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    The finding and significance of the super altitudinal belt of montane deciduous broad-leaved forests in central Qinling Mountains
    ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, XIAO Fei, ZHOU Wenzuo, ZHU Lianqi, ZHANG Junhua, ZHAO Fang, BAI Hongying, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHANG Xinghang, LIU Junjie, LI Jiayu, JIANG Ya
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (9): 2236-2248.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202209007
    Abstract3032)   HTML195)    PDF (3374KB)(752)      

    Mountain altitudinal belts are the miniature of horizontal differentiation and succession of climatic and vegetational zonation. However, altitudinal belts' vertical range, transition model, inner structure and combining pattern vary from place to place. In Mt. Taibai of the central section of China's north-south transitional zone, we have found an altitudinal belt with the largest range in the world, namely, the montane deciduous broad-leaved forest, which extends continuously from the mountain base to about 2800 m, including basal oak belt, typical oak belt of two sub-belts and cold-tolerant pioneer birch belt of two sub-belts, which could otherwise develop independently. Characterized by a "three layers and five sub-belts" structure, this "super altitudinal belt" is much vertically broader than the threshold of 1000 m for normal altitudinal belts. Its formation is closely related with its transitional geographic location, integral spectrum of altitudinal belts in central Qinling Mountains, rich and diverse species of deciduous woody plants, and their strong competitiveness. The finding of the super altitudinal belt has multiple significance: Its existence is another significant physio-geographic feature of China's north-south transitional zone; it shows that an altitudinal belt may have rather complex inner structure and broad vertical range in some special mountain environment. This broadens our understanding of altitudinal belt structures and their mechanisms, and is of great significance for developing structural theory for montane altitudinal belts. This finding also demonstrates that there are many big questions for us to explore and study in the north-south transitional zone, and it is expected that our finding could trigger in-depth study of local climate and biodiversity responsible for the formation of this super belt, and of the complex structure and ecological effect of China's north-south transitional zone.

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    Spatial pattern and determinants of international migration flows in Asia, 1990-2015
    LIU Ye, WANG Xiaoge, GUAN Jing, GU Hengyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (10): 2409-2425.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202210001
    Abstract2813)   HTML132)    PDF (2817KB)(495)      

    Understanding the characteristics of transnational migration in Asia is beneficial for China to formulate a reasonable international migration policy in the new era and promote the high-quality development of the Belt and Road Initiative. Based on the data of bilateral international migration flows from 1990 to 2015, this study tries to clarify the temporal and spatial patterns and influencing factors of Asian transnational migration by using social network analysis and spatial filtering panel negative binomial gravity model (ESF). The results are listed as follows: First, the main migration flows in Asia from 1990 to 2000 were concentrated in West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia, and most of them occurred between the adjacent countries and regions. From 2000 to 2015, there was a number of large-scale migration flows across the above three subregions. Second, the scale of the migration network in Asia is relatively low, and the degree of closeness between the Asian countries has increased first and then weakened over time. Third, political instability and war conflicts of the origin were important driving forces for transnational migration in Asia. Besides, the differences of economic development and national income between countries were the crucial driving forces, while multi-dimensional proximity factors played an important role in promoting transnational migration. Fourth, from 1990 to 2015, the effect of economic differences on transnational migration increased first and then weakened. In addition, political instability has always been the main influencing factors for migration. Besides, the development of import trade has positively promoted transnational migration, and the attractiveness of studying abroad has a fluctuating effect on transnational migration. Finally, non-economic and structural impacts were the most important factors influencing the transnational migration in Asia.

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    Pattern evolution and optimal paths of county urbanization in China
    LIU Yansui, YANG Ren, LIN Yuancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2937-2953.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212001
    Abstract2317)   HTML341)    PDF (5350KB)(1134)      

    The orderly development of county urbanization, as an effective driving force for the integrated development of urban and rural areas in the new era, promotes the interaction and flow of elements between urban and rural territorial system, the optimization and adjustment of industrial structures, the optimal allocation of resources and markets, and the organic integration of urban and rural territorial system. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2020, the county urbanization in China developed rapidly, and the regional differences in spatial and temporal dynamics were significant. The county urbanization rate in the eastern coastal, central suburbs and northern border areas was high, while it is low in southwest China, rural areas of the central region and most parts of Tibet and Xinjiang. In 2020, to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line, the northeastern region, northern Hebei, Shanxi-Shaanxi-Henan region, eastern Sichuan, and Yunnan-Guizhou region became high-value areas for urbanization rates at the county level. There are 716 counties with urbanization rates exceeding 50%, including the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the Chengdu-Chongqing region, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the border areas of Inner Mongolia, and the southeastern coastal areas of Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian, accounting for 38.3% of the country's total. (2) The county urbanization in China is the result of the combined effects of factors such as population, economy, society, and culture. The level of economic development, natural environment conditions, infrastructure construction, geographic locations, public resource supply, professional entrepreneurial clusters, and macro policies affect the direction, scope and depth of county urbanization. It is predicted that by 2035, the urbanization rate of China will reach about 76.04%, and that of counties will be about 64.38%. In the future, we should strengthen the adjustment and optimization of county population, economy, society and spatial organizational structure. (3) There are five types of county urbanization in China, including factor agglomeration urbanization in counties around big cities, industrial agglomeration-driven urbanization in counties with specialized function, agricultural modernization-led urbanization in counties with main agricultural production areas, ecological conservation urbanization in counties with ecological function areas, and concentrated urbanization in counties with population loss. (4) County urbanization takes county and key towns as important spatial carriers for the agglomeration of urbanization elements, and forms a multi-level system of residence-industry and industry-city coordination. The rational spatial distribution of factors such as the development of industrial integration and population resources will further promote the interactive flow of urban and rural elements, the integration of urban and rural industries, the equalization of urban and rural residents, and the equalization of urban and rural infrastructure, and enhance urban-rural integration and network development.

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    Exploring the integrative development paths of geographic sciences from the perspective of National Natural Science Foundation of China
    XIONG Juhua, GAO Yang, WU Hao, SUN Weijun, LIU Xiaoqian, LIU Jianbao, YANG Gang, ZHANG Zhonghao, MAO Dehua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1839-1850.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208001
    Abstract2199)   HTML126)    PDF (1001KB)(569)      

    With the progress of holistic science and human society, development of geographical sciences has entered a new stage of interdisciplinary integration. Under this context, geographical sciences urgently needs to seek new paths through the deep integration of disciplines to better improve the knowledge system and contribute to the country and society development effectively. Based on the perspective of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), this paper firstly deeply analyzes the current status and problems of the integration and development of geographical sciences in China, and points out that it is not fully integrated with the frontier of international geographical sciences, and the global political, economic and cultural influence of geographical research in China needs to be strengthened; considers that the ability of Geographic Sciences integrating national major practical needs for theoretical and technological innovation should be improved; suggests that the internal discipline system of geographical sciences in China should be further optimized according to the needs of knowledge integration. Then, this paper proposes three paths for the integrated development of geographical sciences under the guidance of funding policies, that is, the interdisciplinary integration facing the frontiers of science and technology in the world, the multiple fields integration facing the major national development strategies, and inner-discipline integration facing the optimized application codes of NSFC. In future, based on maintaining the continuity and stability of the development of disciplines, the NSFC will encourage the integration of geographical sciences with other disciplines and fields through the improvement and innovation, so as to promote and build a healthier and more innovative system.

