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    Bole-Taipei Line: The important function and basic conception as a line for regional balanced development
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 211-225.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002001
    Abstract2516)   HTML70)    PDF (4532KB)(396)      

    Promoting regional coordinated development strategy is one of the most important strategies in the new period of China. Faced with the reality of unbalanced and insufficient regional development in China, it is objectively necessary to construct one or more main axes supporting the coordinated and balanced development of regions to become the identification line representing the pattern of coordinated regional development. The results show that the Bo-Tai line, the northwest-southeast axis connecting Bole of Xinjiang and Taipei of Taiwan, can be built into a national development backbone line and regional balanced development line, just perpendicular to the Hu Line. In 2016, the area of southwest half and northeast half of Bo-Tai Line accounts for 59:41, while the population accounts for 45:55, the economic aggregate accounts for 40:60, the per capita GDP ratio accounts for 44:56, the population density ratio accounts for 38:62, the economic density ratio accounts for 32:68, and the urbanization level ratio accounts for 48:52. The main average indicators gradually tend to present a balanced development pattern. Further analysis shows that Bo-Tai Line is a strategic shoulder pole connecting two core zones of the Belt and Road, and is the peaceful reunification line of China's national tranquility and Taiwan's return. The Bo-Tai Line is also a solid line supported and connected by comprehensive transportation channels and a Pipa type symmetrical line for the development of cities and urban agglomerations. It is the backbone of the two-way opening up and the linkage development line between land and sea. It is also an important dividing line that promotes the coordinated development of the eastern, central and western regions, and addresses the imbalance and inadequacy of regional development. The Bo-Tai Line plays an irreplaceable strategic role in promoting the coordinated and balanced regional development. It is suggested that the construction of Bo-Tai Line should be included in the national development strategy, and the development strategic plan of Bo-Tai Line should be formulated to fully release the multiple potential functions. We should build three strategic support points (the northwest endpoint, the central strategic node and the southeast endpoint), carry out a comprehensive scientific investigation of the Bo-Tai Line, and strengthen the scientific cognition and publicity, and promote China's development in a higher-level, higher-quality, more coordinated, safer and more civilized direction. And we should make the Bo-Tai Line known to China and the world, and let the Bo-Tai Line truly become the backbone of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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    Development and management tasks of the Yellow River Basin: A preliminary understanding and suggestion
    LU Dadao, SUN Dongqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2431-2436.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912001
    Abstract2483)   HTML302)    PDF (828KB)(1524)      

    The Yellow River Basin and the areas along the Yellow River play an important strategic role in national development. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC, delivered an important speech at the symposium on ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin in Zhengzhou, which is of great strategic significance. This paper gives a preliminary understanding of the comprehensive governance and the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It points out that the task of the comprehensive and profound transformation and development of the Yellow River Basin in the new era is still arduous, and change of concept is required. Continuing to promote the clean and efficient use of energy, promoting industrial development in accordance with local conditions, preventing extensive development and protecting cultivated land resources should be regarded as important measures to strengthen the comprehensive management and guarantee the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It is believed that the "Yellow River Economic Belt" does not exist at the national economic level, and it is not appropriate to identify "the Yellow River Delta" as a national strategy.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Understanding geographic coupling and achieving geographic integration
    SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YANG Xiaofan, YE Sijing, GAO Peichao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 3-13.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001001
    Abstract1766)   HTML126)    PDF (3429KB)(823)      

    Coupling, as a classic physical concept, provides a suite of ideas and methods for describing interactions of multi-agents across disciplines. In contrast, the concept of integration is not from a certain discipline, but it is widely used in many natural and socioeconomic sciences fields due to its great generalization capacity. Both concepts are frequently mentioned in Earth science. Geography, as a multi-disciplinary research area between natural and socioeconomic sciences, owns regional, comprehensive, and complex characteristics. The understanding of coupling varies across geographic sciences. This paper presents an advanced understanding from six geographic perspectives based on different disciplines and scenarios, which is helpful to accurately explore patterns, processes, and mechanisms of land surface system. Firstly, this paper clarifies six perspectives on geographic coupling, and presents corresponding research cases, which include geographic spatial coupling, geographic features coupling, geographic interfaces coupling, geospatial scale coupling, geographic relationship coupling and geographic coupling interpretation. Secondly, the paper interprets the concept of integration from a geographic perspective, and introduces a pathway to achieving an integration in Heihe River Basin's research practice. Finally, the paper proposes intrinsic connections between geographic coupling and geographic integration.

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    Development of aeolian geomorphology in China in the past 70 years
    DONG Zhibao, LYU Ping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 509-528.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003006
    Abstract1517)   HTML268)    PDF (1256KB)(466)      

    Wind is the second largest fluid shaping the earth's landscape besides water. The aeolian landform formed by wind is widely distributed in the global arid regions, and more than 40% of the land area is affected by the aeolian process in the world. Owing to a close relationship with the human's living environment, aeolian geomorphology has received continuous attention from the international academia since the end of the 19th century. Although aeolian landforms are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of China, the relevant study started in the late 1950s. This paper summarizes the development of aeolian geomorphology during the past 70 years in China, which has experienced three stages: the initial stage before reform and opening-up; the development stage between the reform and opening-up to the end of the 20th century; and international stage since the beginning of the 21st century, even partially beyond the international standard nowadays. There are many influential achievements in China, including dunes movement, regional comprehensive study on aeolian landforms, formation and evolution process of unique aeolian landforms, Gobi, the secondary flow around dunes and the exploration of extraterrestrial planets. Aeolian research in China has the potential to lead the international aeolian research in the future, but the aeolian geomorphologists must have following strategic thinking on meta-synthesis, the guidance of the earth system science, the global view and development of the outer space era.

