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    Disciplinary structure of geographic science in China
    CHEN Fahu, LI Xin, WU Shaohong, FAN Jie, XIONG Juhua, ZHANG Guoyou
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (9): 2069-2073.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202109001
    Abstract3017)   HTML637)    PDF (727KB)(1101)      

    The modern international and domestic science advancements have brought forward new opportunities as well as higher requirements to the development of geographic science in China. In planning the disciplinary structure of geographic science in the "Development Strategy of Discipline and Frontier Research in China (2021-2035)", we propose a modified disciplinary structure for the geographic science in the new era. The geographic science in China can be categorized into four secondary disciplines, i.e., integrated geography, physical geography, human geography, and information geography, considering the current situation and development outlook of geographic science. The tertiary disciplines under each secondary discipline are nearly fully developed, and a few quaternary disciplines under tertiary disciplines have already been widely accepted and used. We hope this new disciplinary structure can play a breakthrough role for improving the branches of geographic science, promoting the development of emerging disciplines under the framework of geographic science, and better serving the international and domestic development needs in the new era.

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    Urban scaling law and its application
    GONG Jianya, XU Gang, JIAO Limin, QIN Kun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 251-260.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102001
    Abstract1627)   HTML81)    PDF (2438KB)(620)      

    The introduction of complexity science in urban geography has provided a new perspective to understand cities. Urban scaling law is one of the simple rules behind complex urban systems, which describes how urban indicators scale with urban population size within the system of cities. Social interaction-related urban indicators, such as GDP and innovation, super-linearly scale with urban population in a power law form, while infrastructure-related urban indicators, such as roads and gas stations, sub-linearly scale with population. Other urban indicators linearly scale with population, which are related to human individual needs, such as jobs and household electricity consumption. In this study, we first summarize the content and progress of urban scaling law during the past decade (2007-2020) from the following four aspects: the validation of urban scaling law, the explanation on the mechanism of urban scaling law, the application of urban scaling law, and the criticism of urban scaling law. We further compare the fundamental differences between the urban scaling law and urban allometric growth. Urban scaling law describes quantitative relationships between urban indicators and population size across cities, while urban allometric growth emphasizes the temporal growth of individual cities. Our analysis indicates that the cross-sectional urban scaling law cannot be applied to predict temporal trajectories of individual cities. Finally, we introduce the scale-adjusted metropolitan indicator (SAMI) for the evaluation of economic performance and urban land use efficiency in 291 Chinese cities, which is based on the theory of urban scaling law. The conventional evaluation of cities based on per capita indicators ignores the non-linear scaling relationship between urban indicators and population size. For example, the GDP per capita of large cities ranks high thanks to their advantages of population size. SAMI eliminates the influence of city size and can compare urban performance more objectively. Cities with higher SAMIs of GDP experience a higher efficiency in economic output (GDP) and they are concentrated in southeast coastal regions, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and Xinjiang. On the contrary, cities in the northeastern China and Central China Plains experience a relatively low efficiency in economic output. Future studies are encouraged to focus on the mechanism of urban scaling law, the unified model for the evolving urban system across cities and over time, and the scaling law within cities.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern evolution and formation mechanism of missing person incidents in China
    LI Gang, XUE Shuyan, MA Xueyao, ZHOU Junjun, XU Tingting, WANG Jiaobei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 310-325.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102005
    Abstract1600)   HTML62)    PDF (5128KB)(371)      

    The problem of missing persons brings about serious harm to their families and the society. An in-depth investigation of this issue is of great importance to protecting human lives and human rights. In this research, we collect the missing persons data during the period from 2015 to 2019 from the "China's Child Safety Emergency Response (CCSER)" platform. We use a series of techniques including text analysis, mathematical statistics, and spatial analysis to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics, evolution and formation mechanism of spatio-temporal patterns of missing persons in China. Major findings include: (1) The number of missing males is larger than that of missing females. The highest missing rate is found in people aged 8-16, followed by aged 2-7, aged 0-1, and aged 60-65. Three categories of missing persons are observed in the data, which are (in order of decreasing frequency): unconscious disappearance, active disappearance, and passive disappearance. Six sub-types of missing persons in a descending order by frequency are: running away from home, wandering away, abduction, physical or mental illness, losing track, and family dissension. (2) Hump-shaped curves are observed for temporal variations of the number, gender and age of missing persons, and the curves are symmetric about the year of 2017. The local spatial autocorrelation tests indicate that incidents of missing persons generally exhibit "low-high" and "high-low" clustering patterns. Provinces with a high incidence of missing persons are Guangdong, Zhejiang and Sichuan. (3) With respect to the spatial mobility of missing persons, intra-provincial mobility is more prevalent than inter-provincial mobility. Guangdong, Sichuan, Henan, and Jiangsu experience the highest intra-provincial mobility rate. Dominant paths of inter-provincial mobility are "Anhui-Jiangsu" route and "Guangxi-Guangdong" route. (4) The underlying mechanism of missing person incidents can be understood from the perspective of "strong and weak ties in social network". That is, the strentgth of people's social ties can impact the occurrence of missing persons.

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    The ideological origins and geographical demarcation significance of Hu Huanyong Line
    DING Jinhong, CHENG Chen, ZHANG Weijia, TIAN Yang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1317-1333.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106001
    Abstract1599)   HTML106)    PDF (986KB)(613)      

    In the early 20th century, China was faced with domestic crisis and foreign invasion, and the man-land contradictions were unprecedented fierce. Geographers pondered and explored the issues of national fortune such as China's population status, northwest exploitation and internal migration, thus China's population geography emerged as the times required. "The distribution of population in China" published by Hu Huanyong in 1935 is a symbol of maturity of China's population geography. The Hu Huanyong Line (also known as Hu Line) proposed in this paper, which he originally called the Aihui-Tengchong Line, is a significant geographical demarcation of China's population. The existence and stability of the Hu Line have been repeatedly verified by census data, and its scientific principles have also been revealed and explained by the academic circles from aspects of nature, economy, social culture, etc. This paper points out that grain and employment are the two hidden logics behind the Hu Line. The Hu Line is becoming a crucial national geographic demarcation, which has an increasingly essential impact on the cognition and analysis of China's national conditions. Recent research on the Hu Line has been widely extended in various fields and meanings, and there arose some amendments and adaptations of the line in practice. Under the influence of "Premier Li Keqiang's three questions", whether the Hu Line can be broken through has become an academic hot spot. This paper holds that it is more important to create more opportunities of the northwest region than to increase the share of population so as to balance regional development.