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    Remotely sensed mapping and analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of land use change across China in 2015-2020
    KUANG Wenhui, ZHANG Shuwen, DU Guoming, YAN Changzhen, WU Shixin, LI Rendong, LU Dengsheng, PAN Tao, NING Jing, GUO Changqing, DONG Jinwei, BAO Yuhai, CHI Wenfeng, DOU Yinyin, HOU Yali, YIN Zherui, CHANG Liping, YANG Jiuchun, XIE Jiali, QIU Juan, ZHANG Hansong, ZHANG Yubo, YANG Shiqi, SA Rigai, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1056-1071.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205002
    Abstract2101)   HTML131)    PDF (5124KB)(661)      

    The continuous remote sensing monitoring of land use/cover change at the national scale is of great scientific significance for land spatial planning and blueprint drawing of "Beautiful China" in the new era. Landsat 8 OLI, GF-2 and other satellite remote sensing data were used to develop the data of land use change across China during 2015-2020 and China Land Use/Cover Dataset in 2020 (CLUD 2020) by integrating remote sensing big data and expert knowledge-assisted human-computer interaction interpretation methods. Long time series land use dynamic database at a 30-m resolution in China was established at 5-year interval in the end of 1980s-2020. On this basis, the general trend, regional differences and main characteristics of land use change in 2015-2020 were revealed from national and regional scales. The research indicated that integrating vegetation cover change at a 30-m resolution and land change information generated by remotely sensed big-data cloud calculation into the expert human-computer interaction interpretation can effectively improve the efficiency of mapping and the accuracy of land use change detection. The overall accuracy of CLUD 2020 first-level type mapping reaches 95%. In general, the intensity of territorial development entered a stable state compared with 2010-2015. During the period, the cropland continued to decrease. Nationwide farmland was encroached by urban development and construction, paddy fields in Northeast China continued to decrease, and cultivated land in Xinjiang was reclaimed in the south and abandoned in the north. The built-up land continued to increase, showing a spatial pattern that "the expansion of built-up land changed from the agglomeration of coastal areas and mega and large cities in 2010-2015 to the surrounding sprawl of large, medium and small towns in the central and western regions in 2015-2020". Although the area of natural ecological land for forest and grass continued to decrease nationwide, the intensity decreased compared with 2010-2015. Under the continuous impact of climate change, the area of water in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau increased significantly. The pattern of land use change is closely related to the national macro strategy for high-quality development during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period (2016-2020) and ecological civilization construction, as well as the impact of climate change.

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    Assessment of ecological benefits of key national ecological projects in China in 2000-2019 using remote sensing
    SHAO Quanqin, LIU Shuchao, NING Jia, LIU Guobo, YANG Fan, ZHANG Xiongyi, NIU Linan, HUANG Haibo, FAN Jiangwen, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (9): 2133-2153.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202209001
    Abstract2074)   HTML226)    PDF (10476KB)(951)      

    We propose a theoretical framework for assessing the ecological benefits provided by national key ecological projects in China over the past 20 years. A dataset consisting of six primary indicators and nine secondary indicators of ecosystem structure, ecosystem quality, and ecosystem services for the period 2000-2019 was generated using ground survey and remote sensing data. Ecological benefits were quantitatively evaluated following the implementation of national key ecological projects in China. Areas with medium, relatively high, and high degrees of ecological restoration accounted for 24.1%, 11.9%, and 1.7% of the national land area, respectively. Degrees of ecological restoration were higher in areas with a greater number of ecological projects. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly concentrated in the Loess Plateau, the farming-pastoral zone of northern China, the Northeast China Plain, and an area spanning the border areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Hunan. The relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in vegetation net primary productivity were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, and the relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in water erosion modulus were 69.5% and 30.5%, respectively. The restoration potential of national vegetation coverage was 20%, and the restoration potential percentages of forest and grassland vegetation coverage were 6.4% and 23%, respectively. Climatic conditions can inhibit ecological restoration. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly distributed in areas with an annual average temperature greater than 0 ℃ and annual precipitation greater than 300 mm. Therefore, the limitations associated with climate conditions should be considered during the implementation of national ecological projects. The implementation of single ecological projects or single ecological restoration measures should be avoided, the use of combined measures should be emphasized, and the benefits of ecological investment funds should be maximized.

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    Spatial pattern and attribution analysis of the regions with frequent geological disasters in the Tibetan Plateau and Hengduan Mountains
    SHEN Zexi, ZHANG Qiang, WU Wenhuan, SONG Changqing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1211-1224.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205012
    Abstract1706)   HTML79)    PDF (4533KB)(308)      

    The Tibet Plateau and the Hengduan Mountains are located in the southwest of China, being featured by intricate landforms and deep valleys with large slopes. Due to the impacts of fluvial-induced erosions and intense geologic processes, frequent occurrences of geological disasters such as landslides, collapses and debris flows can be observed and are challenging regional sustainable development. Here we developed a random forest (RF) model to identify the geological disaster points within each sub-region. We found that the accuracies of RF models in sub-regions were all larger than 80% and can reach 91%, which evidenced modelling performance of the developed model in this study in identification of the locations with frequent occurrences of geological disasters. Meanwhile, the locations and/regions with frequent occurrences of geological disasters were found mainly in the southern part of the Hengduan Mountain area, and northeast and south parts of the Tibet Plateau, where 87% of all disaster events ranged from small scale to middle-scale. Specifically, from the view of sub-region, areas with frequent occurrences of geological disaster were 17.5 × 10 4 km2, 17.4 × 10 4 km2 and 27.5 × 10 4 km2, respectively. Due to the spatial heterogeneities of landforms, climatic conditions and disturbance intensities from human activities, major causes of geological disasters (without considering classes of geological disasters) vary from sub-region to sub-region. For sub-region Ⅰ (south part of the Hengduan Mountain area), the main driving factors behind the small-scale and middle-scale geological disasters are impacts from constructions of roads and vibration from transportation (attribution ratio (AT) as 20.2%). Besides, main driving factors behind the small-scale and middle-scale geological disasters for both sub-regions Ⅱ~Ⅲwere impacts from vegetation coverages on slope stabilities, whose ATs are 23.6% and 27.3% respectively. Besides, the second most important causes behind small-scale and middle-scale geological disasters for sub-regions Ⅱ~Ⅲ were impacts from constructions of road and transportation (AT as 15.7%) and impacts from river erosions on slope stabilities (AT as 17%) respectively.