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    Geographical thinking on the relationship between beautiful China and land spatial planning
    CHEN Mingxing, LIANG Longwu, WANG Zhenbo, ZHANG Wenzhong, YU Jianhui, LIANG Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2467-2481.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912004
    Abstract1400)   HTML112)    PDF (2675KB)(837)      

    Beautiful China is the new goal of ecological civilization construction in the new era of socialism, which can meet the real needs of the people for a better life. National land space planning is a major deployment of the state to coordinate various types of space planning. Beautiful China is the new leading goal of the country's second centenary development. Its connotation is not only "ecological beauty", but also the comprehensive beauty of "economy-politics-culture-society-ecology". The construction of beautiful China needs a differentiated evaluation index system based on the local conditions. Beautiful China is closely related to the land spatial planning. The former provides an important direction for the latter, while the latter provides an important approach and space guarantee for the construction of the former. The establishment of land spatial planning needs to strengthen the further discussion of the regional system of human-environment interaction, point-axis system, the main functional area planning, sustainable development and resource environmental carrying capacity, new urbanization and rural regional multi-body system. This paper puts forward the thinking framework of land spatial planning from the perspective of geography, including scientifically analyzing the natural geographical conditions, economic and social development basis, and the interrelationship between land and space, planing the goal, vision and path of land and space, encouraging the public to participate in and carry out dynamic evaluation, and building an intelligent system platform for land and spatial planning with the goal of beautiful China, which provide ideas for the compilation and implementation of land spatial planning.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Measure and distribution of urban elderly in poverty: An empirical study in Beijing
    GAO Xiaolu, WU Danxian, YAN Bingqiu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (8): 1557-1571.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008001
    Abstract1225)   HTML2)    PDF (1994KB)(2)      

    Poverty among older people in urban areas is growing along with population ageing and urbanization in China, but the absence of proper indices and method to measure urban elderly poverty brings difficulty to the understanding of the spatial pattern of elderly poverty in cities and policy making in poverty reduction. It is necessary to consider the association of elderly poverty with education, health, family relationship and social support levels of older people and set poverty cutoff more appropriately. With a factor analysis method, we develop a resource-based poverty index to identify poor older residents on the basis of survey data in eight typical residential communities in Beijing. Then, the elderly poverty rates for different residential communities are estimated and the spatial patterns of urban elderly poverty are investigated. It is found that, (1) resource, health, independence and age factors interpret the variation of older residents, among which the score of resource factor constitutes an appropriate indicator of urban elderly poverty. (2) Elderly poverty rate differs significantly for different types of residential communities. With the spatial distribution data of various communities being considered, the poverty rate of elderly population in Beijing is estimated to be 9.55%. (3) The elderly poverty rate of town centers away from the central city is the highest and the poverty rate drops down from the outer to inner areas of the central city gradually. The density of the elderly in poverty, on the other hand, goes to the highest in town centers and the inner city areas, followed by outer central city and the fringe of the central city. These results provide evidences for the formulation of urban policies against elderly poverty in the city.

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    Study on adaptive governance of social-ecological system: Progress and prospect
    SONG Shuang, WANG Shuai, FU Bojie, CHEN Haibin, LIU Yanxu, ZHAO Wenwu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2401-2410.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911015
    Abstract1195)   HTML88)    PDF (1883KB)(724)      

    Social-Ecological System (SES) is composed of social subsystem, ecological subsystem and the interaction between them; its structure, functions, and characteristics are different from those of social subsystem or ecological subsystem alone. Relying on adaptive social mechanisms of power-sharing and decision making, the adaptive governance of SES aims to guarantee human well-being in a sustainable manner under dynamic conditions. Adaptive governance theory is influenced by "common pool resources management", "resilience" and "governance", and lays a foundation for the construction of transformative governance and collaborative governance. This theory has three main objectives: (1) understanding and coping with the multi-stability, nonlinearity, uncertainty, integrity and complexity of SES; (2) establishing non-confrontational social structure, power-sharing structure and decision-making structure, and match with social subsystem and ecological subsystem; (3) achieving sustainable management of ecosystem services through an integrated approach. Therefore, in the face of the "Anthropocene" of human-behaviour-dominant surface processes, achieving adaptive governance helps to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of SES. Given the rapid changes in China's environment and the increasingly complicated interactions between China and countries all over the world, it will be helpful for future studies to pay close attention to the following fields: (1) understand the multi-interaction processes of a coupled system, and enhance its adaptability; (2) emphasize the significance of a holistic approach of studying SES; (3) improve the ability to understand and predict system dynamics in the context of environmental change.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The evolution process and regulation of China's regional development pattern
    FAN Jie, WANG Yafei, LIANG Bo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2437-2454.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912002
    Abstract1151)   HTML151)    PDF (5095KB)(1150)      

    China's per capita GDP has reached 64520 yuan (about 10,000 US dollars). The development process of countries around the world and the inverted U-shaped curve of regional development gaps indicate that the evolution of China's regional development pattern will step into an inflection point segment and that the development gap between regions has witnessed a switch from continuing widening to narrowing. In this paper, we discuss the evolution process of China's regional development pattern over the 40 years since 1978 before the inflection point: (1) The gap in per capita GDP between the upstream areas (the top 9 most developed provinces) and the downstream (the last 8 underdeveloped provinces) increased from 407 yuan in 1978 to 53817 yuan in 2018. (2) Under the pull of export-oriented economy and non-state-owned economy, the mean center of urbanization and economic development rotates in a clockwise direction. Southeast China has become an area with accelerated economic agglomeration. (3) China's regional development pattern has presented a diamond structure with the four core regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing as the apex and the connection of adjacent regions as the boundary. The GDP in these regions accounts for about 75% of the national total. In 2020, China's regional development pattern will enter an inflection point of evolution. The form is characterized by the narrowing of the regional economic gap, which is essentially a transition from non-high-quality regional development to high-quality regional development. The high-quality development of the region is a process of growth in which the ecological and social benefits will be basically synchronized in the process of sustained economic growth, and a regional high-quality development model that is differentiated by geographical functions is presented. In the next 30 years, the regulation and optimization of China's regional development pattern should focus on three types of regions: key urbanization regions, relatively underdeveloped regions, and key areas for security, as well as inter-regional interactions according to the dual objectives of promoting regional balanced (coordinated) development and high-quality development. Establishing a space governance system with the major function zoning-strategy-planning-system as the mainstay will become the basic guarantee for regulating and optimizing the regional development pattern.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Regional integration and interaction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Yi, WANG Yun, YANG Yu, MA Li
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2455-2466.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912003
    Abstract1146)   HTML135)    PDF (2168KB)(795)      

    The integration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area will inevitably encounter a series of frictions because of the cross-social system, cross-legal system and cross-administrative hierarchy. Research on the cooperation and conflict between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao is an important supplement to the integration study of the area. This paper reviews the process of integration development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from 1997 to 2019 through the global news event database GDELT. The results show that: (1) the relationship between China's mainland and Hong Kong presents a "M" type fluctuation, and the conflict between them has been amplified by the news media compared with the mainland-Macao relationship. (2) The policy and public opinion between China's mainland and Macao are highly consistent, as the verbal cooperation between them is the leading factor of the interaction. (3) The interaction between China's mainland, Hong Kong and Macao has generally become closer, along with the increasing frequency of cooperations and conflicts. The importance of the mainland-Hong Kong relationship in the interactive relationship between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao has been increasingly highlighted. (4) Material cooperation projects are still insufficient in the process of the regional integration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and there is an urgent need for diversified cooperation. The economic and technological competitions and cooperations between Guangdong and Hong Kong are the main factors affecting the interactive relationship between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, as well as the tensions in Hong Kong. In the future, the coordinated development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area should focus on not only the projection of regional policies on space, but also its projection on social public opinion and the news media. It is necessary to combine the integration of physical space and virtue/discourse space, and strengthen the interactions between "hard connection" and "soft connection".