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    Characteristics, mechanism and response of urban shrinkage in the three provinces of Northeast China
    MA Zuopeng, LI Chenggu, ZHANG Pingyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 767-780.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104001
    Abstract1598)   HTML80)    PDF (3803KB)(621)      

    Understanding the population loss and economic decline in the three provinces of Northeast China from a perspective of urban shrinkage is of great significance to deepening the transformation theory of China's old industrial bases. The main results can be summarized as follows. Since 2000, obvious differences in urban growth and shrinkage have occurred in Northeast China. Some 42.85% of cities showed an urban shrinkage. The manufacturing and service industries in cities of urban growth (growing cities) are increasingly advanced, while the development of new pattern industries and industrial structure upgrading are slow in cities of urban shrinkage (shrinking cities) and the economic competitiveness of these shrinking cities is weakening. There is a close spatial correlation between growing and shrinking cities. On the one hand, growing cities continuously absorb the production factors such as population and capital of shrinking cities through the agglomeration effect, and on the other hand, they increase the pressure of economic transformation of shrinking cities through the spatial transfer of traditional industries. The shrinkage degree varies from high to low from north to south, and shows a trend of 'first strengthening, then weakening' from east to west. The processing cities have the highest shrinkage degree, followed by industrial and mining cities, and the tourism and port cities have a relatively low shrinkage degree. The factors influencing urban shrinkage include the development lag of public service facilities, the misalignment of industrial development and market demand, the low correlation degree of industrial structure, the aging of population structure, and the agglomeration effect of regional central places, their intensity of action enhancing in turn. According to the economic long wave theory and local circumstances, Northeast China will experience a long-term urban shrinkage in the future. It should be a strategic choice to develop this region to actively adapt to the shrinkage, and optimize and reorganize population and economic factors through smart urban shrinkage.

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    Spatial evolution characteristics and driving forces of Chinese highly educated talents
    GU Hengyu, SHEN Tiyan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 326-340.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102006
    Abstract1387)   HTML92)    PDF (1787KB)(792)      

    Talents are the core driving force for regional innovation and development, and they are also the key to urban competition in the future. Based on the data of the sixth population census and the national 1% population sampling survey in 2015, this paper uses the concentration index (CI), Gini index (GI) and several related spatial analysis methods to examine the spatial patterns of highly educated talents across China and the drivers behind these patterns from 2010 to 2015. The results are as follows: (1) Talents show highly concentrated and unbalanced spatial distribution patterns at the city level over the five years, but the trend of concentration and imbalance has gradually eased. Results from standard deviation ellipse (SDE) indicate that the distribution direction of highly educated people is "NE-SW". Furthermore, there is a significant spatial spillover effect in the distribution of talents, with three major urban agglomerations of China as the highlands. (2) Economic opportunities are the dominant drivers for the distribution of highly educated talents in China. Among them, wages are the core driver, and gross GDP and industrial structure of each city also exert a significant impact. (3) After controlling the impacts of economic opportunities, local quality variables represented by basic public services (e.g., education and medical care), transportation accessibility and urban consumption facilities play an important role in the distribution of highly educated talents. (4) There are significant differences between the driving factors for talents in urban agglomerations and non-urban agglomerations: economic opportunities are the main driving force for the distribution of talents in both urban agglomerations and non-urban agglomerations, while local qualities including education, consumption, transportation and natural environment have a more significant impact on the distribution of talents in urban agglomerations. This study provides references for the formulation of urban and regional talent policies and regional development policies.

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    Paradigm transformation in the study of man-land relations: From local thinking to global network thinking modes
    TAN Minghong, LI Xiubin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (10): 2333-2342.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202110001
    Abstract1368)   HTML37)    PDF (1394KB)(270)      

    The early studies on the relationships between man and land in geography mostly focused on local regions and held the idea that "the land and water resources in a region feed the person in the region". In the traditional agricultural society, which relies heavily on natural resources, the idea, and regional geographic research and management practice under its guidance play a positive role in promoting the development between man and nature, and sustainable resource use. With the continuous increase in openness of man and land system resulted from development of science and technology and transport improvement, regional systems on different scales and at different economic development levels have formed an interdependent and coupled geographic network. Every region becomes a node in this network, and the formation and solution of regional problems are closely related to other nodes in the network, and are related to internal and external factors of the regional system. In some cases, external factors even play a more important role. The introduction of some concepts and methods marks the paradigm transformation of man-land relationship research from local thinking paradigm to global networked thinking paradigm, such as virtual water, ecological footprint, carbon emissions due to goods trade, resource link and tele-coupling of man-land relationship. This study discusses the paradigm transformation from three aspects: the evolution characteristics of man-land system, the changes of thinking paradigm and study methods in man-land relationships, and the realization paths and practical significances of the transformation of thinking paradigm in man-land relationship research. According to new ideas and thinking paradigms, traditional local thinking modes and related research themes such as regional carrying capacity can not fully express the new characteristics of man-land relationships. At present, studies related to regional carrying capacity have become an important issue in land use planning and urban planning in China. In the development of land use planning at different levels, "evaluation of resource and environmental carrying capacity" has become the premise and basis of planning. In the implementation of this concept, we usually simply uses population size as the control index. In the context of an increasingly open system, studies in the carrying capacity of resources and environment may be re-examined. This is especially necessary in smaller scale regional systems (e.g., at a county level).

