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    Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1941-1961.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910001
    Abstract2405)   HTML346)    PDF (9943KB)(2080)      

    Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Bole-Taipei Line: The important function and basic conception as a line for regional balanced development
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 211-225.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002001
    Abstract2318)   HTML57)    PDF (4532KB)(299)      

    Promoting regional coordinated development strategy is one of the most important strategies in the new period of China. Faced with the reality of unbalanced and insufficient regional development in China, it is objectively necessary to construct one or more main axes supporting the coordinated and balanced development of regions to become the identification line representing the pattern of coordinated regional development. The results show that the Bo-Tai line, the northwest-southeast axis connecting Bole of Xinjiang and Taipei of Taiwan, can be built into a national development backbone line and regional balanced development line, just perpendicular to the Hu Line. In 2016, the area of southwest half and northeast half of Bo-Tai Line accounts for 59:41, while the population accounts for 45:55, the economic aggregate accounts for 40:60, the per capita GDP ratio accounts for 44:56, the population density ratio accounts for 38:62, the economic density ratio accounts for 32:68, and the urbanization level ratio accounts for 48:52. The main average indicators gradually tend to present a balanced development pattern. Further analysis shows that Bo-Tai Line is a strategic shoulder pole connecting two core zones of the Belt and Road, and is the peaceful reunification line of China's national tranquility and Taiwan's return. The Bo-Tai Line is also a solid line supported and connected by comprehensive transportation channels and a Pipa type symmetrical line for the development of cities and urban agglomerations. It is the backbone of the two-way opening up and the linkage development line between land and sea. It is also an important dividing line that promotes the coordinated development of the eastern, central and western regions, and addresses the imbalance and inadequacy of regional development. The Bo-Tai Line plays an irreplaceable strategic role in promoting the coordinated and balanced regional development. It is suggested that the construction of Bo-Tai Line should be included in the national development strategy, and the development strategic plan of Bo-Tai Line should be formulated to fully release the multiple potential functions. We should build three strategic support points (the northwest endpoint, the central strategic node and the southeast endpoint), carry out a comprehensive scientific investigation of the Bo-Tai Line, and strengthen the scientific cognition and publicity, and promote China's development in a higher-level, higher-quality, more coordinated, safer and more civilized direction. And we should make the Bo-Tai Line known to China and the world, and let the Bo-Tai Line truly become the backbone of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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    Development and management tasks of the Yellow River Basin: A preliminary understanding and suggestion
    LU Dadao, SUN Dongqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2431-2436.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912001
    Abstract2172)   HTML275)    PDF (828KB)(1332)      

    The Yellow River Basin and the areas along the Yellow River play an important strategic role in national development. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC, delivered an important speech at the symposium on ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin in Zhengzhou, which is of great strategic significance. This paper gives a preliminary understanding of the comprehensive governance and the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It points out that the task of the comprehensive and profound transformation and development of the Yellow River Basin in the new era is still arduous, and change of concept is required. Continuing to promote the clean and efficient use of energy, promoting industrial development in accordance with local conditions, preventing extensive development and protecting cultivated land resources should be regarded as important measures to strengthen the comprehensive management and guarantee the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It is believed that the "Yellow River Economic Belt" does not exist at the national economic level, and it is not appropriate to identify "the Yellow River Delta" as a national strategy.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Understanding geographic coupling and achieving geographic integration
    SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YANG Xiaofan, YE Sijing, GAO Peichao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 3-13.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001001
    Abstract1654)   HTML116)    PDF (3429KB)(736)      

    Coupling, as a classic physical concept, provides a suite of ideas and methods for describing interactions of multi-agents across disciplines. In contrast, the concept of integration is not from a certain discipline, but it is widely used in many natural and socioeconomic sciences fields due to its great generalization capacity. Both concepts are frequently mentioned in Earth science. Geography, as a multi-disciplinary research area between natural and socioeconomic sciences, owns regional, comprehensive, and complex characteristics. The understanding of coupling varies across geographic sciences. This paper presents an advanced understanding from six geographic perspectives based on different disciplines and scenarios, which is helpful to accurately explore patterns, processes, and mechanisms of land surface system. Firstly, this paper clarifies six perspectives on geographic coupling, and presents corresponding research cases, which include geographic spatial coupling, geographic features coupling, geographic interfaces coupling, geospatial scale coupling, geographic relationship coupling and geographic coupling interpretation. Secondly, the paper interprets the concept of integration from a geographic perspective, and introduces a pathway to achieving an integration in Heihe River Basin's research practice. Finally, the paper proposes intrinsic connections between geographic coupling and geographic integration.

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    The Coupled Human and Natural Cube: A conceptual framework for analyzing urbanization and eco-environment interactions
    LIU Haimeng, FANG Chuanglin, LI Yonghong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1489-1507.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908001
    Abstract1644)   HTML434)    PDF (3788KB)(1387)      

    The coupled urbanization and eco-environment system is an important aspect of coupled human and natural systems. However, the time-space compression, long range interactions, and reconstruction of socio-economic structure at the global scale pose great challenges to the traditional analysis frameworks for human-nature systems. We are in urgent need of developing a brand new analysis framework. In this paper, based on the connotation of the coupled urbanization and eco-environment system and its four dimensions — space, time, appearance and organization, we propose a conceptual framework "Coupled Human and Natural Cube (CHNC)" to explain the coupling mechanism between urbanization and eco-environment, which is inspired by the theories including human-earth areal system, telecoupling, planetary urbanization, and perspectives from complexity science. We systematically introduce the concept, connotation, evolution rules and analysis dimensions of the CHNC. It is worth noting that there exist various "coupling lines" in the CHNC, which connects different systems and elements at multiple scales, and forms a nested, interconnected organic bigger system. The rotation of the CHNC represents the spatiotemporal nonlinear fluctuation of the urbanization and eco-environment system in different regions. As the system exchanges energy with the environment continually, the critical phase transition occurs when fluctuation reaches a certain threshold, and leads to emergence behaviors of the system. The CHNC has four dimensions — pericoupling and telecoupling, syncoupling and lagcoupling, apparent coupling and hidden coupling, intra-organization coupling and inter-organization coupling. We mainly focus on the theoretical connotation, research methods and typical cases of telecoupling, lagcoupling, hidden coupling, and inter-organization coupling, and finally put forward a human-nature coupling matrix to integrate multiple dimensions. In summary, the CHNC provides a more comprehensive and systematic research paradigm for understanding the evolution and coupling mechanism of the human-nature system, which expands the analysis dimension of coupled human and natural systems, and provides some scientific supports to formulate regional sustainable development policies for human wellbeing.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    The theoretical basis and technical path of cyberspace geography
    GAO Chundong, GUO Qiquan, JIANG Dong, WANG Zhenbo, FANG Chuanglin, HAO Mengmeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1709-1722.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909001
    Abstract1443)   HTML189)    PDF (3797KB)(1050)      