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Spatial variation of the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention
    GU Hengyu, MENG Xin, SHEN Tiyan, CUI Nana
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 240-254.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002003
    Abstract1109)   HTML59)    PDF (2982KB)(403)      

    It is demonstrated that the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention are different among geographic units, which seems to be ignored by previous researches. Based on the data from the 2015 national migrant population dynamic monitoring survey (CMDS) and related statistics, this article uses the Semiparametric Geographically Weighted Regression (SGWR) model and k-means cluster method to examine the spatial variation of the factors influencing floating population's settlement intention in 282 prefecture- and provincial- level cites of China. Results provide the following conclusions. (1) The settlement intention of urban floating population is mainly influenced by the floating population characteristics instead of the destination characteristics. (2) Social and economic factors are closely related to the floating population's settlement intention. Meanwhile, the demographic, family and mobility factors exert a significant impact on such an intention. To be specific, there exists an inhibitory effect on floating population's settlement intention in factors such as income, marriage, and cross provincial mobility. However, housing expenditure, participation rate, number of children and other factors can effectively contribute to such intention. (3) Zonal spatial differentiation patterns of the influencing factors' coefficients are illustrated by the SGWR model, which can be further divided into four categories ("E-W", "N-S", "NE-SW" and "SE-NW"): The positive influences of ethnic and family factors are decreasing from the northern to southern regions, while the influence of employment ratio in the secondary industry is declining from the northwest to the southeast regions, and the impacts of factors such as the number of children and per capita GDP are diminishing from the northeast to the southwest regions. In eastern developed areas, the settlement intention of floating population with higher income is comparatively lower, while migrants with higher housing expenditure in southern China have a stronger intention to settle down. (4) Four influencing zones are detected by the k-means method: Floating population's settlement intention in North China, Central China and East China is significantly affected by multiple factors; In the northwest region and part of the southwest region, migrants' settlement intention is mainly influenced by demographic and social factors; The northeast region and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia's floating population's willingness to stay is mainly related to economic and family factors; Apart from housing expenditure, coefficients of other factors are relatively small in southern China and part of the central, eastern and southwestern regions. Additionally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the service and management of the floating population in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    The relationship between urban spatial growth and population density change
    ZHAO Rui, JIAO Limin, XU Gang, XU Zhibang, DONG Ting
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 695-707.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004003
    Abstract1080)   HTML39)    PDF (4990KB)(374)      

    Exploring the relationship between urban spatial growth and population density change is the basis of urban sustainable development research, which is of great significance for formulating effective land policies to promote urban compact development. The research selected 23 cities with a population of more than 1 million in China and Europe as the study areas. Based on the land use and population data in the study areas in 1990, 2000, and 2014, the research calculated the growth rate of sample urban space during each period, and the urban compactness index was then established to divide the urban spatial growth mode into compact type, maintenance type and spread type. The characteristics of spatial growth, population density change, and their relationship were further discussed. The results are as follows: (1) Population density decline is widespread in cities of China and Europe. Population density in cities of China is relatively high, and the rate of decline is fast, whereas population density in cities of Europe is relatively low and the rate of decline is slow. From 1990 to 2014, the growth rate of urban spatial radius in China was significantly higher than that in Europe. There is a strong negative correlation between the growth rate of urban space and the change rate of population density (with a Pearson's r of -0.693). (2) From 1990 to 2000, most of the sample cities' spatial growth mode were compact. From 2000 to 2014, most Chinese cities' spatial growth mode transformed into spread type and rate of population density decline increased. By contrast, European cities' spatial growth mode maintained to be compact or transformed into maintenance, and the rate of population density decline decreased. (3) Compact spatial growth does not necessarily lead to an increase in population density, but it tends to lower the rate of population density decline, relative to spread spatial growth. The comparative analysis of Chinese and European cities shows that if cities maintain a compact spatial growth mode, the rate of population density will be lowered. If cities' spatial growth mode transforms from compact to spread, it will intensify the decline of urban population density over time.

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    Progress of ecohydrological discipline and its future development in China
    XIA Jun, ZHANG Yongyong, MU Xingmin, ZUO Qiting, ZHOU Yujian, ZHAO Guangju
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 445-457.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003001
    Abstract1073)   HTML224)    PDF (2758KB)(473)      

    Ecohydrology is a key discipline developed in recent decades, which can give aid in the protection and restoration of complex ecological systems (e.g., mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake), ultimately promoting the ecological civilization construction and the green development of China. In this paper, the progress and existing challenges of ecohydrological discipline are elaborated, and the future development directions are proposed according to the international scientific frontiers and national demands on ecological civilization construction. The main directions are to develop new ecohydrological monitoring methods and improve comprehensive observation network of ecohydrological systems; to perfect the ecohydrological mechanisms and their basic theories; to promote the integrations of multi-scales and multi-elements by considering both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; to promote the multidisciplinary integrations between ecohydrology and social sciences. Furthermore, specific future research interests in China are proposed as follows: multi-source information fusion and comprehensive monitoring system construction, spatio-temporal patterns of key ecohydrological elements and their variation characteristics; integrated models of ecological, hydrological and economic processes and their uncertainty estimation; interdisciplinary studies including physical and social sciences. The application prospective in China is further explicated in a variety of ecosystems (e.g., forest, grassland, river and lake, wetland, farmland and urban area). This paper is expected to provide a reference to support the development strategy of the ecohydrological discipline in China, and to give a theoretical foundation and technical support for the implementation of national ecological civilization construction.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Effect of soil moisture variation on near-surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau
    FAN Keke, ZHANG Qiang, SUN Peng, SONG Changqing, YU Huiqian, ZHU Xiudi, SHEN Zexi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 82-97.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001007
    Abstract980)   HTML225)    PDF (7259KB)(404)      