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    Theoretical analysis on the mechanism and evolution law of urban-rural integration development
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 759-776.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204001
    Abstract1654)   HTML155)    PDF (3366KB)(524)      

    Urban and rural areas are always an inseparable organic integration, and the high-quality new urbanization is the process of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization. "urban disease" and "rural disease" are connected with each other, and are the causes of each other, which are known as "urban and rural diseases". The radical cure of "urban disease" and "rural disease" requires rural revitalization and new urbanization. Based on the review of the research on urban-rural integration development at home and abroad, this study analyzes the pathological roots and opposition pattern of urban and rural areas from the theoretical level, explores the main controlling factors, driving mechanism, sustainability and four-stage regularity of urban-rural integration development, constructs the measurement test system of urban-rural integration development, and puts forward the triangular model of urban-rural multi-integration development. It is known that the urban-rural integration development in China is in the high integration stage of more towns and less villages in the late urbanization, and will enter the deep integration stage of more towns and less villages, namely the final stage of urbanization. This study explores the policy evolution path of urban-rural integration development in China since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. China has generally experienced the policy evolution process from urban-rural coordinated development to the integration of urban-rural development and then to urban-rural integration development, and played an important guiding role in promoting new urbanization and rural revitalization. From the path level, it is suggested that the Central Urban and Rural Work Conference should be jointly convened, the National Urban-Rural Integration Development Plan should be jointly compiled, and the strategy of deep integration of urban-rural development should be implemented. The new urbanization and rural revitalization should be used as two different means to solve urban and rural diseases and improve the quality of urban and rural development. The theory and method of urban-rural integration development should be innovated, and the evaluation system should be constructed to quantitatively evaluate the depth of urban-rural integration development and build beautiful cities and beautiful villages. We should promote the development of new urbanization and rural revitalization in the direction of high synchronization, deep integration and co-prosperity, as well as improve the quality of urban and rural development and realize urban and rural modernization in a comprehensive way.

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    Building natural resources surveying and monitoring technological system: Direction and research agenda
    CHEN Jun, WU Hao, ZHANG Jixian, WANG Donghua, LIAO Anping, LIU Wanzeng, ZHANG Jun, MIAO Qianjun, FENG Wenli, LU Weihua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1041-1055.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205001
    Abstract1609)   HTML50)    PDF (2668KB)(364)      

    Designing and building up the natural resources surveying and monitoring technological system (referred to as the "Technological System") is an important measure to establish and improve the natural resources management, promote the intensive and economical utilization of natural resources, and harmonize the coexistence between man and nature. It is a geo-science related research project with many complicated factors and challenging tasks. Following the mandates and requirement of the unified natural resources surveying and monitoring, the paper firstly analyzes the basic problems in designing and building up the "Technological System" from the holistic characteristics of the surveying and monitoring process and the systematic characteristics of its engineering implementation. A comprehensive overall framework of "Technological System" is resulted and discussed. Then the development direction of "Technological System" is proposed and analyzed, including the collaborative data sensing, automatic information processing, elaborative natural resource scene modeling and management, as well as intelligent knowledge service. Then the article discusses the digital-intelligent realization path of the "Technological System" to meet the advanced and practical requirement. It has led to the formulation of the future research agenda with five major research and development tasks, including the development of space-sir-ground-ocean-web collaborative sensing network system, construction of automatic information processing platform, spatio-temporal scene modeling of natural resources, development of spatio-temporal knowledge service of natural resources, and reconstruction of engineering technical flow. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the strategic needs analysis, enhance key technologies innovation and promote interdisciplinary collaboration in order to effectively build up the "Technological System" and promote its operational application.

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    The extent and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment in China
    DONG Shijie, XIN Liangjie, LI Shengfa, XIE Hualin, ZHAO Yuluan, WANG Xue, LI Xiubin, SONG Hengfei, LU Yahan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (1): 3-15.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202301001
    Abstract1527)   HTML319)    PDF (2847KB)(950)      

    With urbanization and industrialization, cultivated land in hilly regions of China has been gradually marginalized. Abandoned cultivated lands have ranged from inferior sloping land and extended to high-quality terraces. The abandonment of terraces will lead to a series of social and ecological problems, especially with large-scale abandonment. Therefore, the degree and spatial distribution of terrace abandonment should be evaluated scientifically to address the issue of abandonment as well as its effects. This study investigated the extent of terrace abandonment in China via a questionnaire sampling method. Based on 560 village questionnaires from 329 counties in China, the scale of terrace abandonment was calculated and the spatial heterogeneity characteristics and primary reasons for terrace abandonment were further analyzed. Study results showed that: (1) The phenomenon of terrace abandonment was observed throughout China, occurring in 54% of all the villages investigated; 9.79% of the total terraced areas have been abandoned. (2) The degree of terrace abandonment showed a spatial pattern of "high in the south and low in the north". The degree of terrace abandonment was higher in the southern hilly mountains, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was the most serious. (3) The primary factors related to terrace abandonment were found to be labor migration, the degree to which terraces have been mechanized, irrigation conditions, and farming traffic conditions. Measures that include improving the degree of terrace mechanization should be enacted to address the problem of terrace abandonment. An orderly "conversion of cropland" could be applied to poor-quality terraces. Changing the planting structure, strengthening new agricultural infrastructure, and encouraging circulation and large-scale operations are options that could be applied to good-quality terraces.

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    Spatial and temporal changes and evolution mechanism of county-level administrative division adjustment in the Qing Dynasty
    ZHAO Yicai, WANG Kaiyong, HUA Linfu, WANG Fuyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (12): 2972-2990.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202212003
    Abstract1462)   HTML159)    PDF (3834KB)(442)      

    Administrative division is an important part of the national governance system. A systematic analysis of the spatial and temporal change pattern and influencing factors of the adjustment of county-level administrative divisions in the Qing Dynasty can better learn from and give play to the supporting role of administrative divisions in national and local governance. Using the textual research results of the national Qing history compilation project Qing History·Geographical Chronicles, and referring to the Qing Dynasty archives in China's first historical archives collection, Qingshilu, Qinghuidian, Daqingyitongzhi, local chronicles and other historical documents, this paper comprehensively analyzes the overall evolution and adjustment of county-level administrative divisions from 1683 to 1911. The research shows that: (1) There are 9 kinds of adjustment forms of county-level administrative divisions in the Qing Dynasty. The key of the adjustment is the proposal power of the governor, and the governor system is the institutional guarantee for the adjustment and promotion of administrative divisions. (2) The frequency of administrative division adjustment was greatly affected by the governance concept of the supreme ruler, showing fluctuating changes. The Yongzheng period was the absolute peak of administrative adjustment in the Qing Dynasty, the Guangxu and Xuantong periods was a relative peak, and the adjustment of Daoguang to Tongzhi periods was the least. (3) The setting of county-level administrative divisions was the most frequent, followed by the change and splitting of subordinate relations. Level change and consolidation were 2 types with lower adjustment frequency. (4) In the Qing Dynasty, the 4 types of adjustments of upgrading, relocation, abolishment and new establishment were widely distributed in 23 provinces, with the highest uniformity of provincial distribution, and the 4 types of adjustments of renaming, merging, changing affiliation and changing at the same level were concentrated in provinces such as Zhili, Henan and Shanxi. (5) The formation of the adjustment pattern of county-level administrative divisions in the Qing Dynasty was the result of the joint action of many factors. Political consideration was the decisive factor. All this reflected the management concept of clear hierarchy, clear rights and responsibilities, adjusting measures to local conditions and step by step.