    As a new spatial form of human activities, cyberspace is the common carrier of human and information. Cyberspace security is an important foundation of national security. The scientific description of cyberspace is an important cornerstone of cyber event analysis, cyberspace governance and cyber security guarantee, and also a new field of geographic science research in the information age. In the context of rapid development and fierce competition in global cyberspace, it is urgent to strengthen the intergration of geography and cyberspace security, and to carry out theoretical and methodological innovations based on traditional geosciences, and to create cyberspace geography. Cyberspace geography is the extension of geoscience research content from real space to virtual space. Its theoretical basis has evolved from the traditional theory of man-land relationship to the theory of man-land-network relationship; its research contents include constructing the mapping relationship between cyberspace and real space, redefining the basic concepts of distance and region in cyberspace, constructing the language, model and method system of cyberspace visualization, drawing the cyberspace map and exploring the evolution laws of the structure and behavior of cyberspace; its technical path includes the data collection and fusion of cyberspace elements, the visualization of cyberspace and the intelligent cognition of cyberspace situation and behavior. The intelligent cognition covers the assessment of cyberspace situation, transmission and traceability analysis of network hot events, situation simulation and risk prediction of cyber events, etc. The establishment of cyberspace geography will certainly provide a new perspective for the scientific cognition of cyberspace, the discipline construction of geography and cyberspace security science, as well as the prevention and control of national cyber security and the construction of a community of common future in cyberspace.

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    Development of aeolian geomorphology in China in the past 70 years
    DONG Zhibao, LYU Ping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 509-528.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003006
    Abstract1434)   HTML257)    PDF (1256KB)(391)      

    Wind is the second largest fluid shaping the earth's landscape besides water. The aeolian landform formed by wind is widely distributed in the global arid regions, and more than 40% of the land area is affected by the aeolian process in the world. Owing to a close relationship with the human's living environment, aeolian geomorphology has received continuous attention from the international academia since the end of the 19th century. Although aeolian landforms are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of China, the relevant study started in the late 1950s. This paper summarizes the development of aeolian geomorphology during the past 70 years in China, which has experienced three stages: the initial stage before reform and opening-up; the development stage between the reform and opening-up to the end of the 20th century; and international stage since the beginning of the 21st century, even partially beyond the international standard nowadays. There are many influential achievements in China, including dunes movement, regional comprehensive study on aeolian landforms, formation and evolution process of unique aeolian landforms, Gobi, the secondary flow around dunes and the exploration of extraterrestrial planets. Aeolian research in China has the potential to lead the international aeolian research in the future, but the aeolian geomorphologists must have following strategic thinking on meta-synthesis, the guidance of the earth system science, the global view and development of the outer space era.

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    Analysis of the geo-relationships between China and its neighboring countries
    CHEN Xiaoqiang, YUAN Lihua, SHEN Shi, LIANG Xiaoyao, WANG Yuanhui, WANG Xiangyu, YE Sijing, CHENG Changxiu, SONG Changqing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1534-1547.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908004
    Abstract1346)   HTML138)    PDF (3545KB)(797)      

    Geo-relationships, as an important field of research in geography, have attracted much attention from scholars. Quantitative research on geo-relationships based on big data is an important supplement to traditional geo-relationships study. This paper uses GDELT mass media data to express the geo-relationships between China and its neighboring countries as a global relationship of cooperation and conflict, and identifies the stage division of these relationships using ordered cluster analysis. Social network analysis is conducted for each stage of the cooperation and conflict relationship, and community detection is used to further analyze and interpret the networks of cooperation and conflict. Finally, we highlight bilateral relations in various stages and conduct a China-centered equilibrium analysis. Three main results are presented. First, from 1979 to 2017, the cooperation and conflict relationship between China and its neighboring countries demonstrated an obvious three-stage temporal division. China has gradually become the center of the network, and a broad cooperation pattern centered on China and supported by Russia, Japan, and South Korea has formed. Second, the highlighted bilateral relations in each stage, such as China-Vietnam, China-Japan, China-Russia, and DPRK-ROK, show varied development trends and driving factors. Third, with the process of China's peaceful rise, cooperation between the country and its neighbors is becoming more and more balanced, and conflict between them is expanding.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Production of space and developmental logic of New Urban Districts in China
    ZHUANG Liang,YE Chao,MA Wei,ZHAO Biao,HU Senlin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1548-1562.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908005
    Abstract1305)   HTML158)    PDF (2940KB)(1046)      

    New Urban Districts (NUDs) are the important spatial carriers of urbanization. Since the reform and opening up in China, NUD has been playing a more and more crucial role in the process of urbanization, and has undergone a surging growth in recent years. NUDs in China are unique because of the most widespread 'building city' movement. Many researches focus on new districts or new towns in the broad sense, but little research has been done in a narrow sense in academia. The development of comprehensive NUDs will be of great significance to the sustainable transformation of China's cities in the future. Based on the critical theory of spatial production, this paper examines the spatiotemporal evolution and internal logic of NUDs. The establishment and development of NUDs is a rapid and trinity dialectical process of spatial production: representations of space is guided by the top-down governmental power; spatial practice is reflected in the hierarchical and regional difference of spatial elements, such as type, pattern, distance and area of NUDs; spaces of representation are the tensions between governmental power and urban development rights, as well as the countermeasure mechanism. In this trinity dialectical process, the extensibility of spatiotemporal sequences ensures the unity and continuity of spatial production or reproduction of NUDs. However, under the governmentoriented model, NUDs are also facing a series of challenges like the management coordination of administrative area and the increasing unbalanced regional development. Thus, it is time to keep a critical thinking and reinterpretation for the development of NUDs in China, which should be a key concern to achieve balanced regional development and new-type urbanization in the new era.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Geographical thinking on the relationship between beautiful China and land spatial planning
    CHEN Mingxing, LIANG Longwu, WANG Zhenbo, ZHANG Wenzhong, YU Jianhui, LIANG Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2467-2481.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912004
    Abstract1284)   HTML104)    PDF (2675KB)(752)      