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the most sensitive regions to global climate change. It is of important theoretical significance to explore the effect of soil moisture changes on near-surfaceair temperature for the study of the water cycle of the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the surrounding climate and environment. Based on the NCEP-CFSR dataset, this paper reveals the spatial-temporal pattern of soil moisture content in different seasons and different vegetation zones on the Tibetan Plateau, the response and coupling of soil moisture and evaporation rate, and the impact of soil moisture on near-surface air temperature through evapotranspiration. The results show that: (1) The spatial pattern of soil water on the Tibetan Plateau is basically similar in different seasons, showing a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest and the spatial characteristics of drying in humid regions and wetting in arid regions; (2) The soil moisture in most parts of the Tibetan Plateau is in a transitional state, in which the southern and southeastern parts of the plateau are in a state of transition throughout the year, while the soil moisture in the Qaidam Basin is almost in a dry state all the year round; (3) The sensitivity of the near-surface air temperature to soil moisture is the weakest in winter, but the strongest in summer with weak spatial difference, which is negative feedback in winter, spring and summer. Moreover, the sensitivity of air temperature to soil moisture varies greatly in different vegetation coverage areas. This study has important theoretical significance for further exploring the regional water cycle and its effects under the coupled land-atmosphere state and the changing environment of the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Research progress and prospect on development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, JIN Gui, HE Shujin, WANG Chengxin, LI Zhaohua, WANG Zhanqi, SONG Malin, YANG Qingyuan, ZHANG Anlu, CHEN Jiancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 226-239.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002002
    Abstract975)   HTML33)    PDF (1353KB)(299)      

    In this paper, we review and sort out research progress on development geography since the 20th century, involving its connotation and theory, fields and methods, and development trends in this paper. Specifically, we systematically reviewed the research and application of development geography in the fields such as in the convergence of underdeveloped countries or regions, the convergence in the process of improving the quality of life in developed countries or regions. Then, in line with the analysis of the research progress on development geography in foreign countries, we indicate the development conditions and disciplinary advantages of development geography in China. Further, we pointed that future development geography research in China should focus more on the latest international academic frontier research and national macro-strategic needs. The future research of development geography should be guided by the theory of sustainable development, with the core of improving the sustainable livelihood capacity and regional green development level in underdeveloped areas, and aiming at constructing industrial policy and development geography theory and interdisciplinary integrated research system, and focusing on research on the spatial pattern, diffusion characteristics and convergence mechanism of regional development, to explore the regulatory policies and scientific paths that serve regional economic construction and industrial development.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Regional differentiation of population in Tibetan Plateau: Insight from the "Hu Line"
    QI Wei, LIU Shenghe, ZHOU Liang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 255-267.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002004
    Abstract973)   HTML60)    PDF (3571KB)(356)      

    The Tibetan Plateau is regarded as a typically sparsely populated area both from Chinese and global perspectives. There exists a large difference in population distribution of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the town-level census data in 2010, we compiled a spatial population database to calculate the population density of the Tibetan Plateau. We found that the population distribution on this plateau was characterized in four dimensions, namely longitude, latitude, polarization and altitude. In addition, similar to the "Hu Line" for Chinese population distribution, we introduce the "Qilian-Gyirong Line" (short for Qi-Ji Line), a spatial division line of population geography in the Tibetan Plateau. Our main results are summarized as follows. (1) There are significant regional differences in the spatial population distribution in the Tibetan Plateau. The population density in the southeast was higher than that in the northwest. Compared to longitude-oriented, latitude-oriented and altitude-oriented regional differences, the polarization-oriented regional difference of population distribution was more prominent. This finding indicates that fewer people live in areas close to the cold-arid core of the Tibetan Plateau. (2) The spatial population distribution is closely related to the natural and environmental factors, including altitude, soil, water resources, climate and vegetation. The interaction between the natural factors has an impact on enhancing the regional difference of population. (3) The "Qiji Line" reveals the spatial differences of population in the Tibetan Plateau. The areas on either side of the line are approximately similar, whereas the population shares in the southeast and northwest halves are 93% and 7%, respectively. (4) In general, the population differences on both sides of the "Qiji Line" were stable over time. During 1982-2010 the population share in the southeast half decreased counterbalanced by an increased share in the northeast half. In the future, the majority of the people are expected to live on the southeast side. This is likely to imply two major policy initiatives. More attention is required on the urbanization development and transportation network construction in the southeast half and the increasing eco-environmental pressures from the growing population in the northwest half.

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    Relief degree of land surface and its geographical meanings in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
    FENG Zhiming, LI Wenjun, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1359-1372.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007003
    Abstract954)   HTML32)    PDF (4161KB)(280)      

    Relief degree of land surface (RDLS) is one of the key indicators in the fields of suitability assessment of human settlements (SAHS) as well as resources and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) evaluation at the regional scale. Currently, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the determination of the optimal window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation and its correlation analysis with two topographical parameters, e.g., elevation and relative height difference. These issues further affect the effective representation of the RDLS in the delineation of local to regional topographic relief. Therefore, an objective understanding of the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China greatly contributes to promoting the construction of national ecological security barrier and regional green development. In this study, based on the 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM Version 2), the optimal window size for calculating and evaluating the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was accurately determined using the average change-point method, and the first 30 m RDLS thematic map for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was generated accordingly. Next, the interrelation between the RDLS and elevation and relative height difference was quantitatively examined. Based on that, the effective representation or geographical meanings of the RDLS in the plateau were defined. The results/conclusions include: (1) The optimum window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation in the study area based on the 30 m GDEM is a rectangular neighborhood of 41×41 pixels, equaling to an area of about 1.51 km2. The average change-point analysis approach shows that the optimum window size for regional RDLS analysis is unique. (2) The average RDLS of the study area is approximately 5.06, along with over 60% of the plateau ranging between 4.5 and 5.7. On the whole, the topographic relief increases from the northeast to the southwest and west parts. Gentle to small-relief landforms are mostly seen in the Qaidam Basin, the Southern Tibet Valley, and the Hehuang Valley (Yellow and Huangshui river valleys). Also, the differences in the local surface relief in varied latitudinal sections (along the mountain range) are small, while those at longitudinal level are big, showing hierarchical and regular fluctuations (crossing the mountain trending). (3) Correlation analyses showed that different values of the RDLS in the plateau correspond to geomorphic units with different elevations and relative height differences. The profile characteristics of the mountains in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on different terrain reliefs indicate that the height above sea level of low mountains steadily increases first, then experiences sudden rise and severe fluctuation in surface relief, and finally forms the orderly ups and downs of the extreme mountains, e.g., the Himalayas.