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    History of the ideas on economic geography in China: Period focus, evolution and prospect
    LI Xiaojian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1873-1891.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208003
    Abstract1388)   HTML113)    PDF (2628KB)(436)      

    The history of Chinese economic geography as a research field is virtually an evolution of ideas on the relationship between economic activities and geographical environment. In ancient times, the idea on adapting to geographical conditions to cultivate economic activities had emerged, and numerous cases of regional practices were recorded in local chronicles. In the period from 1840 to 1948, economic geography appeared as a scientific discipline, and relevant research on agricultural and industrial geography was carried out. In the period from 1949 to 1978, the ideas on economic geography of the Soviet Union were fully introduced, with research focusing on the use of natural conditions and resources, and on the relationship between production distribution and geographical contexts to meet the national needs of economic development. In the period from 1979 to 2000, starting from territorial management and land planning, the important perspective formed on the relationship between man and land, and the theoretical progress was made in the establishment of Point-axis Concept and other spatial structural patterns. Economic geographers also made proposals on government regulations based on an expanding trend of regional differences. In the period from 2001 to 2020, one of the foci related to the relationship between man and land was the major fuction-oriented zoning, and other hot topics included issues of industrial agglomeration, urban economic zones, rural revitalization, and the impact of new factors on formation mechanism of the spatial structure of economic activities. The development of Chinese economic geography thought can be sorted into three threads. The first one is the long-lasting records that consist of rich historical documents, from the description of a large number of economic locations and differences of their geographical contexts, to the exploration of the relationship between economic activities and geographical environment. Together with a large number of local chronicles, the idea of man-land relations was hidden in the text. The second thread is the trajectory of travel notes which was developed into modern investigations and observations, providing important means of discovering scientific facts for the study of economic geography. The third thread is the introduction of ideas from other countries including investigation techniques, research methods and thinking logic, which further promotes the development of China's economic geography. The survey on the history of economic geography ideas can provide three enlightenments for further study of economic geography: (1) strengthening the exploration of the relationship between economic activities and the geographical environment; (2) encouraging problem-oriented critical thinking; (3) improving the weaknesses of China's economic geography research, such as the reduction theory and the deductive method.

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    Dynamics of surface water area in the Yellow River Basin and its influencing mechanism during 1986-2019 based on Google Earth Engine
    LI Chongwei, WANG Zhihui, TANG Qiuhong, HU Qingfeng, XIAO Peiqing, LYU Xizhi, LIU Yang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1153-1168.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205008
    Abstract1346)   HTML76)    PDF (7756KB)(448)      

    The Yellow River Basin (YRB) has been facing severe water shortages, hence the monitoring of long-term dynamics of surface water area (SWA) is essential to better understand the spatial and temporal variation of surface water resources and its driving factors. In this study, the spatial and temporal change characteristics of SWA in the YRB were revealed, and then the impacts and relative impact rate of precipitation (Pre), temperature (Temp), leaf area index (LAI), SWA in the previous year (Pre_SWA) and residual factors (e.g. water conservation measures and human water use activities) on SWA were determined in the combination of water detection index, linear slope, multiple linear regression and partial differential decomposition. The results show that: (1) the overall accuracy of classification of surface water bodies is 97%. The increase rate of year-long SWA in the study area from 1986 to 2019 is 49.82 km2/a, of which 83.2% was contributed by the SWA increment from the main river channel area, and the year 2001 is the turning point of SWA trend from decreasing to increasing; the seasonal SWA decreased at a rate of -79.2 km2/a, of which 61.8% was contributed by the SWA decrease in the sub-basin areas. (2) The SWA changes of all major natural lakes are relatively stable, and the only decreasing trend of SWA was observed in the Hongjiannao lake; the SWA of Xiaolangdi and Longyangxia reservoirs changed significantly with an increasing trend among the large reservoirs in the main river channel, and SWA increasing trends can be observed in the 50 sub-basins located in the middle and lower reaches. (3) Precipitation had the least effect on the increasing trend of SWA, and warming caused a decrease of SWA in the middle reaches, but led to an increase of SWA in the source area. The impacts of vegetation greening on the SWA trend in the main channel area and sub-basin areas are 10.12 km2/a and 7.26 km2/a, respectively. Residual factors had a negative reffect on the SWA trend in the sub-basin areas, where the SWA reduction induced by human water use was much greater than the SWA increment induced by small water conservancy projects. However, residual factors had a positive effect on the SWA increase due to the great regulating storage capacity of large reservoirs in the main river channel area.

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    Characteristics and influencing factors of the key villages of rural tourism in China
    WANG Xiuwei, LI Xiaojun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 900-917.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204009
    Abstract1148)   HTML89)    PDF (5352KB)(635)      

    The key villages of rural tourism are typical demonstrations for promoting the high-quality development of rural tourism, which are of great significance for optimizing rural tourism supply and leading rural tourism development. The article analyzes the spatial distribution pattern and structural characteristics of 1000 key villages of rural tourism nationwide by using Nearest Neighbor Index and Kernel Density Estimation. The study further reveals spatial differentiation of the key villages of rural tourism. The main factors affecting spatial distribution of the key villages of rural tourism are analyzed by using Multiple Linear Regression, Vector Buffer Analysis and Geographic Detectors. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. Firstly, there are more key villages of rural tourism in the eastern region than in the western region of China. The inter-provincial spatial density stratification feature is obvious and the spatial distribution pattern of double core-ring core cluster-ribbon zone is unique. Secondly, the spatial distribution of key villages of rural tourism has significant positive spatial correlation. The key villages of rural tourism are spatially dispersed in cold spots and concentrated in hot spots. Thirdly, kernel density estimation shows that villages of agricultural production type have high spatial distribution density, while the others have low density. Fourthly, the spatial distribution pattern is the result of five factors: natural ecology, social economy, transportation facilities, scenic resources and policy environment. Gross domestic product per capita and household consumption expenditure have a significant positive impact, while the distance from the tourist market and the distance from transportation access are negative influencing factors. Fifthly, the driving factors for the spatial distribution of various types of villages are different and closely related to the village resource endowment and development characteristics.