    Beautiful China is the new goal of ecological civilization construction in the new era of socialism, which can meet the real needs of the people for a better life. National land space planning is a major deployment of the state to coordinate various types of space planning. Beautiful China is the new leading goal of the country's second centenary development. Its connotation is not only "ecological beauty", but also the comprehensive beauty of "economy-politics-culture-society-ecology". The construction of beautiful China needs a differentiated evaluation index system based on the local conditions. Beautiful China is closely related to the land spatial planning. The former provides an important direction for the latter, while the latter provides an important approach and space guarantee for the construction of the former. The establishment of land spatial planning needs to strengthen the further discussion of the regional system of human-environment interaction, point-axis system, the main functional area planning, sustainable development and resource environmental carrying capacity, new urbanization and rural regional multi-body system. This paper puts forward the thinking framework of land spatial planning from the perspective of geography, including scientifically analyzing the natural geographical conditions, economic and social development basis, and the interrelationship between land and space, planing the goal, vision and path of land and space, encouraging the public to participate in and carry out dynamic evaluation, and building an intelligent system platform for land and spatial planning with the goal of beautiful China, which provide ideas for the compilation and implementation of land spatial planning.

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    Study on adaptive governance of social-ecological system: Progress and prospect
    SONG Shuang, WANG Shuai, FU Bojie, CHEN Haibin, LIU Yanxu, ZHAO Wenwu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2401-2410.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911015
    Abstract1057)   HTML80)    PDF (1883KB)(664)      

    Social-Ecological System (SES) is composed of social subsystem, ecological subsystem and the interaction between them; its structure, functions, and characteristics are different from those of social subsystem or ecological subsystem alone. Relying on adaptive social mechanisms of power-sharing and decision making, the adaptive governance of SES aims to guarantee human well-being in a sustainable manner under dynamic conditions. Adaptive governance theory is influenced by "common pool resources management", "resilience" and "governance", and lays a foundation for the construction of transformative governance and collaborative governance. This theory has three main objectives: (1) understanding and coping with the multi-stability, nonlinearity, uncertainty, integrity and complexity of SES; (2) establishing non-confrontational social structure, power-sharing structure and decision-making structure, and match with social subsystem and ecological subsystem; (3) achieving sustainable management of ecosystem services through an integrated approach. Therefore, in the face of the "Anthropocene" of human-behaviour-dominant surface processes, achieving adaptive governance helps to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of SES. Given the rapid changes in China's environment and the increasingly complicated interactions between China and countries all over the world, it will be helpful for future studies to pay close attention to the following fields: (1) understand the multi-interaction processes of a coupled system, and enhance its adaptability; (2) emphasize the significance of a holistic approach of studying SES; (3) improve the ability to understand and predict system dynamics in the context of environmental change.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Geographical association between dietary tastes and chronic diseases in China:An exploratory study using crowdsourcing data mining techniques
    LI Hanqi, JIA Peng, FEI Teng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1637-1649.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908011
    Abstract1044)   HTML155)    PDF (4086KB)(911)      

    Chronic diseases are the main cause for death in the world. Among all risk factors concerning chronic diseases, those related to an unhealthy diet are most important. Although much research was done on dietary behavior, there are only few quantitative studies on the relationship between dietary taste and chronic diseases. In this article, a taste dataset of the major categories of Chinese cuisine is established based on crowdsourced data from Chinese recipe websites. For a quantitative analysis of people's taste in different regions, additionally the locations of restaurants by category (using their respective points of interest) are integrated. Using the software Geodetector, these regional taste preferences are then correlated with the three chronic diseases, hemorrhagic stroke, pancreatic cancer, and upper respiratory tract infection. For all the three diseases, the results indicate very salty, moderate sweet and very spicy food as the primary risk factors. Also, the degree of sweetness is not linear with the risk of pancreatic cancer. These results are statistically significant. In this study, a quantitative method on discovering potential health risk factors based on mining of crowdsourced data is proposed for the first time. This method can be applied before disease-related experiments to filter potential factors, and it is helpful for the public health department to make quick corresponding intervention policies.

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    The evolution process and regulation of China's regional development pattern
    FAN Jie, WANG Yafei, LIANG Bo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2437-2454.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912002
    Abstract1035)   HTML140)    PDF (5095KB)(1034)      

    China's per capita GDP has reached 64520 yuan (about 10,000 US dollars). The development process of countries around the world and the inverted U-shaped curve of regional development gaps indicate that the evolution of China's regional development pattern will step into an inflection point segment and that the development gap between regions has witnessed a switch from continuing widening to narrowing. In this paper, we discuss the evolution process of China's regional development pattern over the 40 years since 1978 before the inflection point: (1) The gap in per capita GDP between the upstream areas (the top 9 most developed provinces) and the downstream (the last 8 underdeveloped provinces) increased from 407 yuan in 1978 to 53817 yuan in 2018. (2) Under the pull of export-oriented economy and non-state-owned economy, the mean center of urbanization and economic development rotates in a clockwise direction. Southeast China has become an area with accelerated economic agglomeration. (3) China's regional development pattern has presented a diamond structure with the four core regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing as the apex and the connection of adjacent regions as the boundary. The GDP in these regions accounts for about 75% of the national total. In 2020, China's regional development pattern will enter an inflection point of evolution. The form is characterized by the narrowing of the regional economic gap, which is essentially a transition from non-high-quality regional development to high-quality regional development. The high-quality development of the region is a process of growth in which the ecological and social benefits will be basically synchronized in the process of sustained economic growth, and a regional high-quality development model that is differentiated by geographical functions is presented. In the next 30 years, the regulation and optimization of China's regional development pattern should focus on three types of regions: key urbanization regions, relatively underdeveloped regions, and key areas for security, as well as inter-regional interactions according to the dual objectives of promoting regional balanced (coordinated) development and high-quality development. Establishing a space governance system with the major function zoning-strategy-planning-system as the mainstay will become the basic guarantee for regulating and optimizing the regional development pattern.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Influence of natural factors on vegetation NDVI using geographical detection in Sichuan Province
    PENG Wenfu, ZHANG Dongmei, LUO Yanmei, TAO Shuai, XU Xinliang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1758-1776.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909005
    Abstract1020)   HTML136)    PDF (2869KB)(897)      