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    Research progress in crop phenology under global climate change
    LIU Yujie, GE Quansheng, DAI Junhu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 14-24.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001002
    Abstract947)   HTML56)    PDF (962KB)(471)      

    As one of the most important plant traits of crops, crop phenology reflects the characteristics of crop growth and development; its variation also affects crop production. Therefore, crop phenology is a reliable and comprehensive biological indicator reflecting global climate change. Global climate change, marked by rising temperatures, has exerted significant impacts on crop phenology. Under the background of global climate change, revealing the mechanism of global climate change impacts on crop phenology and growth as well as the formation of crop yield is of theoretical and practical significance. At present, crop phenology shifts and their influencing factors have become a hot research topic and an important international issue, thus a large number of studies have been carried out, and achieved rich and effective results. In this paper, we mainly focus on the research progress of crop phenological changes under the background of climate change, including the driving factors and their influencing mechanisms of crop phenological changes as well as methods of research on crop phenology, and the key scientific issues which need to be solved in future study are also discussed. The conclusions of this research could provide a theoretical basis for understanding the impacts and mechanisms of global climate change on crop phenology and for guiding regional agricultural production practices.

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    Geographical missions and coupling ways between human and nature for the Beautiful China Initiative
    GE Quansheng, FANG Chuanglin, JIANG Dong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 1109-1119.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006001
    Abstract939)   HTML60)    PDF (1934KB)(300)      

    Beautiful China Initiative (BCI) aims at sustainable development with blue sky and green land, lucid waters and lush mountains, prosperous society and rich people, and harmony between humans and nature. The BCI is a Chinese practice to implement the SDGs 2030 of the United Nations, and an important method to promote the harmonious development between humans and nature and to win the gold and silver mountains by maintaining clear waters and green mountains. Geography, an applied cross-discipline serving the country's socio-economic development, has comprehensive and regional characteristics. Geographers shoulder the historical mission of building a beautiful China, and are duty-bound to take the lead in becoming pioneers and practitioners of the BCI. The theory of pericoupling and telecoupling between humans and nature is the theoretical foundation of the BCI. The interdisciplinary and comprehensive integration of geography is the practical means for the BCI. The complex system simulation and optimization of geography provide a scientific tool for coupling ways between humans and nature of the BCI. The main coupling ways for geography to promote the BCI include: carry out major scientific and technological projects and coupling demonstrations; perform dynamic assessment and monitoring of the coupled human and natural systems for the BCI; draw up the strategic coupling roadmap and the action plan of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for the BCI; build a concept of beautiful land to comply with the objectives of the National Territorial Space Plan of China; develop a comprehensive regionalization of coupled human and natural systems in accordance with local conditions, and build a group of beautiful urban agglomerations and national parks; undertake pilot projects for the construction of Beautiful China and summarize the regional coupling models for the BCI. These coupling paths will ensure that the whole country and each of its provincial-level region are getting closer to the target according to the schedule and roadmap for building a beautiful China, and diverse regions will achieve the overall goals in the competition.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution of global food security pattern and its influencing factors in 2000-2014
    MA Enpu, CAI Jianming, LIN Jing, GUO Hua, HAN Yan, LIAO Liuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 332-347.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002009
    Abstract906)   HTML46)    PDF (2791KB)(382)      

    Food security is the basic foundation in accomplishing of the overall Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As the objective in SDGs of "halving the proportion of hungry people by 2015" has not been achieved as scheduled, it will become more challenging to realize its final goal of zero hunger by 2030. So exploring the underlying causes of global food security pattern from perspectives of spatio-temporal evolution is badly needed. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation method with multi-indices was applied to evaluate the food security level of 172 countries in 2000-2014 based on an established global database with country-specific time series data. Then the spatial pattern and changing characteristics of global food security by country was conducted through the spatial autocorrelation analysis. Upon this basis, the underlying factors affecting the food security pattern were further identified and analyzed with a multiple nonlinear regression method. The findings and results show that: (1) The global food security pattern can be summarized as "high-high and low-low agglomerations" of socio-economic status and food security level. The most food secure countries are mainly distributed in the regions with more advanced economy such as North America, Oceania, parts of East Asia, and Western Europe. On the contrary, the least food secure countries are mainly distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, West Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia. (2) At 99% confidence level, Western Europe and sub-Saharan Africa are respectively the hot and cold spots in global food security landscape, while in non-aggregation areas such as Haiti and North Korea, there exist long-term food insecurity problems. (3) The spatio-temporal pattern of global food security is generally stable, but the internal changes in the extremely insecure groups are significant. The countries with the most changeable levels of food security are also the countries with the most food insecurity. (4) Annual mean temperature, per capita GDP, the proportion of people who have access to clean water, and political stability are the key factors affecting the global food security pattern. The study indicates that while the global food security situation has improved since 2000, there was a reverse sign or omen in 2013. Affected by climate change, residents' purchasing power, infrastructure condition, and political and economic stability, global food security has in fact been volatile and some areas in the world are still facing acute food security problems. In addressing this challenge, a food security strategy based on the four dimensions, i.e. food supply, food access, food use and political stability, and a worldwide rural revitalization approach, is highly recommended. Meanwhile, it is necessary to progressively introduce some diversified modes of production such as urban agriculture to build a more resilient food system in those fully urbanized regions.

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    Rural regional system and rural revitalization strategy in China
    LIU Yansui, ZHOU Yang, LI Yuheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2511-2528.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912007
    Abstract891)   HTML77)    PDF (2889KB)(723)      

    Rural regional system is a spatial system with certain structure, function and inter-regional relationship, which is composed of humanity, economy, resources and environment that are connected and interacted with each other. It is a regional multi-body system, including urban-rural integrity, rural synthesis, village-town organism, and housing-industry synergy. Targeting the rural regional system and supporting the rural revitalization strategy provides new opportunities and challenges for innovation of Chinese geography in the new era. Guided by the theory of regional system of human-land system and the science of human-land system, the research on rural revitalization geography should serve national strategy by finding solutions to problems hindering rural sustainable development, and make contribution to the comprehensive study of rural regional system structure, transformation process, evolution mechanism, differentiation pattern, regional function, and rural revitalization path and model under the interaction of surface's human-land system. There is an urgent requirement to better understand and reveal differences in the types of rural regional system and their differentiation law. Taking 39164 townships in China as research object, this paper used quantitative and qualitative methods to detect and identify the dominant factors that restrict the sustainable development of rural regional systems in China. Then we divided the types of Chinese rural regional systems, revealed the pattern of rural regional differentiation and further proposed scientific approaches to rural revitalization in different areas. Results demonstrate that topographic conditions, climate conditions, ruralization level, land resources endowment, population mobility and aging level are the dominant factors restricting the sustainable development of rural regional system, of which reflects the level of resource endowment, endogenous power and external aid of rural development. Through cluster analysis and spatial overlay of dominant factors, China's rural regional system can be divided into 12 first-class zones and 43 second-class zones. The first-class zones are named by means of 'geographical location + driving force of dominant factors', and the second-class zones are named by means of 'regional scope + driving force of dominant factors + economic development level'. The driving force of rural sustainable development in different regional types are varied. The regional pattern and path of rural revitalization in different types of areas are varied, and promoting the rural revitalization strategy should be based on local conditions to realize the coordination and sustainable development of rural economy, society, culture and ecosystem.