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    The process of rural development and paths for rural revitalization in China
    GUO Yuanzhi, LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1408-1421.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106007
    Abstract1318)   HTML93)    PDF (2748KB)(535)      

    China is a large agricultural country, and issues concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers are closely related to national economic and social development. To achieve the "Two Centenary Goals", rural revitalization strategy has become the choice to resolve unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development in China. Rural development is a comprehensive process of cycle accumulation and dynamic evolution of rural regional system. Thus, it is of great significance to systematically analyze the process and regional pattern of rural development to scientifically promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy in the new era. Based on the theory of human-earth areal system and human-earth system science, this study examines the process and features of rural development in China from 1978 to 2050, discusses the internal relationship between rural transformation and rural revitalization, reveals the spatial pattern of the level of county rural revitalization in 2017, and finally puts forward the key problems and countermeasures for rural revitalization in the new era. Results show that the evolution of China's rural development in the period of 1978-2050 can be divided into three stages, i.e. solving the problem of food and clothing (1978-2005), building a well-off society (2005-2020) and realizing prosperity (2020-2050). In general, it is a dynamic and continuous process from low-level and basic-type to high-quality and innovation-type. Rural revitalization is a special stage of rural transformation, and a strategic choice to solve the prominent problem in rural development when it has evolved to a certain stage, thus boosting rural development to a higher stage. In 2017, when rural revitalization strategy was initiated, the level of rural revitalization in 57.3% of the counties in China was between 0.40 and 0.50, and there was an obvious gradient differentiation from the east to the west, with significant clustering characteristics and positive correlation. Specifically, the counties featured by "high-high (H-H)" clustering were mainly distributed in the third step of the terrain and the middle of Sichuan Basin; while the counties featured by "low-low (L-L)" clustering were concentrated in western China except Sichuan Basin, the eastern part of Inner Mongolia and the north of Tianshan Mountains. Due to the regionalism, stage and the difference in constraints of rural development, the focuses of rural revitalization in the new era lie in scientifically identifying the targeting areas of rural revitalization, comprehensively judging the trends of rural development, and systematically diagnosing the dominant constraints of different types of rural areas, so as to take targeted measures to make up for the shortcomings of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas. Besides, it is necessary to fully understand the interactions between urban and rural areas, thus promoting urban-rural integrated development.

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    The inheritance, development and transformation of industrial geography in China: Based on analysis of articles published in Acta Geographica Sinica during 1934-2019
    HE Canfei, WANG Wenyu, GUO Qi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (8): 1815-1834.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202108001
    Abstract1292)   HTML95)    PDF (2077KB)(484)      

    It is very important to summarize the research, understand the development process and direction of industrial geography in China scientifically under the context of the development of international industrial geography. Based on 154 papers on industrial geography published in Acta Geographica Sinica from 1934-2019, this paper reviewed the development process of industrial geography in China and the progress of research in major fields. This paper showed that China's industrial geography is a unique theoretical system based on the integration of Western industrial geography theory and Soviet-style industrial geography theory, under the tasks of theory development and practices. Going through exploration, growth, perspective changing and deepening, industrial geography is gradually brought into line with the international researches on the content and paradigm. The development of discipline needs to meet the national strategic demand, raise theoretical innovation capacity, strengthen the application of new methods and techniques, and develop theories of industrial geography with the Chinese institutional context.

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    Changing spatial patterns of internal migration to five major urban agglomerations in China
    CAO Guangzhong, CHEN Sichuang, LIU Tao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1334-1349.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106002
    Abstract1285)   HTML125)    PDF (3104KB)(648)      

    Internal migration in China has presented a series of new characteristics recently. The secondary migration and spatial redistribution of existing migrants become increasingly important in determining the future patterns of urbanization. Urban agglomerations (UAs) have long been the major destination of China's internal migration. They are also appointed as the main form of future urbanization in the recently released national planning of new-type urbanization. Five major UAs were selected as a case study, including three coastal ones, namely the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), and two inland ones, namely the Middle Yangtze River (MYR) and the Chengdu-Chongqing (CC) region. Based on data of the latest population census and the dynamic monitoring survey of floating population in the five major UAs, this paper first examined the spatial patterns of in-migrants from multiple dimensions of destination, origin, and distance of migration. The trends and urbanization effects of migration on the destination and origin were then assessed by comparing the settlement and hukou transfer intentions of migrants with different origins and destinations. The results showed the coexistence of common and distinct features in these mega regions. Although the continuous attractiveness of central cities for migrants was observed in all regions, peripheral cities in the YRD and PRD have become increasingly attractive as well, leading to a moderately dispersing trend in these two pioneering coastal UAs. Moreover, the concentration level and spatial distribution of migrants among cities were generally stable in the YRD and PRD but continuously adjusting in the BTH and two inland UAs. The fastest growth was found in inter-county migration within province and the slowest in intra-county migration. The coastal UAs were strongly preferred by inter-provincial migrants, while the inland ones could only attract migrants from the same or surrounding provinces. Despite this, significant distance attenuation was found in all of them. In terms of the origins of migrants, those from central provinces had flowed mainly to the YRD and PRD, whereas those from the northeast showed a high preference for the BTH region. We can anticipate the future patterns of migration and urbanization from the settlement intentions of migrants from and to different cities. From the destination view, the advantage in public services made central cities considerably more attractive than other cities. Hence, they are expected to be continuously faced with severe contradiction between supply and demand of public services. In the inland UAs, however, central cities and ordinary ones are able to share the pressure of public service provision. From the original view, the high-quality and equally accessible public services are important for inland regions to attract return migrants, and providing high possibility for the return-migration-induced urbanization. However, the population loss in the northeast may become a long-term trend that can hardly be reversed in the visible future.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of rainstorm-induced flood disasters in China
    HU Pan, CHEN Bo, SHI Peijun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1148-1162.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105008
    Abstract1143)   HTML142)    PDF (10412KB)(753)      

    Understanding the influencing factors and controls of rainstorm-induced floods, which have caused tremendous losses of human lives and national economy, is a pressing need for flood risk management in China. Based on the meteorological disaster census data of counties in China, hourly precipitation data at 2420 stations, statistical yearbook, terrain data and other data, the authors (1) investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of flood impacts in China over the period from 1984 to 2007 using trend analysis techniques and (2) explored the driving factors of the spatiotemporal pattern by adopting the geospatial statistical analysis tool (Geodetector). This study considered the spatiotemporal patterns and their interplays among county-level flood impacts (i.e., flood-induced mortality rate, proportion of population affected, and economic loss in percentage), disaster-formative environmental factors (i.e., population density, urban population percentages, average elevation, river density, average slope, and average distance to the seashore), and extreme precipitation characteristics (i.e., annual average volume and duration of extreme rainfall). The results show that: (1) there were no consistent temporal trends of extreme rainfall characteristics over the study period across China. (2) The frequencies of flood disasters in the Yangtze and Pearl rivers and southeast coastal areas increased significantly, but the casualties over these regions decreased. (3) Flood-induced casualties, proportion of population affected and economic loss in percentage increased in Northwest China; and meteorological factors, disaster-formative environment factors such as geographical conditions and social economy, and geographical conditions contribute mostly to the proportion of population affected, flood-induced death and economic loss in percentage. These results indicate that more attention should be paid to improving the flood control capacity of small or medium-sized cities in the inland river basins, especially in Northwest China, and we should recognize the important roles that disaster-formative environment plays in triggering flood losses.