    Many studies have shown the importance of using remote sensing to establish a vegetation index for land surface processes and global change research, it is of great significance to understand the driving factors of vegetation change, but the causes for vegetation change and the impact of geographical factors on vegetation change remain elusive. In this study, we examined the geographical factors and spatial patterns of vegetation change and the interactive effects of the geographical factors on vegetation change, and identified the most suitable characteristics of the main geographical factors that promote vegetation growth using the Geographical Detector Model, a new method of spatial counting to detect spatial variability and identify the driving factors. Our results showed that the vegetation cover was in good condition, the coverage area was of medium height, and there was more than 94% of high height vegetation. The spatiotemporal change in vegetation cover was significant from 2000-2015; the transformation of the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) was manifested as the transformation of NDVI > 0.4, and the cover area of medium and high height vegetation had a significant decreasing and increasing trend, respectively. The vegetation cover was better in the western and northern Sichuan plateau, while it was poor in the central urban areas of the Sichuan Basin and the Panxi area. Soil type, elevation, and the average annual temperature change could well explain the variability in vegetation condition. The influence of geographical factors on NDVI was interactive; the synergistic effect of the geographical factors on NDVI showed mutual and non-linear enhancement, and the interaction of the two factors enhanced the influence of a single factor on NDVI. This study reveals the most suitable characteristics and the main factors that promote vegetation growth, which is helpful to better understand the influence of natural factors and the driving mechanisms of vegetation NDVI change.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics of precipitation from 1960 to 2015 in the Three Rivers' Headstream Region, Qinghai, China
    LIU Xiaoqiong, WU Zezhou, LIU Yansui, ZHAO Xinzheng, RUI Yang, ZHANG Jian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1803-1820.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909008
    Abstract1020)   HTML91)    PDF (6065KB)(629)      

    The Three Rivers' Headstream Region in Qinghai Province is the area with the most fragile ecosystem in China, its annual changes of the precipitation in the growing season are the key to the security of the water resources and the sustainable development of the ecosystem in the local area and the lower Lantsang River, Yellow River and Yangtze River. This paper studied the spatial-temporal characteristics of the precipitation in the Three Rivers' Headwater Region during the last 56 years by using the linear regression, Mann-Kendall test, heuristic segmentation algorithm, R/S, and EEMD et al. The results show that there is an obvious difference in the spatial-temporal characteristics of the precipitation with the variation of area and reason. The results are as follows: The precipitation series of study area showed a weak trend of getting-humid, and it increased significantly since the 21st century, the climate tendency rates of precipitation in the three sub-headwaters region are not the same; The annual and seasonal precipitation decreased from southeast to northwest, the summer precipitation of the Lantsang River Headwater Region and the autumn precipitation of the Yellow River Headwater Region decreased weakly, the areas where precipitation reduced weakly spotted in spacial distribution, the order of seasonal precipitation climate tendency rates of the Lantsang River and the Yellow River Headwater Region are spring, winter, autumn and summer precipitation, while the Yangtze River Headwater Region are spring, summer, winter and autumn precipitation(which are all positive); The decadal variation and the climate tendency rates of precipitation are more obvious; The multiple correlation coefficient between the climatic tendency rates of precipitation in spring, summer and longitude, latitude, altitude are significantly higher than that in winter; There was a wet turning signal in the middle and late 1990s, but the catastrophe point of the precipitation time series occurred around 2002; Inter-annual and low-value Inter-decadal prominent period are the main factors which caused the precipitation variation; With the exception of summer precipitation in the Lantsang River Headwater Region, the other seasonal and the annual precipitation changes showed a trend of different getting-humid; By comparison, the precipitation change in the Yangtze River Headwater Region is more representative than the other two regions in climate change of the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, it is necessary to continue the research with more characterizing methods to further improve the detection accuracy of the variation process of the characteristics of climate series.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Spatial variation of the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention
    GU Hengyu, MENG Xin, SHEN Tiyan, CUI Nana
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 240-254.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002003
    Abstract1000)   HTML46)    PDF (2982KB)(294)      

    It is demonstrated that the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention are different among geographic units, which seems to be ignored by previous researches. Based on the data from the 2015 national migrant population dynamic monitoring survey (CMDS) and related statistics, this article uses the Semiparametric Geographically Weighted Regression (SGWR) model and k-means cluster method to examine the spatial variation of the factors influencing floating population's settlement intention in 282 prefecture- and provincial- level cites of China. Results provide the following conclusions. (1) The settlement intention of urban floating population is mainly influenced by the floating population characteristics instead of the destination characteristics. (2) Social and economic factors are closely related to the floating population's settlement intention. Meanwhile, the demographic, family and mobility factors exert a significant impact on such an intention. To be specific, there exists an inhibitory effect on floating population's settlement intention in factors such as income, marriage, and cross provincial mobility. However, housing expenditure, participation rate, number of children and other factors can effectively contribute to such intention. (3) Zonal spatial differentiation patterns of the influencing factors' coefficients are illustrated by the SGWR model, which can be further divided into four categories ("E-W", "N-S", "NE-SW" and "SE-NW"): The positive influences of ethnic and family factors are decreasing from the northern to southern regions, while the influence of employment ratio in the secondary industry is declining from the northwest to the southeast regions, and the impacts of factors such as the number of children and per capita GDP are diminishing from the northeast to the southwest regions. In eastern developed areas, the settlement intention of floating population with higher income is comparatively lower, while migrants with higher housing expenditure in southern China have a stronger intention to settle down. (4) Four influencing zones are detected by the k-means method: Floating population's settlement intention in North China, Central China and East China is significantly affected by multiple factors; In the northwest region and part of the southwest region, migrants' settlement intention is mainly influenced by demographic and social factors; The northeast region and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia's floating population's willingness to stay is mainly related to economic and family factors; Apart from housing expenditure, coefficients of other factors are relatively small in southern China and part of the central, eastern and southwestern regions. Additionally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the service and management of the floating population in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    The hub-network structure of China's equipment manufacturing industry
    ZHU Yanshuo, WANG Zheng, CHENG Wenlu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1525-1533.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908003
    Abstract951)   HTML138)    PDF (1626KB)(954)      