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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Spatial distribution and its influencing factors of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi Province
    LIU Min, HAO Wei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 878-888.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004015
    Abstract876)   HTML25)    PDF (3107KB)(284)      

    of spatial analysis technology of GIS as well as Geodetector are proposed to identify the spatial distribution and influencing factors of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi Province from 2001 to 2017, based on data from tourism administration network, Geospatial Data Cloud, government reports and statistical yearbooks. These influencing factors include socio-political factor (including related policies, resident population and traffic conditions), economic-industrial factor (including the proportion of three industries, tourism income and GDP) and natural environmental factor (including altitude, river system and average temperature). The results show that: (1) Dynamic factors, such as socio-political factor as well as economic-industrial factor, changed greatly, while static factors, such as natural environment factor, changed little; (2) Nine third-level influencing factors affected the spatial distribution of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi to different degrees, five of which, including related policies, resident population, traffic conditions, tourism income and GDP, were continuously strengthened from 2001 to 2017, while the proportion of three industries decreased in a fluctuating way. For the rest of third-level influencing factors, i.e. altitude, river system and average temperature, their influence on the spatial distribution of national A-level tourist attractions in the province remained relatively stable. (3) With respect of the evolution of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi from 2001 to 2017, the extent of impacts of the socio-political factor, one of the second-level factors, increased year by year and the factor became the most important, followed by the economic-industrial factor, while the natural environmental factor had the minimum influence. The results can provide a strong support for assessing and guiding the overall development of regional tourism, promoting the development of tourism, and providing a scientific method to optimize the spatial structure of tourist attractions and tourism industry upgrading.

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    Impacts of urbanization on spatio-temporal variations of temperature over the Pearl River Delta
    WU Zixuan, ZHANG Qiang, SONG Changqing, ZHANG Fen, ZHU Xiudi, SUN Peng, FAN Keke, YU Huiqian, SHEN Zexi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2342-2357.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911011
    Abstract870)   HTML293)    PDF (5834KB)(900)      

    Daily temperature data at 21 stations across the Pearl River Delta during the period of 1967-2015 were selected, and these stations were divided into urban stations and suburban stations based on population, population density and DMSP/OLS data. Meanwhile, spatio-temporal variations due to urbanization were investigated by comparing the temperature changes at urban and suburban stations. The results show that: (1) In the past 50 years, the annual average temperature, the average maximum temperature and the average minimum temperature in the Pearl River Delta region increased significantly, and the average minimum temperature increased at the highest rate, or 1.05-1.16 times of the average temperature and 0.95-1.32 times of the average maximum temperature, respectively. Among them, the seasonal difference of annual average temperature change rate is generally manifested as the strongest temperature increase in autumn and winter, with the temperature increase rate higher than 0.3 ℃/10a, and the temperature increase rate is weaker in spring and summer, with the temperature increase rate as low as 0.16 ℃/10a. (2) Using urban and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) comparison to study the urbanization effect, affected by urbanization, the annual average temperature of the Pearl River Delta is increasing by 0.096 ℃/10a. (3) Using urban and rural comparison to study the urbanization effect, from 1967 to 2015, urbanization leads to the temperature increase in urban areas. Generally speaking, urbanization contributes the most to the increase of average minimum temperature. Meanwhile, the seasonal difference in the contribution rate of urbanization to the annual average temperature change indicates that the increase rate is stronger in summer and winter, with the contribution rate higher than 11.8%, and lower in spring and autumn, with the contribution rate being only 4.46%. (3) The selection of stations division method, the different periods of urbanization development and time scale of research all lead to the uncertainty of the research results on the warming effect of urbanization. Different stations classification methods indicate that urbanization contributes the most to the increase of the minimum temperature, and for a longer time scale, the contribution rate of urbanization to the increase of the minimum temperature is up to 38.6%.

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    Research progress of human-earth system dynamics based on spatial resilience theory
    LIU Yanxu, FU Bojie, WANG Shuai, ZHAO Wenwu, LI Yan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (5): 891-903.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005001
    Abstract861)   HTML44)    PDF (1459KB)(341)      

    The concept of human-earth system represents a dynamic structure formed by the interaction between human and earth within a specific region. Considering the complexity of the system, it is necessary to construct a more powerful indicator system to describe the interaction and reflection processes between human and earth systems. The term of spatial resilience can be understood as the overall ability of regional space to absorb, recover or transform natural and social disturbances. Spatial resilience targeted at securing the structural stability of human-earth system, and it also provides a new approach for the shaping of targeted theoretical models and quantifiable indicator system in the study of human-earth system. This study reviews the research progress of spatial resilience from three perspectives, including: ecological policy and ecosystems spatial resilience from a natural perspective; environmental changes and spatial resilience of community production and living from a social perspective and the spatial resilience integrated indicator system from a comprehensive description perspective. Then the article puts forward three important directions of spatial resilience research in China, including understanding the spatial state that guaranteed system sustainability, identifying the spatial thresholds of human-earth system dynamic process, and satisfying the national demands of ecological protection and social development. This study also discusses the spatial resilience indicator system in various human-earth system functional areas from aspects of system structure, function and threshold. By the deepening of the theories and methods of spatial resilience, the human-earth system dynamics can be further understood, so as to improve the regional level accuracy on simulating the socioeconomic, environmental and political paths, and provide key theoretical and methodological support for the decision-making of sustainable development at global, national and regional levels.