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    Disciplinary structure and development strategy ofhuman geography in China
    FAN Jie, ZHAO Pengjun, ZHOU Shangyi, DENG Xiangzheng, WANG Chen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (9): 2083-2093.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202109003
    Abstract1142)   HTML46)    PDF (1046KB)(298)      

    Human geography is a discipline which studies the formation and evolution of the geographical distribution pattern of human activities. The main research objects of human geography focus on human activities and human-earth relationship. The scientific questions to be answered by human geography cover both natural science and social science, and thus it has distinctive interdisciplinary features. In China, the economic and social processes of human activities are playing an important role in explaining the law in human geography discipline as human society development is approaching or has entered the post-industrialization stage. The logics and methods of social science have become important tools through which the changes in processes and patterns of human geography can be reasonably discussed and properly understood. Research methodology of human geography shows integration characteristics between natural sciences and social sciences. The outcomes of human geography research reveal scientific laws in geographical distribution pattern and evolution of human activities. It becomes one of primary disciplines for both the national and local governments to manage and optimize the pattern of spatial development and protection. It has wide applications in spatial planning, regional strategy and policy making, and the modernization of spatial governance. The unique feature in integrating academic research and policy-making applications provides human geography discipline in China a superiority of leading the world in the discipline. Besides comprehensive human geography, human geography in China has five subdisciplines, namely, economic geography, urban geography, rural geography, social and cultural geography and political geography. Each subdiscipline has priority and key research fields, and coordinates with the rest of subdisciplines.

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    The evolution of navigation performance of Northeast Passage under the scenario of Arctic sea ice melting
    HUANG Jixia, ZHANG Tianyuan, CAO Yunfeng, GE Quansheng, YANG Linsheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1051-1064.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105001
    Abstract1019)   HTML165)    PDF (4743KB)(458)      

    The global warming has led to the acceleration of the melting of Arctic sea ice, and the opening of the Polar Silk Road has gradually been put on the agenda. In this paper, according to the navigation performance of eight important Russian ports reaching the Bering Strait through the Northeast Passage from 2030 to 2070, the sea ice data of six CMIP5 climate models under two RCPs and two ship types of PC6 icebreaker and OW (merchant ship) ship are adopted. Based on the study of the four factors of optimal route, navigation time, navigable mileage and navigation cost, the main conclusions are as follows: (1) With the change of time, the optimal navigation routes are gradually concentrated and orderly. The navigation capacity of merchant ship has been significantly improved, and by 2070 it will have the same navigation capacity as the PC6 icebreaker has. (2) The navigation time between the Russian ports and the Bering Strait has decreased by 14 h every 10 a, of which St. Petersburg Port has the most significant decline. By 2070, when the longitude difference between the Russian port and the Bering Strait increases by 1°, the navigation time of the port decreases by 0.4 h. (3) In the next 50 a, the navigable mileage of Northeast Passage will increase by 166 km every 10 a, among which the change pattern and average change pattern of navigable mileage in St. Petersburg Port are the most similar. (4) The navigation cost of the route from the Arctic port is reduced by $10,000 every 10 a, and the decrease of the total navigation cost of merchant ships is the most obvious under high emission concentration. Combined with the change of sea ice, the ports in central and western Russia have great potential for resource transportation. This study quantifies and evaluates the evolution of the navigation performance of the Northeast Passage under the future sea ice melting situation, which provides theoretical and data support for the navigation of the Northeast Passage and the Arctic port trade.

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    Climate change and multi-dimensional sustainable urbanization
    CHEN Mingxing, XIAN Yue, WANG Pengling, DING Zijin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (8): 1895-1909.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202108006
    Abstract987)   HTML61)    PDF (2176KB)(369)      

    It is disputable that global large-scale urbanization and climate change has become an outstanding issue, which requires the common concern of mankind. However, it is not yet clear what is the complex relationship between urbanization and climate change and how to scientifically deal with climate change in the process of urbanization. Further exploration from science and management to practice are needed in order to achieve global and regional sustainable development. This paper first displayed the basic facts of mass urbanization and climate change and summarized interactions and possible mechanisms of urbanization and climate change. Urbanization leads to heat island effect, uneven precipitation distribution and extreme weather, together with local-regional-global multi-scale superposition effect, which aggravates global climate change. The impact of climate change on urbanization is mainly manifested in the aspects such as changes of energy consumption, mortality and the spread of infectious diseases, sea level rise, extreme weather damage to infrastructure and water shortage. This paper also briefly reviewed relevant international research and joint actions, and put forward an analysis framework of multidimensional sustainable urbanization adapting to and mitigating climate change, from the perspective of key dimensions of urbanization, namely, population, land use, economy and society. We call on to strengthen the interdisciplinary research of science and humanities, take urbanization and other human activities into consideration of the land - atmosphere system, and explore the human-land-atmosphere coupling process. The adaptation and mitigation from the perspective of human activities represented by urbanization might be the most critical and realistic way to deal with climate change.