    Based on the interlocking network model and the complex network theory, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution and interaction of cities based on geographical distribution of equipment manufacturing enterprises. The study indicates that cities all over the country present a hub-network structure. Beijing is the national hub city of the network. Cities such as Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Chongqing are regional hub cities. Beijing and Shenzhen have the strongest intercity connection in the network. Most cities in the northwest and southwest have a relatively low connection with other cities in the network. By comparing the sub-networks of different industries, it is found that there are significant differences in network scale, hub city and network density, which proved the polycentricity and diversity of urban space organizational hub-network structure. Finally, complex network theory is used to deliver deliberate attack experiments. The experimental results show that the network connectivity is basically not affected when the hinterland of the hub city is deleted, while the network connectivity declines obviously when the non-hinterland of the hub city is deleted. This indicates that the restriction of spatial distance between hubs and nodes is getting weaker, which is significantly different from the central-hinterland structure.

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    Population and economic risk exposure in coastal regionof China under sea level rise
    GAO Chao,WANG Li,CHEN Cai,LUO Gang,SUN Yanwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1590-1604.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908008
    Abstract947)   HTML115)    PDF (5463KB)(612)      

    Based on the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset, the relevant Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was imported into ArcGIS and spatial analysis tools were used to extract possible flooding ranges due to sea level rise in 11 provinces and cities of coastal China. Combined with population, economic, and land use data, a sea level rise risk exposure assessment model is constructed and the population and economic risk exposure from sea level rise in coastal region of China are assessed. Three primary conclusions are drawn from the evaluation: (1) The impact of sea level rise on the coast areas is mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and northern Jiangsu coastal plains, as well as the Pearl River Delta and Bohai Rim, and other coastal plain areas. The most seriously affected land use types are arable land, which accounts for 65% of affected areas, followed by construction land; (2) Based on population and economic statistics from 2015 and 10 to 1000 years return periods, sea level rise increases risks to populations and the aggregated economy. In terms of sea level rise risk exposure, Guangzhou is most exposed and other areas with high exposure are concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, northern Jiangsu coastal plains, the Pearl River Delta and Bohai Rim Region; (3) Based on population and economic statistics estimated using five shared social economic paths (SSPs), and variations in return periods from 10 to 1000 years, the gross population and the aggregated economies for 2025 and 2100 tended to increase in different paths. The conventional development path (SSP5) resulted in the largest affected population and aggregated economy while the local or inconsistent development path (SSP3) and unbalanced development path (SSP4) resulted in lower impacts than those of the other three paths. Changes in the return period from 10 to 1000 years can shift the risk exposure. Comparing the exposure risk to the population and economies, we found that the exposure degree in 2100 will be lower than that in 2025.

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    Regional integration and interaction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LIU Yi, WANG Yun, YANG Yu, MA Li
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2455-2466.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912003
    Abstract935)   HTML119)    PDF (2168KB)(735)      

    The integration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area will inevitably encounter a series of frictions because of the cross-social system, cross-legal system and cross-administrative hierarchy. Research on the cooperation and conflict between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao is an important supplement to the integration study of the area. This paper reviews the process of integration development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from 1997 to 2019 through the global news event database GDELT. The results show that: (1) the relationship between China's mainland and Hong Kong presents a "M" type fluctuation, and the conflict between them has been amplified by the news media compared with the mainland-Macao relationship. (2) The policy and public opinion between China's mainland and Macao are highly consistent, as the verbal cooperation between them is the leading factor of the interaction. (3) The interaction between China's mainland, Hong Kong and Macao has generally become closer, along with the increasing frequency of cooperations and conflicts. The importance of the mainland-Hong Kong relationship in the interactive relationship between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao has been increasingly highlighted. (4) Material cooperation projects are still insufficient in the process of the regional integration of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and there is an urgent need for diversified cooperation. The economic and technological competitions and cooperations between Guangdong and Hong Kong are the main factors affecting the interactive relationship between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, as well as the tensions in Hong Kong. In the future, the coordinated development of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area should focus on not only the projection of regional policies on space, but also its projection on social public opinion and the news media. It is necessary to combine the integration of physical space and virtue/discourse space, and strengthen the interactions between "hard connection" and "soft connection".

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The relationship between urban spatial growth and population density change
    ZHAO Rui, JIAO Limin, XU Gang, XU Zhibang, DONG Ting
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 695-707.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004003
    Abstract923)   HTML18)    PDF (4990KB)(172)      

    Exploring the relationship between urban spatial growth and population density change is the basis of urban sustainable development research, which is of great significance for formulating effective land policies to promote urban compact development. The research selected 23 cities with a population of more than 1 million in China and Europe as the study areas. Based on the land use and population data in the study areas in 1990, 2000, and 2014, the research calculated the growth rate of sample urban space during each period, and the urban compactness index was then established to divide the urban spatial growth mode into compact type, maintenance type and spread type. The characteristics of spatial growth, population density change, and their relationship were further discussed. The results are as follows: (1) Population density decline is widespread in cities of China and Europe. Population density in cities of China is relatively high, and the rate of decline is fast, whereas population density in cities of Europe is relatively low and the rate of decline is slow. From 1990 to 2014, the growth rate of urban spatial radius in China was significantly higher than that in Europe. There is a strong negative correlation between the growth rate of urban space and the change rate of population density (with a Pearson's r of -0.693). (2) From 1990 to 2000, most of the sample cities' spatial growth mode were compact. From 2000 to 2014, most Chinese cities' spatial growth mode transformed into spread type and rate of population density decline increased. By contrast, European cities' spatial growth mode maintained to be compact or transformed into maintenance, and the rate of population density decline decreased. (3) Compact spatial growth does not necessarily lead to an increase in population density, but it tends to lower the rate of population density decline, relative to spread spatial growth. The comparative analysis of Chinese and European cities shows that if cities maintain a compact spatial growth mode, the rate of population density will be lowered. If cities' spatial growth mode transforms from compact to spread, it will intensify the decline of urban population density over time.