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    Spatio-temporal distribution of the climatic seasonsin China from 1961 to 2016
    MA Bin, ZHANG Bo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 458-469.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003002
    Abstract857)   HTML42)    PDF (7600KB)(318)      

    In this study, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of the climatic seasons in China from 1961 to 2016 are analyzed by using the climatic seasonal division standard (QX/T152-2012) issued by the China Meteorological Administration, the Chinese daily surface temperature dataset (V2.0, 0.5°×0.5°) issued by the National Meteorological Information Center, and the revised multiple regression model. The linear trend and extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition method (ESMD) are used to analyze the variations in the distribution area, durations, and start date of the climatic seasons. The main results are as follows. There are four climatic seasonal regions in China, namely, the perennial-winter, no-winter, no-summer and discernible regions, while there are no perennial-summer or perennial-spring regions. Considering the area variation of each region, the range of the perennial-winter region is significantly narrower, and the area of no-winter region increases, while the areas of no-summer and discernible regions have no significant changes. The regions with significant changes in the normal climatic seasons are mainly distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Inner Mongolia Plateau. The regions with significant changes in the durations of the climatic seasons are mainly found in the northern China. The advance of the summer start date has led to a significant increase in the durations of climatic seasons in the central and western Inner Mongolia, Hexi Corridor and Xinjiang, and the postponement of the winter start date has resulted in a decrease in the number of winter days in these areas. In general, the climatic seasons at high altitudes in western China have more significant changes than those in the eastern coastal plains. Overall, the distribution and changes of the climatic seasons in China are revealed by this investigation, which could provide a reference for operational weather forecasting and climatic region division.

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    The basic theory and methodology of rural revitalization planning in China
    LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 1120-1133.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006002
    Abstract807)   HTML38)    PDF (4130KB)(294)      

    Agricultural and rural modernization is the general goal of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. The scientific formulation of the rural revitalization planning is related to the implementation effect of the national rural revitalization strategy. How to establish the basic theory of rural revitalization and develop the methods of rural revitalization planning have become important tasks of academic research and government decision-making. This paper constructed the theoretical model and method system of rural revitalization planning, tried to carry out the main function-oriented zoning, dominant type classification and principal purpose classification of rural regional system, and established the spatial system of rural revitalization planning and its optimal adjustment scheme. This system was applied to the overall rural revitalization planning in Yanchi County of Ningxia. By establishing the principle of rural revitalization planning that sticks to ecological priority, adaptation to local condition, industrial support and urban-rural integration, it put forward that the priority should be given to the development of rural professional cooperation organizations and the mixed economy of villages and towns, and the acceleration of the construction of advantageous industrial system characterized by the industrialization of tan-sheep, day lily, and minor cereals, and highlighted by the wisdom of eco-cultural tourism. Moreover, it was encouraged to give prominence to the position of the central town in space, and form the village organism and housing industry coordination body with the county seat and three key towns as the center of integrated industry development. The typical case study of Yanchi County has shown that the main contents and technical points of rural revitalization planning were embodied in the following four aspects: (1) determining the overall orientation of rural revitalization planning, and clarifying the phased development mode, key areas; (2) developing the county area based on the main function-oriented zoning, leading type classification and main purpose classification system, and exploring the territorial pattern and differentiation rules; (3) establishing the county development mode and industrial system, formulating coordination schemes of different main function-oriented zones, and revealing the spatial configuration and structural relationship of different dominant types; (4) exploring the local association and hierarchical system of each dominant type in its scale and level. The main task of implementing the rural revitalization planning is to promote the formation of a new pattern of urban-rural development with factors gathering, reasonable structure and orderly space in accordance with the objective requirements of "industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance and prosperous life". China is facing great differences in rural development and many problems in transformation. Regional disparities and urban-rural differences determine the complexity, diversity and differences of rural governance and rural revitalization planning. China's rural transformation-urban and rural integration-rural revitalization-high quality development will become the major development logic and new normal in the future. The research on rural revitalization planning in the new era should focus on the overall situation of regional coordination and urban-rural integration, and solve the practical problems of "rural disease", so as to serve the national rural revitalization planning and scientific decision-making.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution patterns and influencing factors of PM2.5 in Chinese urban agglomerations
    WANG Zhenbo, LIANG Longwu, WANG Xujing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2614-2630.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912014
    Abstract794)   HTML113)    PDF (4567KB)(652)      

    As the main form of China new urbanization, urban agglomerations are the important platform to support national economic growth, promote regional coordinated development and participate in international competition and cooperation, but they are also the core area of air pollution. This paper selects PM2.5 data from NASA atmospheric remote sensing image inversion from 2000 to 2015, and uses GIS spatial analysis and Spatial Durbin Model to reveal the temporal and spatial evolution pattern characteristics and main controlling factors of PM2.5 in China's urban agglomerations. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, the PM2.5 concentration of China urban agglomerations showed a volatility growth trend. In 2007, there was an inflection point. The number of low-concentration cities declined, and the number of high-concentration cities increased. (2) The concentration of PM2.5 in urban agglomerations was in the pattern of high in the east and and low in the west, with the "Hu Huanyong Line" as the boundary. The spatial difference between urban agglomerations is significant, and the difference is increasing. The concentration of PM2.5 is growing faster in urban agglomerations in the eastern and northeastern regions. (3) The urban agglomeration of PM2.5 has a significant spatial concentration. The hot spots are concentrated to the east of the "Hu Huanyong Line", and the number of cities continues to rise. The cold spots are concentrated to the west of the "Hu Huanyong Line", and the number of cities continues to decline. (4) There is a significant spatial spillover effect of PM2.5 pollution among cities within urban agglomerations. The main controlling factors of PM2.5 pollution in different urban agglomerations have significant differences. Industrialization and energy consumption have a significant positive impact on PM2.5 pollution. Foreign direct investment has a significant negative impact on PM2.5 pollution in the southeast coastal and border urban agglomerations. Population density has the significant positive impact on PM2.5 pollution in the region, and has the opposite result in the neighbouring areas. Urbanization level has a negative impact on PM2.5 pollution in national-level urban agglomerations, and has the opposite result in regional and local urban agglomerations. The high degree of industrial structure has a significant negative impact on PM2.5 pollution in the region, and has the opposite result in the neighboring regions. Technical support has a significant impact on PM2.5 pollution, but there are also lag effects and rebound effects.