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    Spatial evolution of new infrastructure and its determinants: A case study of big data centers
    WANG Jiaoe, DU Fangye, XIAO Fan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 259-272.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302001
    Abstract1123)   HTML293)    PDF (2376KB)(751)      

    Data center is a new infrastructure system based on new development concepts, technological innovation, and information networks. It provides services for digital transformation, smart upgrading, and integrated innovation to meet the needs of high-quality development. The new infrastructure covers the construction of 5G base stations, intercity high-speed rail, intercity rail transit, new energy vehicle charging piles, big data centers, artificial intelligence, and industrial internet. It could promote resource integration, nurture new growth points, and shape new locations. Analyzing the spatial patterns of new infrastructures and their influencing factors is of great significance for understanding the regional development advantages. Using the data center as an example, this paper explores the spatial distribution and determinants of new infrastructure. Since the data center is not only infrastructure but also a strategic emerging industry, it is different from traditional infrastructure in terms of technical requirements and energy consumption. Since this difference will be reflected in the spatial layout, this paper proposes the macro layout principle of the data center. Then, the evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial pattern of data centers in China are analyzed, and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) The macroscopic distribution of data centers should follow four principles: demand-oriented, cost oriented, operating environment-oriented, and safety oriented. (2) The distribution of data centers presents a spatial structure centered on the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration. (3) Economic development, internet development, the number of high-tech enterprises, labor costs, and educational institutions have a positive impact on the macro layout of data centers. The impacts of location conditions, land costs, and layout policies of data centers on their macro layout begin to appear at a certain stage. (4) There are three types of data center distribution models in China: demand-orientated, cost-oriented, and demand-cost-operating environment-oriented. At present, the data center in China is demand-oriented and will develop into a comprehensive demand-cost-operating environment-oriented model in the future. Our conclusion could provide guidance and suggestions for scientific site selection and the optimal layout of data centers.

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    The logic of rural spatial governance and revitalization
    GE Dazhuan, LU Yuqi, SUN Pan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 777-794.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204002
    Abstract1098)   HTML61)    PDF (2252KB)(487)      

    The rural vitalization in the new era and space development and utilization are closely related. It is meaningful to construct a theoretical system and practical path of rural vitalization based on rural spatial governance. Based on the deconstruction framework of "demand→effect→path→strategy", this paper discusses the internal logic relationship between rural vitalization and spatial governance. The results show the following: (1) The reconstruction of rural value is the key to ensure the realization of rural vitalization; rural spatial governance can be a good way to realize the rights allocation and effective control of rural space; rural spatial governance includes material spatial governance, organization spatial governance, and ownership spatial governance; through spatial governance, the structure and function of physical space can be reconstructed, the organization relationship can be reorganized, and the value distribution can be reshaped. (2) The effect of spatial governance on rural vitalization is presented from the optimization of the urban-rural interaction, as well as the stimulation and strengthening of rural endogenous power, and the capabilities of grassroots organizations. (3) Rural spatial governance is an effective path to implement rural vitalization by promoting the urban-rural integration development, activating rural endogenous development, and ensuring the organizations mechanism. (4) The rural spatial governance system combines "top-down" and "bottom-up" forms to implement rational allocation of spatial development power. The channels, capabilities, and effects of multiple subjects participating in spatial governance will promote the realization of space development and the establishment of a system with equitable rights and interests. The "right-sharing" spatial governance can implement the rural revitalization strategy in urban-rural sharing, subject and regional sharing. In summary, the research will provide references for improving the scientific system of rural spatial governance and implementing the rural revitalization strategy.

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    Spatial structure characteristics of intercity travel network of Chinese residents: Based on Tencent migration data
    PAN Jinghu, WEI Shimei, ZHANG Rong, YANG Liangjie
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (10): 2494-2513.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202210006
    Abstract1069)   HTML51)    PDF (9983KB)(231)      

    Based on the Tencent migration data in 2018, the Chinese residents' intercity travel networks were constructed respectively from different time periods (annual, daily, special holidays, and the Spring Festival travel period), different travel modes (aviation, railway, and highway) and different urban agglomerations (inside and outside). Using the social network analysis method, the spatial structure characteristics of residents' intercity travel networks were explored and depicted from the perspective of "point-line-network", and the internal and external travel patterns of major urban agglomerations were summarized to reveal residents' intercity travel laws systematically and comprehensively. The results showed that: the residents' intercity travel network in 2018 presents a spatial pattern of "dense in the east and sparse in the west", forming a top-level cross-regional "diamond" network structure with high central cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou-Shenzhen and Chengdu-Chongqing as the vertexes. Residents' intercity travel in the Spring Festival travel period is quite different from that in other holidays. The weighted gravity center of the residents' intercity travel is more inclined to the southwest during the Spring Festival travel period. The daily average travel scale of the Spring Festival is higher than that of other periods. There are significant differences in residents' intercity travel population scale, travel range and travel transportation network under different travel modes. The aviation intercity travel, railway intercity travel and highway intercity travel are responsible for the population gathering and dispersion of intercity travel at national level, regional level and local level, respectively. The internal and external residents' intercity travel networks of urban agglomerations respectively show a spatial pattern of "core-hinterland-periphery" and "region crossing-neighboring-locality", with obvious significant hierarchy. Affected by administrative barriers, intercity travel within an urban agglomeration is more to the capital city as the origin or destination, showing a multi-center dual-core travel pattern, while the external intercity travel of the urban agglomeration is mostly single-center single-core travel pattern.

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    Spatial distribution of rural building in China: Remote sensing interpretation and density analysis
    LI Xun, XU Weipan, HUANG Yaofu, CHEN Haohui, QIN Xiaozhen, LI Ying, DENG Mingliang, JIANG Junhao, QIN Yawen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 835-851.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204005
    Abstract1055)   HTML79)    PDF (7852KB)(330)      

    The research on the distribution of rural buildings is one of the essential works of rural revitalization in China. Adopting Mask R-CNN deep learning framework and collecting sub-meter remote sensing image, this research successfully trains remote sensing interpretation models suitable for local rural buildings based on the human geographical characteristics in each province. A multi-scale database of Chinese rural building based on single rural building has been created, including 154 million agricultural houses in 1484 counties with a total construction area of 29.82 billion square meters. Based on the database, this paper analyzes the distribution characteristics of rural buildings at the county, town and settlement scales. At the county scale, the density of rural buildings showed a distribution pattern of 'dense in the east and sparse in the west', consistent with the population distribution pattern revealed by Hu Huanyong Line. At the town scale, the density of rural buildings increases from west to east with the descent of three terrain steps, and the spatial distribution tends to be balanced, corresponding to the agricultural productivities and topography in the agricultural zones. At the settlement scale, the distribution of rural buildings shows the pattern of 'dense in the south and sparse in the north', consistent to the climate condition, topography and arable land per capita. The construction of China's rural building spatial database could lay a solid foundation for the "computational" rural research in the future.