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    Progress of ecohydrological discipline and its future development in China
    XIA Jun, ZHANG Yongyong, MU Xingmin, ZUO Qiting, ZHOU Yujian, ZHAO Guangju
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 445-457.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003001
    Abstract922)   HTML215)    PDF (2758KB)(322)      

    Ecohydrology is a key discipline developed in recent decades, which can give aid in the protection and restoration of complex ecological systems (e.g., mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake), ultimately promoting the ecological civilization construction and the green development of China. In this paper, the progress and existing challenges of ecohydrological discipline are elaborated, and the future development directions are proposed according to the international scientific frontiers and national demands on ecological civilization construction. The main directions are to develop new ecohydrological monitoring methods and improve comprehensive observation network of ecohydrological systems; to perfect the ecohydrological mechanisms and their basic theories; to promote the integrations of multi-scales and multi-elements by considering both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; to promote the multidisciplinary integrations between ecohydrology and social sciences. Furthermore, specific future research interests in China are proposed as follows: multi-source information fusion and comprehensive monitoring system construction, spatio-temporal patterns of key ecohydrological elements and their variation characteristics; integrated models of ecological, hydrological and economic processes and their uncertainty estimation; interdisciplinary studies including physical and social sciences. The application prospective in China is further explicated in a variety of ecosystems (e.g., forest, grassland, river and lake, wetland, farmland and urban area). This paper is expected to provide a reference to support the development strategy of the ecohydrological discipline in China, and to give a theoretical foundation and technical support for the implementation of national ecological civilization construction.

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    The geographical pattern of China's tourism development since the reform and opening-up in 1978
    ZHANG Chengming, WENG Shixiu, BAO Jigang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1980-2000.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910003
    Abstract879)   HTML80)    PDF (7739KB)(493)      

    China's tourism development has made significant progress since the reform and opening-up policy officially launched in 1978. Now it is high time to conduct research on how and why the geographical pattern of China's tourism development has evolved in the previous four decades on national and regional scales. Employing grounded viable data sets (namely the inbound tourism data from 1979 to 2017 and the domestic tourism data from 1991 to 2017) and multiple vibrant data analysis approaches (including the Gini coefficient, the primacy index analysis, the hot spot analysis and the Pearson correlation analysis), this paper can draw three findings. (1) China's tourism can present a distribution pattern of "high in the eastern and southern parts, but low in the western and northern parts." Meanwhile, China's inbound tourism development has long been polarized, Guangdong is the "core" of inbound tourism, Beijing and Shanghai belong to the second tier, while Gansu, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Tibet and Ningxia lag behind. Meanwhile, the domestic tourism development has transferred from polarization to equilibrium distribution. (2) Different stages of China's tourism development exhibit various features and characteristics. Specifically, at the so-called initial modern tourism stage, inbound tourism was subject to extreme polarization, with Guangdong province taking a fatal and strategic role. Whereas, at the domestic tourism cultivating stage, the domestic tourism development in this nation was polarized spatially, though the landscape of the inbound tourism was hardly transformed (Guangdong the first, Beijing the second and Shanghai the third). When it came to the rapid development stage, Beijing was gradually surpassed by Shanghai in the realm of inbound tourism. In contrast, domestic tourism development was reasonably balanced. By the new normal stage, the landscape of the inbound tourism improved, and the first tier provinces began to take an increasing share in terms of domestic tourist reception capacity. Moreover, China's outbound tourism increased steadily at this stage, with Beijing and Shanghai playing leading roles in the citizens' overseas spending. (3) This research has identified multiple factors underlying the inbound and domestic tourism development in China, including policies, management systems, tourism demand, tourism attractions, economic level, consumption level, industrial development, investment status, traffic conditions, accommodation services, intermediary services and degree of openness.

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    Using 137Cs and 210Pbex to investigate the soil erosion and accumulation moduli on the southern margin of the Hunshandake Sandy Land in Inner Mongolia
    HU Yunfeng, ZHANG Yunzhi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1890-1903.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909014
    Abstract877)   HTML22)    PDF (3042KB)(188)      

    Wind-driven soil erosion results in land degradation, desertification, atmospheric dust, and sandstorms. The Hunshandake Sandy Land, an important part of the Two Barriers and Three Belts project, plays important roles in preventing desert and sandy land expansion and in maintaining local sustainability. Hence, assessing soil erosion and soil accumulation moduli and analyzing the dynamic changes are valuable. In this paper, Zhenglan Banner, located on the southern margin of the Hunshandake Sandy Land, was selected as the study area. The soil erosion and accumulation moduli were estimated using the 137Cs and 210Pbex composite tracing technique, and the dynamics of soil erosion and soil accumulation were analyzed during two periods. The results are as follows: (1) the regional 137Cs reference inventory was 2123.5±163.94 Bq·m -2, and the regional 210Pbex reference inventory was 8112±1787.62 Bq·m -2. (2) Based on the 137Cs isotope tracing analysis, the erosion moduli ranged from -483.99 to 740.31 t·km -2·a -1. Based on the 210Pbex isotope tracing analysis, the erosion moduli was from -441.53 to 797.98 t·km -2·a -1. (3) Compared with the 1920-1970s, since the 1970s lower soil erosion moduli and accumulation moduli were observed. Therefore, the activities of local sand dunes weakened, and the quality of the local ecological environment improved. The multi-isotope composite tracing technique combining the tracers 137Cs and 210Pbex has potential for similar soil erosion studies in arid or semiarid regions around the world.