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    The Geographical Society of China and the development of the Acta Geographica Sinica
    ZHANG Guoyou, HUANG Jian, ZHU Hong, HE Peidong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2197-2208.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911001
    Abstract785)   HTML175)    PDF (1525KB)(528)      

    The current Geographical Society of China (GSC) is the product of a merger of the Chinese Geographical Society established in 1909 and the former Geographical Society of China established in 1934. The establishment of the GSC and the launch of the journal Acta Geographica Sinica in 1934 are not only two major events in the history of Chinese geography, but also two spotlights in the history of Chinese education and science. This is the key point of the concept of science advocated by the New Culture Movement. The establishment of GSC clearly separated modern geography from traditional geoscientology and entered on the historical stage in the name of science. What's more, the publication of Acta Geographica Sinica enabled Chinese and foreign geographers to enjoy a high-end professional academic source in China. The emergence of the society and its journal was also a direct manifestation of wartime concepts such as "science saves the country" and "invigorating China through science."Under the organization and promotion of the GSC, the older generation of geographers worked hard and published a series of important articles in the Acta Geographica Sinica. The modern geographers who worked tirelessly finally drew the attention of the ruling class and occupied a place in the top-down design of the country. Although their understanding of the importance was mainly in the high-level and professional academic circles, it planted the seed for the later vigorous development of Chinese geographic science and laid a solid scientific foundation for awakening the ordinary people. In retrospect, the establishment of GSC and Acta Geographica Sinica was the beginning of Chinese geographic science and has become the promoter and witness of the development of Chinese geographic science. On the 110th anniversary of the founding of the GSC, we should inherit the spirit of the older generation of scientists, enrich the geographic science, provide better service for the construction of the country, and improve the scientific literacy of ordinary people.

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    Spatio-temporal coupling characteristic of water-land elements and its cause in typical mountains
    ZHOU Peng, DENG Wei, PENG Li, ZHANG Shaoyao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2273-2287.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911006
    Abstract770)   HTML126)    PDF (7747KB)(688)      

    Water and land resources are the foundation for human wellbeing. The coupling of water-land elements in mountainous areas is closely related to the functionality of production-living-ecology space, whose coupling process and features are closely related to ecosystem services and sustainable socio-economic development in mountainous areas. Through constructing a more scientific coupling index of water-land elements (CIWL), the present study conducted a large-scale and long-term analysis of the coupling characteristics of the Taihang Mountains, Hengduan Mountains and Guizhou-Guangxi karst mountains. The influencing factors of the coupling index in each period were analyzed by employing geodetector method. The results show that: (1) The three mountainous areas are significantly different in spatial differences of coupling index of water-land elements. The Taihang Mountains are dominated by water deficiency, while the Hengduan Mountains are by the balanced area. The Guizhou-Guangxi mountainous areas are dominated by water deficiency and the abundant areas. (2) In terms of the vertical differentiation, the coupling of water-land elements of the three major mountainous areas varies at 1300 m, 1800-3400 m and 500-1500 m, respectively, with the coupling index of water-land elements in ecological functional sub-regions indicating that the forest ecological sub-region > forest grass ecological sub-region > agro-ecological sub-region. (3) Natural factors and human factors are responsible for spatial differentiation of coupling index, among which, the climate is a dominant driving factor, the topography and land use type are secondary, and the human factors are superimposed on the natural factors, jointly causing the complexity and variation of the coupling of water-land elements. The coupling index of water and land elements established in this paper has deepened the study of spatial-temporal processes of water and land interaction in mountainous areas, thereby providing a decision-making reference for coping with the sustainable development of mountainous areas in a changing environment.

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    Discussion on rural sustainability and rural sustainability science
    HE Yanhua, WU Jianguo, ZHOU Guohua, ZHOU Bingbing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 736-752.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004006
    Abstract759)   HTML32)    PDF (5266KB)(266)      

    In the face of global environmental challenges, sustainable development has received much attention worldwide, and sustainability science has emerged in the 21st century as a globally well-recognized new area of science. Rural sustainability science, as an important part of sustainability science, is a use-inspired science aimed at understanding and improving the dynamic relationship between people and the rural environment from a transdisciplinary and multiscale perspective. In tandem with urban sustainability science, it provides much needed scientific support for dealing with rural decline and promoting rural sustainable development. In this paper, we first discuss the concepts of sustainability, rural sustainability, and rural sustainability science, and then propose a transdisciplinary integrated framework of rural sustainability science that focuses on agricultural sustainability, community sustainability, and rural human well-being. China is a nation with deep rural roots, complex problems involving interactions among agriculture, farmers, and villages, and huge urban-rural socioeconomic gaps. Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, China's rural areas have developed rapidly, but they still face numerous tough challenges. Rural revitalization strategies are needed for promoting the rural transition toward sustainability, but the necessary scientific basis and appropriate guidelines for formulating such strategies are still lacking. We argue that rural sustainability science can provide theoretical, technical, and decision-making support for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies. Our analysis of the current status of China's rural sustainable development indicates that the transition to sustainability is urgently needed, and so is the science that guides the transition. To address these problems, we call for transdisciplinary research that couples rural society and its environment, focusing on nine core issues in line with the needs of China's rural development and aiming to transfer knowledge of rural sustainability into local adaptive actions.

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    Spatio-temporal characteristics of urban land expansion in Chinese urban agglomerations
    OUYANG Xiao, ZHU Xiang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 571-588.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003010
    Abstract745)   HTML74)    PDF (4694KB)(332)      

    Comprehensive analysis of the characteristics, quality, and ecological effects of urban land expansion would be extremely valuable in high-quality development planning and decision-making. Using data of ten urban agglomerations of China from 1990 to 2015 at varying levels of urban development, this study analyzed the degree of urban land expansion based on the "human-land" synergistic relationship and examined the spatio-temporal characteristics and landscape ecological effects of urban development. Various development indexes for population, economy, and urban land were evaluated, including the urban land expansion intensity index, the intensity differentiation index, the landscape expansion index, and the pattern index. The results of the study are as follows: (1) From 1990 to 2015, the built-up areas in the urban agglomerations expanded continuously, while the expansion intensity showed a fluctuating trend. The highest values of expansion intensity for developed urban agglomerations appeared before 2010, while for the developing areas, the highest values came after 2010. (2) Overall, there was an asymmetrical urban growth among the agglomerations, and the areas with high urban expansion were mainly distributed along the coastal zones. At the national level, the epicenter of rapid urban growth moved from east to west, with the urban expansion in eastern China being much faster compared with the central, western, and northeastern regions. (3) The evolution in urban land use displayed two main spatial patterns, namely edge expansion and outlying, which varied based on the level of urban development. The spatial pattern in the developed urban clusters was more stable, while in the developing areas, the spatial structure started to take shape but have yet to be formed. (4) Urban expansion sprawling over suburban and rural areas resulted in relatively high degrees of fragmentation and structural complexity and instability of the landscape pattern. (5) The man-land synergy in these urban agglomerations increased gradually over time while the economy-land interaction was generally high, indicating an improvement in the overall quality of urban growth. The results of this study highlight the need to have stricter supervision of urban expansion particularly in the early stages of city development, to foster the development of small and middle-sized cities, and to propose a more balanced approach in urban land expansion. The findings here provide valuable lessons for high-quality development of land use in urban agglomerations of China.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)