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    An understanding of academic atmosphere and innovative culture
    LU Dadao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (6): 1291-1298.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202206001
    Abstract1052)   HTML45)    PDF (1084KB)(241)      

    The author describes his understanding of current academic atmosphere and innovative culture in the field of geographical sciences based on his observation from five perspectives. The key points can be illustrated as follows: (1) According to geographical methodology, the theories, concepts, judgments of geography are based on observation, analysis and conclusion regarding the spatial characteristics and variation of a substance that objectively exists on the earth surface. (2) In light of issues concerning specific cases, this paper highlights the importance of "be well-grounded and speak up moderately" to the knowledge accumulation and application of the researchers. (3) The study comes up with some comments on "what is scientific innovation" and "how to achieve scientific innovation". (4) In the academic practice, we should correctly handle the relationship between individuals and their research teams. (5) Science research should adopt and support the consulting to the government departments concerned.

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    Review of the research progress in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region since 1980
    FAN Jie, LIAN Yanan, ZHAO Hao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (6): 1299-1319.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202206002
    Abstract1017)   HTML85)    PDF (3182KB)(374)      

    In the past four decades, due to different research contents and spatial governance priorities, the names and scopes of regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Bohai Rim and Greater Bohai Sea have changed many times. As the earliest humanities and economic geography research in China, its object area has attracted more and more attention such as disciplines of economic trade, ecological environment, and urban and rural planning. Based on the academic papers, monographs, and influential scientific research projects, this article reviews the research progress of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in the past 40 years. The progress has experienced a change process of "Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan - Bohai Rim region - Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei". There are four recognizable phases in the research development to date. In the 1980s, economic geography mainly focused on land planning in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, which was relatively limited in scale. In the 1990s, the research area was expanded to the Bohai Rim region, and the intersection of economic and trade science and geography was carried out in the process of economic integration in the eastern (northern) sub-regions. In the first decade of the 21st century, the research field turned to the integration of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, ecological environment science and urban planning science with large-scale intervention. In the 2010s, we started multidisciplinary regional comprehensive research on the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. During this period, the Chinese government carried out a series of major plans in the region, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Land Planning in the 1980s, the Bohai Rim Economic Cooperation Zone in the 1990s, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region in the 2000s, and the Guidelines for the Coordinated Development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in the 2010s. These major plans have formed a benign interactive relationship with regional research. This interactive relationship not only significantly enhances the scientific nature of regional planning and strategic decision-making, but also effectively promotes the development of humanities and economic geography, and it has also enhanced the research on the evolutionary laws of regional complex systems under the strong interaction between human and nature.

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    Spatial pattern changes of urban expansion and multi-dimensional analysis of driving forces in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in 1980-2020
    JU Hongrun, ZHANG Shengrui, YAN Yichen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1086-1101.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205004
    Abstract1012)   HTML98)    PDF (6890KB)(500)      

    Exploring the types of spatial patterns of urban land use in the Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao since the reform and opening up in the late 1970s, and the multi-dimensional and interactive driving mechanism for the evolution of urban land spatial pattern, is important for promoting the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and building a world-class bay area and urban agglomeration. This study divided and defined the evolution of urban land patterns types in the Greater Bay Area from the perspectives of area, shape and distribution characteristics based on fuzzy clustering. Using geographic detectors, this study measured the multi-dimensional driving forces and interactions of urban land use changes in the study area. The results showed that: (1) In terms of spatial pattern, there are five types of urban land use: fractal/complex large area, fractal small area, complex small area, simple small area and scattered area. The area scale and shape complexity of urban land had a certain positive correlation. (2) Socio-economic factors such as population, GDP, local fiscal revenue, fixed asset investment, and road network density had significant impacts on urban land area and morphological changes. The impacts of core cities on the development of urban agglomerations became apparent after 2000. In the later stage of the research, the differences among the effects of various influencing factors on the changes in the area, distribution and spatial pattern types of urban land use tended to be weakened, but the influences of social and economic factors on the shape characteristics increased. (3) The interactions of influence on the change of urban land area characteristics were the most complex, with four types of nonlinear enhancement, synergy enhancement, single factor weakening and nonlinear weakening; the interactions of influence on shape, distribution and spatial pattern changes were mainly manifested as synergistic enhancement and non-linear enhancement. Interactions between core city traction, road network density, river network density and most factors produced a "1+1 > 2" effect, reflecting the strong promotion effects by the core cities of urban agglomerations and transportation advantages.

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    Special thinking and green development path of urbanization in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1907-1919.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208005
    Abstract962)   HTML98)    PDF (3742KB)(410)      

    Urbanization in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a special mission in defending the national security, the national ecological security and the Asian Water Tower. It plays an irreplaceable role in the world, which ensures the realization of modernization, the happiness of all ethnic groups, a stronger ecological security and a more solid national security barrier in this region. This study discusses in detail the special driving force, development path, development goals, development pattern, green development mode and green development path of new urbanization in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which are completely different from the inland areas. It is believed that the urbanization of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a process characterized by low-level development, cultural inheritance, national defence, water tower protection, small agglomeration and large dispersion, social inclusion, and ecological enrichment. It is driven by a single investment, tourists, services, and counterpart support in an alpine and anoxic environment. In the future, the urbanization development thinking in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is, firstly, to take the defence of the territory and the border as the guideline to ensure national security, and a sufficient population in the border and rural areas at a fast, stable and appropriate growth rate. By 2035, the permanent population of the plateau will reach 16 million, and the urbanization rate should be 52.5%, which will be stable in the middle stage of urbanization for a long time, and the quality of urbanization will be promoted comprehensively. Secondly, driven by green development, the ability and level of ecological products and ecological services will be continuously improved, highlighting characteristics and folk customs, and promoting cultural diversity and inclusiveness. And we encourage local herdsmen to live in the town and graze in the township so that they can build beautiful cities and towns and advance in-situ urbanization on the plateau. Thirdly, based on the principle of small agglomeration and large dispersion, the pattern of borderland security urbanization is composed of "three circles, four belts and multi-nodes", emphasizing the agglomeration effect of the three circles (Xining metropolitan area, Lhasa metropolitan area, and Qaidam urban circle), four belts (urban belt along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, urban belt along the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, town belt along the Tangbo Ancient Road, and border town zone), and multi-nodes (multiple important urban nodes, and important border towns). Fourthly, we should guarantee the channel development, including the construction of new infrastructure facilities such as the Qinghai-Tibet high-speed railway, and the building of plateau smart cities, so as to safeguard national security. Finally, taking territorial security as a top priority, we should speed up the reform of the land system in border cities, set up pilot special zones for borderland land reform, and focus on border cities in major national strategic layout and territorial spatial planning.