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    Spatial differentiation and mechanisms of typical rural areas in the suburbs of a metropolis: A case study of Beicun Village, Baiyun District, Guangzhou
    YANG Ren
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1622-1636.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908010
    Abstract874)   HTML98)    PDF (3496KB)(815)      

    The reforms of global production modes and social systems have accelerated the process of urbanization, and the urban-rural flow speeds up spatial differentiation in the rural suburbs. Based on spatial production theory and game theory, this paper analyzes the spatial differentiation and its influence mechanism in Beicun in the suburbs of Guangzhou. The results are as follows: (1) Since the 1980s, Beicun has experienced three stages: agricultural development, industrial development, and service industry development. The industry has changed from single to diversified, and the transformation from agricultural decentralization to rural community has been realized. (2) In the transformation of rural economic development, the land use type and structure of Beicun tended to be diversified, and the spatial relationship of various types of land use was complicated, emerging in new characteristics of land for mixed commercial and residential use, and mixed industrial and commercial use, gradually forming a circle-type spatial layout structure model of "public service facilities-traditional and modern residential areas-commercial areas-agricultural and industrial areas". (3)The diversification of the rural material space was mainly due to the intervention of new industries and the transformation of leading industries. Both endogenous land-transferring mechanisms and exogenous urban capital promoted the industrialization process, and market power promoted the transformation of manufacturing industry into a service industry. (4) The industrialization process promoted the functional replacement of historical buildings by village organizations; changed the social relationship of the village to the blood clan and made it more geographically oriented; and produced an occupational relationship between migrant workers and urban low-income groups. (5) The multi-differentiation of suburban rural space followed the game logic of capital and land interests. The rural community played a key mediation role in the competition for space and in the game interests among local villagers, farmers, cooperative economy, industrial operators, and service owners.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Research progress and prospect on development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, JIN Gui, HE Shujin, WANG Chengxin, LI Zhaohua, WANG Zhanqi, SONG Malin, YANG Qingyuan, ZHANG Anlu, CHEN Jiancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 226-239.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002002
    Abstract871)   HTML30)    PDF (1353KB)(193)      

    In this paper, we review and sort out research progress on development geography since the 20th century, involving its connotation and theory, fields and methods, and development trends in this paper. Specifically, we systematically reviewed the research and application of development geography in the fields such as in the convergence of underdeveloped countries or regions, the convergence in the process of improving the quality of life in developed countries or regions. Then, in line with the analysis of the research progress on development geography in foreign countries, we indicate the development conditions and disciplinary advantages of development geography in China. Further, we pointed that future development geography research in China should focus more on the latest international academic frontier research and national macro-strategic needs. The future research of development geography should be guided by the theory of sustainable development, with the core of improving the sustainable livelihood capacity and regional green development level in underdeveloped areas, and aiming at constructing industrial policy and development geography theory and interdisciplinary integrated research system, and focusing on research on the spatial pattern, diffusion characteristics and convergence mechanism of regional development, to explore the regulatory policies and scientific paths that serve regional economic construction and industrial development.

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    Regional differentiation of population in Tibetan Plateau: Insight from the "Hu Line"
    QI Wei, LIU Shenghe, ZHOU Liang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 255-267.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002004
    Abstract857)   HTML50)    PDF (3571KB)(236)      

    The Tibetan Plateau is regarded as a typically sparsely populated area both from Chinese and global perspectives. There exists a large difference in population distribution of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the town-level census data in 2010, we compiled a spatial population database to calculate the population density of the Tibetan Plateau. We found that the population distribution on this plateau was characterized in four dimensions, namely longitude, latitude, polarization and altitude. In addition, similar to the "Hu Line" for Chinese population distribution, we introduce the "Qilian-Gyirong Line" (short for Qi-Ji Line), a spatial division line of population geography in the Tibetan Plateau. Our main results are summarized as follows. (1) There are significant regional differences in the spatial population distribution in the Tibetan Plateau. The population density in the southeast was higher than that in the northwest. Compared to longitude-oriented, latitude-oriented and altitude-oriented regional differences, the polarization-oriented regional difference of population distribution was more prominent. This finding indicates that fewer people live in areas close to the cold-arid core of the Tibetan Plateau. (2) The spatial population distribution is closely related to the natural and environmental factors, including altitude, soil, water resources, climate and vegetation. The interaction between the natural factors has an impact on enhancing the regional difference of population. (3) The "Qiji Line" reveals the spatial differences of population in the Tibetan Plateau. The areas on either side of the line are approximately similar, whereas the population shares in the southeast and northwest halves are 93% and 7%, respectively. (4) In general, the population differences on both sides of the "Qiji Line" were stable over time. During 1982-2010 the population share in the southeast half decreased counterbalanced by an increased share in the northeast half. In the future, the majority of the people are expected to live on the southeast side. This is likely to imply two major policy initiatives. More attention is required on the urbanization development and transportation network construction in the southeast half and the increasing eco-environmental pressures from the growing population in the northwest half.

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    Effect of soil moisture variation on near-surface air temperature over the Tibetan Plateau
    FAN Keke, ZHANG Qiang, SUN Peng, SONG Changqing, YU Huiqian, ZHU Xiudi, SHEN Zexi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 82-97.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001007
    Abstract851)   HTML211)    PDF (7259KB)(307)      

    The Tibetan Plateau is one of the most sensitive regions to global climate change. It is of important theoretical significance to explore the effect of soil moisture changes on near-surfaceair temperature for the study of the water cycle of the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the surrounding climate and environment. Based on the NCEP-CFSR dataset, this paper reveals the spatial-temporal pattern of soil moisture content in different seasons and different vegetation zones on the Tibetan Plateau, the response and coupling of soil moisture and evaporation rate, and the impact of soil moisture on near-surface air temperature through evapotranspiration. The results show that: (1) The spatial pattern of soil water on the Tibetan Plateau is basically similar in different seasons, showing a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest and the spatial characteristics of drying in humid regions and wetting in arid regions; (2) The soil moisture in most parts of the Tibetan Plateau is in a transitional state, in which the southern and southeastern parts of the plateau are in a state of transition throughout the year, while the soil moisture in the Qaidam Basin is almost in a dry state all the year round; (3) The sensitivity of the near-surface air temperature to soil moisture is the weakest in winter, but the strongest in summer with weak spatial difference, which is negative feedback in winter, spring and summer. Moreover, the sensitivity of air temperature to soil moisture varies greatly in different vegetation coverage areas. This study has important theoretical significance for further exploring the regional water cycle and its effects under the coupled land-atmosphere state and the changing environment of the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Research progress in crop phenology under global climate change
    LIU Yujie, GE Quansheng, DAI Junhu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 14-24.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001002
    Abstract839)   HTML40)    PDF (962KB)(396)      