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    Evolution process and characteristics of spatial structure of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River
    ZHU Zheng, ZHU Xiang, LI Shuangshuang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 799-817.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104003
    Abstract956)   HTML64)    PDF (10088KB)(409)      

    The spatial structure reflects the hierarchical structure, functional structure, and community form between cities in the urban agglomeration, representing the expansion model and development characteristics of the urban agglomeration within a certain time range. In this study, the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (UAMRYR), which is the first approved national urban agglomeration in China, is selected as the research object. The land use / land cover datasets, Landsat images, and urban population data were used in this study to analyze the evolution process and characteristics of the UAMRYR during 1990-2019 at the macro and micro levels. The research methodology includes the development of the spatial database, construction of the grid system, calculation of the urban expansion degree, and building of the expansion rose map. Based on the characteristics and the rules of historical development, a scenario analysis is processed on the development situation for 2020 and 2030. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) From 1990 to 2019, the spatial structure of the UAMRYR has transitioned from "three centers" into "single core, double centers, and multi- clusters", and then into "double cores, multi-centers, and multi-clusters". The "double cores" of the Wuhan metropolitan area and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration has developed into giant cores and will continue to expand during 2020-2030, becoming superlarge cores with built-up areas of about 2000 km2 and 1500 km2, respectively. Nanchang is relatively small and would remain as the regional development center radiating the Jiangxi Province. Seven development sub-centers have been formed, namely Xiangyang, Yichang, Jingzhou, Changde, Hengyang, Jiujiang, and Shangrao, and are expected to increase further in the future. (2) In the development process, four main axes of the Yangtze River, Wuhan to Changsha, Wuhan to Nanchang, Nanchang to Changsha, and several secondary axes have been formed. However, due to the lack of strong border hub and bridgehead city, the driving force of the axes on the urban agglomeration needs to be further improved. (3) There are several development problems in the area. The polarization effects of cores in the Wuhan metropolitan area and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration are extremely strong and continue to present a development trend. Jiangxi Province lacks a strong core, thus various environmental problems emerged due to the over-concentration of urban built-up areas. These places are urgently adjusted in order to control the speed of expansion, cultivate new regional centers, and strengthen the axis function.

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    Paths of high-quality development in China's coastal areas
    SUN Jiuwen, JIANG Zhi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 277-294.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102003
    Abstract914)   HTML57)    PDF (2620KB)(505)      

    High-quality development is the key measure to overcome the middle-income trap and join the advanced economy. With the deepening of reform and opening up, coastal areas have increasingly become the ballast of the economic growth, the center of national manufacturing, the frontier zone for building an innovative country, the pacesetter for constructing an open economy, and the demonstration window for green development. With typical characteristics of high-quality development, coastal areas will effectively drive the hinterland areas to the right track of high-quality development in order to form a strong support for the country's high-quality development, shaping a new pattern of coordinated regional development. According to the status quo and characteristics of high-quality development in coastal areas, this paper focuses on exploring outstanding problems of coastal areas as a whole and the northern, central and southern coastal areas in the process of high-quality development from five aspects of economic growth, industrial strength, innovation ability, opening up and green development. By analyzing realistic reasons for these problems, valuable references for the design of targeted high-quality development paths are designed. In the new era, coastal areas should grasp the historical opportunity of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development, Yangtze river delta integration, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area construction, follow to improve industry core competitiveness, mobilize the vitality of innovation, build high-standard open economy, deepen ecological conservation by combining strategies of industrial upgrading, independent innovation, opening up and ecological civilization. By the method of working in concert to promote high-quality development in the northern, central and southern coastal areas, the leading role of coastal areas can be consolidated.

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    Key scientific issues and research directions of the interconnected river system network
    LIU Changming, LI Zongli, WANG Zhonggen, HAO Xiuping, ZHAO Changsen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (3): 505-512.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202103001
    Abstract881)   HTML49)    PDF (804KB)(420)      

    Water resources in China are unevenly distributed in time and space, which mismatches with China's economic and social patterns. The water situations severely restrict China's sustainable development. There are many problems in the present river and lake systems in China, mainly including frequent occurrences of flood and waterlogging, water shortage, river and lake shrinkage, severe water pollution, and water ecology and environment degeneration. It is one of the key subjects to protect water resources in China's economic and social developments. China's water conservancy development strategy is to actively propel the establishment of the interconnected river system network (IRSN), improve the ability of water resources allocation, guarantee river and lake health, and control floods and droughts. It is of significance to conduct research on the theories and techniques of IRSN. This paper mainly analyzed the situation of water resources that faces China, and then discussed the necessity and urgency of IRSN, proposed the key scientific issues of IRSN, and prospected the research framework for solving the relevant issues.

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    Chinese balanced regional development strategy from the perspective of development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, LIANG Li, WU Feng, WANG Zhenbo, HE Shujin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 261-276.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102002
    Abstract878)   HTML41)    PDF (801KB)(340)      

    Large regional differences and uneven regional development is fundamental of China. Regional balanced development is an important topic in the field of development geography. This study reviews the course of regional balanced development in China and summarize the characteristics of regional balanced development in each period. This study suggests that inter- regional development of China shows a state of succession between balanced development and non-balanced development. Each succession brings the quality of social development to a new level and gradually make social development move towards the state of high- quality development and balanced regional development. Then, this study discusses the scientific connotation of regional balanced development. Under the guidance of sustainable development theory, we should pay attention to the resource endowment difference in different area, solve the problem among economy, human and nature and promote spatial balance of regional development and green development of ecological economic coordination. The balanced promotion of regional people's well-being is the ultimate goal of regional balanced development. In the end, based on the thinking of development geography, this study discusses the path of regional balanced development in China from three aspects of society, economy and ecology. Suggestions are put forward for the balanced development of China's regions and the improvement of people's well-being.

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    Human geography research based on the new thinking of global rural-urban relationship
    LIU Yansui, LONG Hualou, LI Yurui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 2869-2884.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112001
    Abstract865)   HTML0)    PDF (2745KB)(0)      

    Sustainable rural development is critical to the achievement of global sustainable development goals. Globalization and urbanization, as the key processes, continuously drive the human-earth system to make adaptive responses, promoting the transformation of urban-rural relations. The rural-urban relationship is essentially a mother-child relationship, which is a comprehensive characterization of the transfer of rural humanistic factors, the transformation of man-land relationship and the transformation of urban-rural development in the process of urbanization. However, the traditional cognition of urban-rural relationship ignores the multi-dimensional connections between the rural and the urban as well as the existence of the rural-urban integration system, resulting in prominent drawbacks of rural regions, negatively affecting the urban-rural development rights, and resulting in urban and rural territorial dysfunction and other problems. The key to solve the problems of socio-economic development in China is to reform the urban-biased development strategy, and to innovate the new cognition of rural-urban relationship based on the thinking of "rural maternal effect", which highlights that rural areas nourish the city. Based on the remote coupling and systematic synthesis of the rural human-earth system, modern human geography urgently needs to strengthen the cross-research with physical geography and information geography, create a coordinated observation system of human-earth system supported by the sky-space-ground integration, reshape the global rural development perspective, rural-urban system perspective, and reorganize the global rural human-earth relationship, the rural-urban integration relationship, and the living and employment relationship. Rural human-earth relationship territorial system is the core of rural geography research. The rural human-earth system research should focus on the coupling of rural natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system and their complex interactive processes and effects. Supported by the intersection of multiple disciplines, the expansion of new fields and the cultivation of new disciplines, it should create the collaborative observation technology of human-earth system and methodology of multi-source data fusion computing, the research idea based on process-mechanism-pattern and the technical path of monitoring-simulation-decision support, and explore the organic connection path between rural human-earth system coupling and rural-urban integrated development, regional sustainable development and global common governance.

