography, and highlights the role that human geography has played as a major part of geography. On the one hand, economic, social and political changes in China have promoted the development of human geography, and on the other hand, Chinese human geography can make its due contributions to the development of the country with the enhancement of China's international economic status. Besides, human geography has its own law of development and research methods. We should emancipate the mind, and pay more attention to the law of value in economics, the value of social justice in social science, natural landscape and historical analysis methods, and analysis of quantity. There is a need to deepen and innovate the Chinese human geography research as well as to upgrade its results obtained in previous studies.

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    Cited: Baidu(32)
    Geographical Research and Optimizing Practice of Rural Hollowing in China
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2009, 64 (10): 1193-1202.   doi: 10.11821/xb200910005
    Abstract1300)      PDF (1910KB)(1443)      

    Rural hollowing is a widespread phenomenon all over China, especially in traditional agricultural areas. From the dynamic viewpoint, rural hollowing is a special evolution form of rural areal system during the process of urban-rural transformation development. In terms of its natural function and task, rural geography has unique advantages to research rural hollowing. From the comprehensive, dynamic and regional perspectives, these advantages of rural geography are mainly the phenomenon description and spatial models establishment of rural hollowing, formation mechanism and dynamic force simulation, response mechanism and comprehensive effect, as well as potential types and its optimal regulation This paper puts forward a series of propositions which should be studied based on theoretical disciplinary system of rural geography. Therefore this paper refines and develops the theoretical foundation of rural geography for rural hollowing research. The theoretical system includes the lifecycles of rural hollowing evolvement, spatial pattern of generation development, mechanics theory of rural hollowing and "Three Integration" model. Then based on the theory research of rural space reconstructions and rural hollowing regulation, integrating with analysis of influencing factors on spatial pattern and evolvement of rural settlement, this paper develops a framework for the succession, evaluation and regulation of rural hollowing. Finally, taking Yucheng city in Shandong province as a typical case, this paper constructs the basic criterion, development concept and planning schemes for the regulation of hollowed villages in Yucheng city, which is the theoretical practice of rural geography. In order to guide new countryside construction, ensure warning line of cultivated land and co-ordinate land use allocation between urban and rural areas in China, it is necessary to conduct a through investigation on the mechanism, policy and mode innovation involved "trinity" by implementing village renovation demonstration project.

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