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    Analysis of urban expansion and fractal features in global 33 megacities from 2000-2020
    HOU Yali, KUANG Wenhui, DOU Yinyin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (11): 2687-2702.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202211001
    Abstract913)   HTML62)    PDF (6766KB)(267)      

    The ultimate form of urbanization is the megacity, which is the typical form of urban structural characteristics and population agglomeration effects. However, the comparative studies on the urban form and expansion patterns of megacities worldwide are still insufficient. This study first analyzed the spatiotemporal changes of land use in megacities based on the Global Urban Land Use/Cover Composites with a 30 m spatial resolution (GULUC-30) by using the method of urban expansion intensity differentiation index (UEDI). Then, the fractal structure and expansion patterns of megacities were investigated using the area-radius model. Finally, urban land use efficiency was assessed through a linear relationship between urban land area and its interna population. The findings include: (1) Southeast Asia and China had experienced the most dramatic urban land expansion (3148.32 km2 and 5996.26 km2) over the last 20 years, along with the average UEDI of both greater than 3. (2) In 2000-2020, morphological characteristics and sprawl patterns of megacities developed toward greater intensification and compactness, with the mean radial dimension increased from 1.54 to 1.56. Meanwhile, radial dimension difference showed a year-by-year decreasing trend, and the intra-city structure showed integration. (3) In 2020, urban land use efficiencies in both North America and Europe were low, with urban land area to its population ratio coefficients ranging from 0.89 to 4.11. On the contrary, high values happened in South Asia and Africa, from 0.23 to 0.87. Spatial patterns and morphological changes in megacities provide important reference values for the intensive utilization of urban land and its sustainable development. Controlling the scale of megacity expansion and promoting the balanced exploitation of urban land are the essential ways for building resilient cities and sustainable urban planning.

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    Spatiotemporal diversity and attribution analysis of land surface temperature in China from 2001 to 2020
    TIAN Hao, LIU Lin, ZHANG Zhengyong, CHEN Hongjin, ZHANG Xueying, WANG Tongxia, KANG Ziwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (7): 1713-1729.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202207010
    Abstract901)   HTML129)    PDF (5395KB)(632)      

    The variation of land surface temperature (LST) has a vital impact on the energy balance of the land surface process and the ecosystem stability. Based on MDO11C3, we used methods including regression analysis, GIS spatial analysis, correlation analysis, and center-of-gravity model, etc., to analyze the LST variation and its spatiotemporal diversity in China from 2001 to 2020. Finally, the Geodetector was used to identify the leading factors of LST variation in 38 eco-geographical zones of China, and explore the causes of its pattern. The results show that: (1) the average LST in China from 2001 to 2020 is 9.6 ℃, which is high in the plains, and low in the mountainous areas. Generally, LST has a striking negative correlation with altitude, with a correlation coefficient of -0.66. China's First Ladder has the most conspicuous negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.76 and the lapse rate of LST is 0.57 ℃/100 m. (2) The change rate of LST in China during the study period is 0.21 ℃/10 a, and the warming area accounts for 78%, showing the spatial characteristics of "multi-core warming and axial cooling" in general. (3) LST's variation has prominent seasonal characteristics in the whole country. The spatial distribution of average value in winter and summer is quite different and fluctuates obviously; the moving trajectory of the centroid in the warming/cooling area is close to a loop shape. The movement direction shows the corresponding seasonal reverse, and the movement range in the cooling zone is larger, indicating that the regional difference and seasonal variability of the cooling zone are more obvious. (4) China's LST variation is driven by natural conditions and human activities, of which natural factors contribute more, with sunshine hours and altitude being the key factors. The boundary trend between the two dominant type areas is highly consistent with the "Heihe-Tengchong Line". The easern region is mostly dominated by human activity intensity and interacts with terrain factors, while the western region is dominated by natural factors, which enhance/weaken the change range of LST through mutual coupling with the climate, terrain, vegetation, and other factors. This study can provide scientific references for dealing with climate change, analyzing surface environmental models, and protecting the ecological environment.

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    The expedition and scientific investigation activities on the Tibetan Plateau before 1949
    CHEN Fahu, WANG Yajun, DING Lin, YAO Tandong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (7): 1565-1585.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202207001
    Abstract894)   HTML103)    PDF (3753KB)(570)      

    This paper reviewed the main expedition and scientific investigation activities on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) before 1949. The history of scientific investigations on the TP can be divided into four stages: (1) The investigations in ancient times were mainly sporadic records of geographical phenomena in some parts of the TP by Chinese monks and Western Christian missionaries. (2) In the late Qing Dynasty, foreign and Chinese scholars and explorers, mainly Westerners, carried out preliminary scientific investigations. (3) 1912-1949, Chinese scholars began to take part in sino-foreign investigation teams to explore the TP. (4) Chinese scholars led scientific investigations in some regions during the Period of the Republic of China. The expedition on the TP mainly focused on geographical description, data collection, and single-subject investigation and research before the Qing Dynasty, which changed to the measurement of geographical elements with simple scientific instruments and in-depth research on a certain topic (such as vegetation) in some regions during the Period of the Republic of China. A remarkable feature of the investigations by Chinese scholars on the TP during the Period of the Republic of China was that they changed from cooperation with Western scientists in joint scientific investigations to independent investigation of geography, geomorphology, geology, meteorology, climate and plants. Some achievements by Chinese researchers have spread worldwide, which expanded the domestic and international understanding of the TP.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern of registered population in Nanjing from 1928 to 2017
    XU Di, XU Yan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (10): 2439-2456.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202210003
    Abstract876)   HTML58)    PDF (4765KB)(186)      

    Based on registered population data, this paper examined a variety of population density models to explore the spatio-temporal pattern of the registered population of Nanjing during the past century. The results showed that: (1) The number of registered residents in Nanjing from 1928 to 2017 showed a flat "S"-shaped growth trend, forming an extensive dispersion with localized concentration types. The population density was the greatest in the Qinhuai River area, which has been the main registered population center. (2) The spatial structure of the registered population included: point-single center, axis-double center, enclave compound-multi center, and radiation-circle polycentric center. (3) The polycentric model, which is based on the central place theory, provided the best explanation for the features of the spatial structure of the registered population. The registered population distribution pattern in Nanjing was attributed to the joint action of four spatial location rules: the distance-decay law, allometric growth effect, spatial polarization characteristic, and regional-edge structure. (4) The transitions in the city during the past century were not a de-urbanization but a temporary fluctuation because of social transformation. Notable differences remained between traditional-Chinese residential center and the central business district.