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    The structure and characteristics of resident food consumption in rural areas of the Tibetan Plateau: Taking Three-Rivers Region in Tibet as an example
    WANG Ling'en, GUO Jiaxin, FENG Ling, LUO Yanhua, ZHANG Xianzhou, FAN Yuzhi, CHENG Shengkui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (9): 2104-2117.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202109005
    Abstract861)   HTML34)    PDF (1715KB)(228)      

    Resident food consumption is affected by factors such as the natural geographic environment and urbanization. At the same time, food consumption will affect regional food security and the development of agriculture and animal husbandry through market mechanisms. Taking the Yarlung Zangbo River and its two tributaries of Tibet (also known as Three-Rivers Region) as a typical case, this paper obtained the food consumption data of 262 rural residents by field surveys based on stratified sampling, and then analyzed the food consumption structure of the rural residents and its influencing factors in the Tibetan Plateau. The results indicated that: (1) The consumption of plant foods of the residents in the sample is 3.19 times that of animal foods, with vegetable and grain as the main plant food and meat and milk as the main animal food. And highland barley and highland barley liquor are important in the diet of Tibetans. (2) The scale and structure of food consumption of residents are closely related to the index of food self-sufficiency, and the characteristics of self-sufficient food consumption are significant. (3) Among different regions, family sizes, scales of migrant worker, income levels and family ages, the food consumption structure of residents varies, and the differences in the consumption of flour and fruits between different families are the most significant. (4) Regional differences, family sizes and migrant worker scales are the main factors that affect the comprehensive difference of food consumption in the sample rural areas. The research results of the paper can provide scientific basis and guidance suggestions for the improvement of food consumption structure, promotion of dietary nutrition and transformation and development of agriculture and animal husbandry in the Tibetan Plateau.

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    The review and applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy
    GAO Peichao, CHENG Changxiu, YE Sijing, SHEN Shi, ZHANG Hong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (7): 1579-1590.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202107001
    Abstract856)   HTML41)    PDF (2329KB)(317)      

    The field of geography has three unique characteristics, namely, regionality, integration, and complexity. Among them, complexity has become increasingly crucial to geography in the current era. Entropy is a key concept and an indicator of the complexity of a system; thus, the research and application of entropy play a fundamental role in the development of geography. During recent years, Boltzmann entropy (i.e., thermodynamic entropy) has emerged as a research hotspot in the entropy for geography. Proposed as early as the year 1872, it is the core of the well-known Second Law of Thermodynamics. However, its application in geography had remained at a conceptual level for lack of computational methods with spatial data. Fortunately, much progress has been made globally towards computing and applying spatial Boltzmann entropy (i.e., the Boltzmann entropy of spatial data). This paper aims to perform a comprehensive review of such progress, in terms of the thermodynamic origination of Boltzmann entropy, the difficulties in applying it to geography, computational models and algorithms of spatial Boltzmann entropy, and all the applications up to now. Four major conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The current focus of research is placed on the Boltzmann entropy of spatial raster data. Models have been developed for computing Boltzmann entropy with both qualitative and quantitative raster data. (2) Many algorithms have been developed and can be classified into three categories, namely total edge-based, Wasserstein distance-based, and multiscale hierarchy-based. (3) It has witnessed two groups of applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy to geography, namely landscape ecology and remote sensing image processing. (4) Future research is recommended to develop algorithms for more types of spatial data, validating previous conclusions drawn using Shannon entropy, and extending the applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy.

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    Analyzing spatial characteristics of urban resource and environment carrying capacity based on Covert-Resilient-Overt:A case study of Wuhan city
    WU Hao, JIANG Zhimeng, LIN Anqi, ZHU Wenchao, WANG Wei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (10): 2439-2458.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202110008
    Abstract823)   HTML20)    PDF (4837KB)(139)      

    The resources and environment carrying capacity (RECC) is a barometer of the development of urban territory space, so exploring the spatial characteristics of RECC is greatly significant for optimizing the territory spatial pattern. In this context, this paper uses new urban geographic information data, such as night-time lights and atmospheric remote sensing, points of interest, historical traffic situation and social media, on the basis of relevant procedures and guidelines. Furthermore, a theoretical framework based on the covert-resilient-overt analysis of the spatial characteristics of urban RECC is proposed, and a method combining spatial autocorrelation and fractal geometry is developed for spatial characteristics mining of RECC. Taking Wuhan as an example to carry out research, the results show that: (1) The distribution of RECC in Wuhan has significant spatial heterogeneity. Areas with higher covert carrying capacity are concentrated in the Huangpi District and Xinzhou District with superior ecological environment in the northern periphery of the city, areas with high resilient carrying capacity are concentrated in the central urban area with strong comprehensive risk response capabilities, and areas with high overt carrying capacity are located in the sub-center of the city with sound basic functions. (2) The RECC in Wuhan has positive spatial aggregation, and it shows significant radius-centripetal fractal and circle characteristics. The areas of high covert carrying capacity spread radially around, and the areas with high resilient carrying capacity are concentrated in the core of the city in a centripetal shape, the areas with high overt carrying capacity are between the areas with high values of covert and resilient carrying capacity. In conclusion, the spatial characteristics analysis and mining method system of urban RECC constructed in this paper make up for the shortcomings of the low dynamics of traditional data by introducing multi-source spatial temporal data, and improves the theoretical and technical paradigm of urban RECC research. The research provides a new way of thinking for the carrying capacity of urban resources and environment.