    As one of the most important plant traits of crops, crop phenology reflects the characteristics of crop growth and development; its variation also affects crop production. Therefore, crop phenology is a reliable and comprehensive biological indicator reflecting global climate change. Global climate change, marked by rising temperatures, has exerted significant impacts on crop phenology. Under the background of global climate change, revealing the mechanism of global climate change impacts on crop phenology and growth as well as the formation of crop yield is of theoretical and practical significance. At present, crop phenology shifts and their influencing factors have become a hot research topic and an important international issue, thus a large number of studies have been carried out, and achieved rich and effective results. In this paper, we mainly focus on the research progress of crop phenological changes under the background of climate change, including the driving factors and their influencing mechanisms of crop phenological changes as well as methods of research on crop phenology, and the key scientific issues which need to be solved in future study are also discussed. The conclusions of this research could provide a theoretical basis for understanding the impacts and mechanisms of global climate change on crop phenology and for guiding regional agricultural production practices.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution of global food security pattern and its influencing factors in 2000-2014
    MA Enpu, CAI Jianming, LIN Jing, GUO Hua, HAN Yan, LIAO Liuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 332-347.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002009
    Abstract804)   HTML37)    PDF (2791KB)(246)      

    Food security is the basic foundation in accomplishing of the overall Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As the objective in SDGs of "halving the proportion of hungry people by 2015" has not been achieved as scheduled, it will become more challenging to realize its final goal of zero hunger by 2030. So exploring the underlying causes of global food security pattern from perspectives of spatio-temporal evolution is badly needed. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation method with multi-indices was applied to evaluate the food security level of 172 countries in 2000-2014 based on an established global database with country-specific time series data. Then the spatial pattern and changing characteristics of global food security by country was conducted through the spatial autocorrelation analysis. Upon this basis, the underlying factors affecting the food security pattern were further identified and analyzed with a multiple nonlinear regression method. The findings and results show that: (1) The global food security pattern can be summarized as "high-high and low-low agglomerations" of socio-economic status and food security level. The most food secure countries are mainly distributed in the regions with more advanced economy such as North America, Oceania, parts of East Asia, and Western Europe. On the contrary, the least food secure countries are mainly distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, West Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia. (2) At 99% confidence level, Western Europe and sub-Saharan Africa are respectively the hot and cold spots in global food security landscape, while in non-aggregation areas such as Haiti and North Korea, there exist long-term food insecurity problems. (3) The spatio-temporal pattern of global food security is generally stable, but the internal changes in the extremely insecure groups are significant. The countries with the most changeable levels of food security are also the countries with the most food insecurity. (4) Annual mean temperature, per capita GDP, the proportion of people who have access to clean water, and political stability are the key factors affecting the global food security pattern. The study indicates that while the global food security situation has improved since 2000, there was a reverse sign or omen in 2013. Affected by climate change, residents' purchasing power, infrastructure condition, and political and economic stability, global food security has in fact been volatile and some areas in the world are still facing acute food security problems. In addressing this challenge, a food security strategy based on the four dimensions, i.e. food supply, food access, food use and political stability, and a worldwide rural revitalization approach, is highly recommended. Meanwhile, it is necessary to progressively introduce some diversified modes of production such as urban agriculture to build a more resilient food system in those fully urbanized regions.

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    Impacts of urbanization on spatio-temporal variations of temperature over the Pearl River Delta
    WU Zixuan, ZHANG Qiang, SONG Changqing, ZHANG Fen, ZHU Xiudi, SUN Peng, FAN Keke, YU Huiqian, SHEN Zexi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2342-2357.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911011
    Abstract801)   HTML286)    PDF (5834KB)(858)      

    Daily temperature data at 21 stations across the Pearl River Delta during the period of 1967-2015 were selected, and these stations were divided into urban stations and suburban stations based on population, population density and DMSP/OLS data. Meanwhile, spatio-temporal variations due to urbanization were investigated by comparing the temperature changes at urban and suburban stations. The results show that: (1) In the past 50 years, the annual average temperature, the average maximum temperature and the average minimum temperature in the Pearl River Delta region increased significantly, and the average minimum temperature increased at the highest rate, or 1.05-1.16 times of the average temperature and 0.95-1.32 times of the average maximum temperature, respectively. Among them, the seasonal difference of annual average temperature change rate is generally manifested as the strongest temperature increase in autumn and winter, with the temperature increase rate higher than 0.3 ℃/10a, and the temperature increase rate is weaker in spring and summer, with the temperature increase rate as low as 0.16 ℃/10a. (2) Using urban and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) comparison to study the urbanization effect, affected by urbanization, the annual average temperature of the Pearl River Delta is increasing by 0.096 ℃/10a. (3) Using urban and rural comparison to study the urbanization effect, from 1967 to 2015, urbanization leads to the temperature increase in urban areas. Generally speaking, urbanization contributes the most to the increase of average minimum temperature. Meanwhile, the seasonal difference in the contribution rate of urbanization to the annual average temperature change indicates that the increase rate is stronger in summer and winter, with the contribution rate higher than 11.8%, and lower in spring and autumn, with the contribution rate being only 4.46%. (3) The selection of stations division method, the different periods of urbanization development and time scale of research all lead to the uncertainty of the research results on the warming effect of urbanization. Different stations classification methods indicate that urbanization contributes the most to the increase of the minimum temperature, and for a longer time scale, the contribution rate of urbanization to the increase of the minimum temperature is up to 38.6%.

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