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    Evolution of China's overland transportation dominance and its economic effect: A county-level analysis
    CHEN Shuting, LI Yurui, PAN Wei, WANG Wulin, JIN Fengjun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1937-1952.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208007
    Abstract818)   HTML63)    PDF (4010KB)(330)      

    Overland transportation is the fundamental support of regional economic and social development. Based on the national data about overland transportation in 2009, 2014, and 2018, we develop an evaluation model of transportation dominance involving three dimensions, namely, scale, proximity, and accessibility. These dimensions are interpreted by road density, population-weighted average transportation proximity, and location advantage, respectively. We further reveal the spatial pattern and evolution of overland transportation dominance and then estimate its economic effect. The results show that: (1) Significant progress has been made in China's overland transportation from 2009 to 2018. Overland transportation dominance expands from urban intensive areas to inter-regional channels, which is closely related to the urbanization strategy called a "two horizontal and three vertical" pattern. The inferiority of overland transportation is mainly found in the western, northeastern, and provincial border areas. These areas are the key to balanced transportation development to make up for the current shortcomings. (2) The spatial patterns of the overland transportation dominance are different in different regions and development stages, which can be abstracted as the evolution of "pole-and-core, point-and-axis, and hub-and-spokes". Future transportation development should strengthen the connection between important regions, the main transportation axes, and the key transportation corridors. (3) The overall economic effect of overland transportation dominance is significantly positive, and its indirect effect is about 1.5 times as large as the direct effect. However, transportation does not always promote county economic growth, whose sub-dimensional economic effect varies in different regions and periods.

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    The spatial correlation network and formation mechanism of China's high-quality economic development
    WANG Xiaohua, YANG Yuqi, LUO Xinyu, WEN Tao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1920-1936.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208006
    Abstract805)   HTML82)    PDF (3494KB)(277)      

    High-quality development is the main focus of China's economic and social development in the 14th Five-year Plan (2021-2025) and even in a longer period. It is also the basic requirement to adapt to the changes of the main social contradictions and the key path to build a modern socialist country and the fundamental place to follow the law of economic practice. This paper constructs an evaluation index system of high-quality economic development from five dimensions of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing, and measures the high-quality economic development level of China's provincial-level regions from 2011 to 2018. On this basis, social network analysis (SNA) and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) are used to analyze the structural characteristics of the associated network of high-quality economic development and the mechanism of the difference of high-quality economic development. The results show that: (1) The correlation degree of spatial correlation network has always been 1, and the network density is stable, between 0.2 and 0.26. The spatial correlation network with high-quality development of inter-provincial economy has strong accessibility, multi-overlap and certain hierarchy, but the correlation tightness needs to be improved, and the network indicators remain relatively stable. (2) The spatial association network of inter-provincial high-quality development can be divided into four sections, among which the "net spillover" section with western provinces as the main section benefits the least; The "agent" plate, which is dominated by the central provinces, plays the role of "intermediary" and "bridge"; The "bidirectional spillover" plate dominated by provinces in the Bohai Rim and the "net beneficial" plate dominated by provinces in the Yangtze River Delta and southeast coastal areas play a greater role in controlling and dominating the spatial association network, and exert a greater effect in polarization rather than trickle down in the process of high-quality development of national economy. (3) The regional differences of human capital, urbanization level, financial technology and environmental quality will directly lead to the differences of high-quality economic development level between regions, among which, the difference of human capital contributes more than 90%.

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    Embodied land in China's provinces from the perspective of regional trade
    WANG Shaojian, WANG Jieyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1072-1085.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205003
    Abstract798)   HTML26)    PDF (4751KB)(255)      

    With the continuous enhancement of regional connectivity, the indirect land resources use through trade in goods and services plays an increasingly important role in the utilization of land resources. However, relevant research in this field is still in its infancy, and few papers have addressed this issue. This paper, for the first time, uses the multi-region input-output model to calculate the embodied land in the 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) and 8 regions of China from the perspective of regional trade, and further analyzes the spatial pattern characteristics of embodied land flows. The results show that the amount of embodied land occupied by China's inter-regional trade accounts for 21.39% of the country's total land, and an average of 38.54% of China's provincial land demand is met by land export from other provinces. More than 80% of land consumed by Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai are from other provinces. Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, and Hebei are the provinces with the largest net exporter of cultivated land, forest and grazing land and aquatic land, fishery land, and construction land, respectively (the outflows account for 42.26%, 27.53%, 38.66% and 35.28% of the corresponding land types in the province); and Guangdong, Shandong and Zhejiang are the main net importer. The flow of agricultural land (cultivated land, forestland, grazing land and aquatic land) mainly generally shows a shift from west to east and from north to south. The regions in northeast and northwest China have the largest scale of agricultural land outflow, mainly into East and South China. In addition, 8.43% of cultivated land, 7.47% of forestland, 6.41% of grazing land, 6.88% of aquatic land and 18.35% of built-up land in China are provided for foreign use through international trade. This paper provides feasible ideas and a theoretical basis for solving the contradiction between land use and ecological protection, and realizing sustainable land use in China.

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    Unbalanced trend of urban and rural development on the east and west sides of Hu Huanyong Line and micro-breakthrough strategy along the Bole-Taipei Line
    FANG Chuanglin, LI Guangdong, QI Wei, SUN Si'ao, CUI Xuegang, REN Yufei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2023, 78 (2): 443-455.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202302011
    Abstract793)   HTML153)    PDF (2438KB)(524)      

    Under the background of promoting more balanced and fuller regional development in the new era, standing at the strategic height of national regional coordinated and balanced development, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the natural environment, the unbalanced situation of economic and social development and the reality of widening gap on both sides of the Hu Huanyong Line, and put forward the basic idea of the Hu Huanyong Line to achieve micro-breakthrough along the Bole-Taipei Line. The Hu Huanyong Line is an important dividing line of population geography, natural geography and ecological environment in China, the dividing line of national main function area and national ecological function area, the dividing line of new urbanization main area and non-main area in China, and the dividing line of unbalanced and inadequate economic and social development in China. In the past 40 years, the gap of economic and social development between the two sides of the Hu Huanyong Line has been widening at an accelerating speed. In the next 30 years, the gap can be narrowed to achieve micro-breakthroughs, focusing on achieving "ten 10%", namely, the proportion of population in the northwest half of China will be 10%, the proportion of total economy will be 10%, with the economic growth rate being more than 10%, the proportion of fixed asset investment in the whole society will be more than 10%, the proportion of local fiscal revenue will be more than 10%, the proportion of actual use of foreign capital will be 10%, the growth rate of per capita GDP will be more than 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of urban residents will be controlled within 10%, the rate of increase in the absolute difference in the per capita disposable income of rural residents will be controlled within 10%, and the absolute gap in education resources will be narrowing at an average annual rate of 10%. In order to achieve the strategic goal of micro-breakthrough, this paper puts forward the main paths and countermeasures to narrow the development gap between the east and the west of the Hu Huanyong Line and attain the micro-breakthrough from the aspects of population micro-layout, economic micro-layout, urbanization micro-layout, industrial micro-layout, moderate water diversion nearby, improvement of ecological compensation and transfer mechanism, construction of the Bole-Taipei Line and implementation of the strategy of further development in the western region.

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