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    Disciplinary structure and development strategy ofphysical geography in China
    CHEN Fahu, WU Shaohong, LIU Hongyan, YANG Xiaoyan, LIU Jianbao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (9): 2074-2082.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202109002
    Abstract822)   HTML53)    PDF (923KB)(289)      

    Physical geography, one of the branches of geographic science, is the basic discipline of geographic science. And it is the scientific foundation of ecology, environmental science and other related disciplines. Physical geography focuses on spatial characteristics, evolution and regional differentiation of the earth's surface. In the new period of rapid development of social economy, and science and technology, physical geography is more closely and widely connected with human geography and, information geography. Based on "The Development Strategy of Discipline and the Frontier Research (2021-2035)" and geography subject planning, this paper analyzed the forming process of the physical geography, expressed sub-discipline structure of comprehensive physical geography, sectoral physical geography, human survival environment, and proposed the development strategy of physical geography and its branch disciplines, key priority of development goals and directions.

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    Climate change risk assessment of ecosystem productivity in the arid/humid transition zone of northern China
    YIN Yunhe, MA Danyang, DENG Haoyu, WU Shaohong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (7): 1605-1617.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202107003
    Abstract801)   HTML70)    PDF (3500KB)(450)      

    Climate change risk has been a challenge for the development of society. As the ecosystems in the arid/humid transition zone (AHTZ) in northern China are characterized by sensitive and complex response to climatic fluctuations, assessing the climate change risk for ecosystems in the AHTZ is of scientific significance to regional climate governance and risk management. This study utilized the net primary productivity (NPP) as the indice for risk assessment. Based on the climate data of five global climate models (GCMs) participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the NPP was simulated using an improved LPJ (Lund-Potsdam-Jena). A climate change risk assessment method was built to identify the climate change risk levels and their spatio-temporal distributions in the AHTZ at different periods in the future. Results show that NPP loss would gradually extend and aggravate the risk in the AHTZ from mid-term period to long-term period of the 21st century. The risk under the high-emission scenario would be more serious, mainly manifested as a negative anomaly and a downward trend of NPP. In particular, under RCP8.5, 81.85% of the area may face climate change risk, and 54.71% will reach a high risk. During 2071-2099, under RCP8.5, the NPP anomaly in the high-risk area will reach (-96.00±46.95) gC m-2 a-1, and the changing rate of NPP will reach (-3.56±3.40) gC m-2 a-1. The eastern plain of AHTZ and the eastern grasslands of Inner Mongolia are expected to become the main risk concentration areas. The future vegetation growth in these areas may be adversely affected by climate change. Increasing warming and intensifying drying may be important causes for future climate change risks.

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    China's city network based on Tencent's migration big data
    WANG Lucang, LIU Haiyang, LIU Qing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 853-869.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104006
    Abstract789)   HTML58)    PDF (5400KB)(512)      

    With the rapid development of economic globalization and regional integration, the connection between cities is increasingly close. The mobility and interdependence of elements have promoted the formation of city network and become a new regional organization model and spatial structure. Based on Tencent's migration data, this paper constructs a 372×372 relational data matrix, and systematically depicts the city network pattern in China from different modes of transportation. The results show that cities with high network correlation degree are mainly concentrated in the area east of the Hu Huanyong Line, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Chengdu-Chongqing region and other urban agglomeration areas, which have the highest concentration and become the main control power of China's city network pattern; and the cities in the northwest half are at a disadvantage status. According to the amount of migration, the Chinese city network is divided into national, large regional, regional, local and pedestal networks. The city network structure changes with the mode of transportation. When the network level moves down, the number of node cities tends to increase and the network density increases, but the network range tends to shrink. There is a close correlation between the network level and the migration path. National-level network related to air transportation, regional network related to railway transportation, and local network are relevant to automobile transportation. The economic space-time distance of different transportation modes determines the network structure, which is the basic factor that causes the network to differentiate with different paths.

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    The spatial heterogeneity distribution of Chinese urban nursing homes and socio-economic driving factors
    JIANG Lei, CHEN Xingyu, ZHU Hong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (8): 1951-1964.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202108010
    Abstract782)   HTML57)    PDF (3301KB)(402)      

    Over the recent decades, China has become an ageing society and how to best take care of the elderly has been in heated debate. Nursing homes have been considered as an effective way to solve the problems associated with the care of the elderly in China. To address these problems, it is of great significance to better understand the spatial distribution of nursing homes in Chinese cities and investigate why their distribution differs in space. This study used crawler technology to obtain the number of nursing homes in 285 Chinese cities by September, 2019, and applied a geo-visualization technique to map their spatial distributions. A novel spatially stratified heterogeneity method (named geographical detector) was employed to uncover the socio-economic driving factors of these nursing homes. The following findings were obtained: (1) The spatial distribution of the number of nursing homes is similar to that of the elderly population in the investigated cities, indicating that there is a close relationship between them. (2) The results of the factor detector test showed that the urban elderly population, urban economic development level, fiscal expenditure, the number of employees joining urban basic pension insurance, and the area of green land is closely related to the number of nursing homes in Chinese cities. Of these five socio-economic driving factors, fiscal expenditure and the level of economic development are the main drivers. (3) The results of the interaction detector test showed that the interaction effects of pairwise factors on nursing homes are stronger than the effect of individual factor. This indicates that the spatial heterogeneity of the number of nursing homes is affected by multiple factors. Moreover, the interactions between the elderly population factor and four other driving factors are the strongest determinants for the development of the number of nursing homes of Chinese cities. Finally, several relevant policies are proposed to promote the increase of nursing homes in Chinese cities based on the main findings.

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    Population prediction and resource allocation in megacities from the optimum population perspective: A case study of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen
    WANG Yong, XIE Yanjing, LIU Rong, ZHANG Hao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 352-366.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102008
    Abstract769)   HTML58)    PDF (1164KB)(508)      

    Continuous population growth is an important factor affecting the development of megacities. Optimum population can advance the rational allocation of urban resources amidst the continuous growth. By taking the optimum population as a pointcut, this study first uses the possibility-satisfiability (P-S) model to calculate the optimum population size of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in 2035, and then uses the grey back propagation neural network model to predict the resident population of all the four first-tier cities in 2035. Finally, it analyzes all the cities' allocation and planning of resources or infrastructure based on the results, and proposes optimum resource allocation to address an unexpected population growth. The results show that: (1) When the P-S degree is 0.6, the optimum population size of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in 2035 is 21.5269 million, 23.0968 million, 14.9893 million and 13.5219 million, respectively, all below the red line of government planning. (2) The resident population of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen in 2035 will exceed the moderate population size and the red line of government planning, while the moderate population size will be lower than the red line of government planning, and the red line of government planning will be lower than that of the resident population. (3) From the perspective of optimum population, in order to cope with future population growth without affecting economic and social development and residential satisfaction, in 2035, the power generation and green areas of Beijing are expected to reach twice the current levels; power generation, green areas, and public transport vehicles of Shanghai will be 2.27, 2.22 and 2.35 times the current levels, respectively; the energy supply and power generation of Guangzhou are expected to reach three times the current levels; the energy supply, power generation, and the number of beds in health institutions of Shenzhen will be three times the current levels. This study provides a scientific basis for coordinating the sustainable development of population and urban resources in large cities.

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    Identification and stage division of urban shrinkage in the three provinces of Northeast China
    SUN Pingjun, WANG Kewen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1366-1379.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106004
    Abstract751)   HTML50)    PDF (2126KB)(420)      

    Urban shrinkage is a global socio-economic phenomenon embedded in wave of economic globalization and rooted in "localization". And it has become a new proposition for Chinese geographers and urban planners to build a theoretical analysis framework of "Chinese-style" urban shrinkage research in the process of rapid urbanization and to provide Chinese experience for the study of urban shrinkage globally. In this paper, we think the essence of urban shrinkage is a response progress or status that the city's "development potential" is relative weakening or absolute degradation and caused re-location of the population-centric economic development elements and spatial reconstruction of the urban functional forms. It is a comprehensive concept, a multi-dimensional and integrated process based on the changes in population, economy, investment and consumption, and social security. And we establish the identification system and the classification criteria of urban shrinkage types based on the "two-step diagnosis method", and select the three provinces of Northeast China which are the most representative urban shrinkage regions in China to make an empirical analysis. The results show that: (1) There does exist an obvious urban shrinkage phenomenon, and the evolution trend is going to regionalization in the three provinces. And we classify the whole identified shrinkage cities into four categories: resource-dependent shrinking cities, "siphon" shrinking cities, comprehensive shrinking cities and location-constrained shrinking cities. It can be found that the resource-dependent shrinking cities are the main body, occupying 2/3 of the entire shrinking cities. (2) The spatial pattern formed by the identified shrinkage cities shows the characteristics that the number of the shrinkage cities is large in the north and small in the south, which is echoing the situation that the economic center is continuously moving from north to south. (3) From the indicator dimension, it can be found that urban shrinking wholly follows the internal evolutionary and logical connection of "investment and consumption, economic shrinkage→population shrinkage→social security shrinkage". (4) The urban shrinkage identification system and its type classification criteria based on the "two-step diagnostic method" in this paper reflect the rationality and limitations of the current urban shrinkage identification standard based on population shrinkage, although it can identify shrinking cities to a large extent, and have certain limitations in classifying shrinking city types and revealing the internal coupling mechanism of shrinking cities. (5) The empirical results confirm that the "two-step diagnosis method" of urban shrinkage is reasonable and feasible, which can provide tool support and reference basis for the identification of China's urban shrinkage and the formulation of policies for the revitalization of Northeast China.

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    Disciplinary structure and development strategy ofinformation geography in China
    LI Xin, YUAN Linwang, PEI Tao, HUANG Xin, LIU Guang, ZHENG Donghai
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (9): 2094-2103.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202109004
    Abstract717)   HTML38)    PDF (1925KB)(223)      

    The arrival of the information era has exceptionally advanced the development of geographic science. The research scope of the discipline has expanded from the space of traditional physical and human geography to the space of information geography. Meanwhile, the discipline gradually formed three subdisciplines, i.e., geographic remote sensing science, geographic information science, and geographic data science. In the context of preparing the disciplinary structure of geographic science of the "Development Strategy of Discipline and Frontier Research in China (2021-2035)", this paper summarized the history, definition, and disciplinary structure of information geography. Additionally, it highlighted the strategic layout of the discipline, as well as the goals and key directions of its priority development fields. We expect this paper to provide insight into the new discipline that could help promote the developments and applications of remote sensing and geographic information within the framework of geographic science, strengthening the synthesis of geographic research and promoting the integrated development of geographic science.

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    The effects of COVID-19 epidemic on regional economy and industry in China
    WU Feng, LIU Guijun, GUO Naliang, LI Zhihui, DENG Xiangzheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 1034-1048.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104017
    Abstract706)   HTML29)    PDF (3409KB)(294)      

    To scientifically assess the effects of major public health emergencies on economic system, regulate its negative effect and improve the resilience of the economic system is an important national strategic requirement. Currently, the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic has been effectively contained in China, while exogenous and regional risks remain. Systematical identification of influence path and strength of COVID-19 epidemic on economic system has guiding significance for economic system recovery. Based on the improved multi-regional computable general equilibrium model for China, this research measures the output changes in economic system and major industries in China under different COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control scenarios with different changes in factors supply and products demand. The results show that the provincial economic growth in China falls by 0.4%-0.8% compared with the normal situation in 2020, and residential consumption and employment falls by about 2% and 0.7% respectively, while commodity prices rise by about 0.9% in the short term. From the perspective of industrial economy, consumption-oriented and labor-intensive industries are the most adversely affected in the short term. For example, the output value of the service sector will decrease by 6.3% compared with normal levels. Besides, regarding the regional differences of the effects of COVID-19 epidemic on the economic system and industrial economy, Hubei province, as one of the regions with first-level epidemic prevention and control risk, faces the greatest challenge. The effects of COVID-19 epidemic present a spatial spreading pattern with Hubei province as the center. The major industries that suffer from the impacts of COVID-19 epidemic vary in different regions. In addition, this research assesses the intensity of the regional economic recovery under the resumption of work and production scenario and the proactive fiscal policy scenario respectively. The results show that compared with the resumption of work and production, the effect of increasing fiscal stimulus has more potential for economic system recovery, up by 0.3% in GDP and by 1.8% in commodity price, while resumption of work and production has a wider range of spatial pulling effects on industries.

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