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    China's changing population distribution and influencing factors: Insights from the 2020 census data
    LIU Tao, PENG Rongxi, ZHUO Yunxia, CAO Guangzhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 381-394.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202008
    Abstract3254)   HTML363)    PDF (2718KB)(865)      

    Using data of the latest three decennial censuses, this paper systematically analyzes the overall spatial pattern, changing trends, and influence mechanisms of China's population distribution since 2000. The study reveals that the general population distribution pattern of "dense east and sparse west" in China has not changed, which is determined by the differences in natural geographic environments on the two sides of Hu Line. In the first decade of the century, population concentration was mainly found in the southeastern area, but it has been observed in all regions in the recent decade. Provincial capitals have become the winners of population competition and the advantages of population growth of provincial capitals have been further strengthened in the recent decade compared with 2000-2010. However, the administrative power-led effects of the increasing dominance of provincial capitals will gradually weaken with the development of their provinces. The regional differentiation of population changes is also apparent: coastal region gradually forms a dense belt of population and towns with solid population attraction based on the development of urban agglomerations; the northeast region almost turns to a complete population shrinking status; central provinces still compete fiercely for population based on their capitals; the population of Sichuan, Chongqing, and Guizhou has stopped the decline and returned to growth; and the northwest region faces the risk of population loss. In addition, this paper finds that the driving factors of regional population growth have gradually changed from economic factors to both economic and amenity factors, and the difference of amenities among regions may become an important factor for future changes in China's population geography.

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    Hu Huanyong's geostrategic thought and its monumental contributions
    DU Debin, CAO Wanpeng, XIA Qifan, YI Xinlei, MA Yahua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 261-274.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202001
    Abstract2277)   HTML221)    PDF (1012KB)(595)      

    Hu Huanyong is one of the founders of modern Chinese human geography, a pioneer of geopolitical research and an outstanding thinker of geostrategy. This paper evaluates Hu Huanyong's geostrategic thought in the context of the changing international geopolitical environment in which China has embarked upon its path of national development. Hu Huanyong is believed to be the pioneer and visionary geographer who has long-term influence on China's geopolitical research and the formulation of China's geostrategy. He is credited for his systematic demonstration of the Chinese sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea, namely the Nansha Qundao, Dongsha Qundao, Zhongsha Qundao, and Xisha Qundao, particularly his first naming of Nansha Qundao. He is ahead of his times with his comprehensive study of China's geopolitical environment, his prediction of the inevitable Japanese invasion into China and armed conflicts between Japan and the US, and his call for special attention to border governance and national security and defense. He has strongly advocated the recovery of the Ryukyu Islands, stressed the role that geographers play as the vanguards of China's territorial development, and called for a better integration of geography with national defense education. The paper concludes with an observation of the great significance to inherit and carry forward Hu Huanyong's geostrategic thought in the current global geopolitical environment characterized by unprecedented changes of the world in a century and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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    Human geography research based on the new thinking of global rural-urban relationship
    LIU Yansui, LONG Hualou, LI Yurui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 2869-2884.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112001
    Abstract2203)   HTML391)    PDF (2728KB)(1137)      

    Sustainable rural development is critical to the achievement of global sustainable development goals. Globalization and urbanization, as the key processes, continuously drive the human-earth system to make adaptive responses, promoting the transformation of urban-rural relations. The rural-urban relationship is essentially a mother-child relationship, which is a comprehensive characterization of the transfer of rural humanistic factors, the transformation of man-land relationship and the transformation of urban-rural development in the process of urbanization. However, the traditional cognition of urban-rural relationship ignores the multi-dimensional connections between the rural and the urban as well as the existence of the rural-urban integration system, resulting in prominent drawbacks of rural regions, negatively affecting the urban-rural development rights, and resulting in urban and rural territorial dysfunction and other problems. The key to solve the problems of socio-economic development in China is to reform the urban-biased development strategy, and to innovate the new cognition of rural-urban relationship based on the thinking of "rural maternal effect", which highlights that rural areas nourish the city. Based on the remote coupling and systematic synthesis of the rural human-earth system, modern human geography urgently needs to strengthen the cross-research with physical geography and information geography, create a coordinated observation system of human-earth system supported by the sky-space-ground integration, reshape the global rural development perspective, rural-urban system perspective, and reorganize the global rural human-earth relationship, the rural-urban integration relationship, and the living and employment relationship. Rural human-earth relationship territorial system is the core of rural geography research. The rural human-earth system research should focus on the coupling of rural natural ecosystem and the socio-economic system and their complex interactive processes and effects. Supported by the intersection of multiple disciplines, the expansion of new fields and the cultivation of new disciplines, it should create the collaborative observation technology of human-earth system and methodology of multi-source data fusion computing, the research idea based on process-mechanism-pattern and the technical path of monitoring-simulation-decision support, and explore the organic connection path between rural human-earth system coupling and rural-urban integrated development, regional sustainable development and global common governance.

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    Spatial pattern and determinants of international migration flows in Asia, 1990-2015
    LIU Ye, WANG Xiaoge, GUAN Jing, GU Hengyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (10): 2409-2425.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202210001
    Abstract1895)   HTML0)    PDF (2817KB)(0)      

    Understanding the characteristics of transnational migration in Asia is beneficial for China to formulate a reasonable international migration policy in the new era and promote the high-quality development of the Belt and Road Initiative. Based on the data of bilateral international migration flows from 1990 to 2015, this study tries to clarify the temporal and spatial patterns and influencing factors of Asian transnational migration by using social network analysis and spatial filtering panel negative binomial gravity model (ESF). The results are listed as follows: First, the main migration flows in Asia from 1990 to 2000 were concentrated in West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia, and most of them occurred between the adjacent countries and regions. From 2000 to 2015, there was a number of large-scale migration flows across the above three subregions. Second, the scale of the migration network in Asia is relatively low, and the degree of closeness between the Asian countries has increased first and then weakened over time. Third, political instability and war conflicts of the origin were important driving forces for transnational migration in Asia. Besides, the differences of economic development and national income between countries were the crucial driving forces, while multi-dimensional proximity factors played an important role in promoting transnational migration. Fourth, from 1990 to 2015, the effect of economic differences on transnational migration increased first and then weakened. In addition, political instability has always been the main influencing factors for migration. Besides, the development of import trade has positively promoted transnational migration, and the attractiveness of studying abroad has a fluctuating effect on transnational migration. Finally, non-economic and structural impacts were the most important factors influencing the transnational migration in Asia.

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    Exploring the integrative development paths of geographic sciences from the perspective of National Natural Science Foundation of China
    XIONG Juhua, GAO Yang, WU Hao, SUN Weijun, LIU Xiaoqian, LIU Jianbao, YANG Gang, ZHANG Zhonghao, MAO Dehua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1839-1850.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208001
    Abstract1887)   HTML82)    PDF (1001KB)(378)      

    With the progress of holistic science and human society, development of geographical sciences has entered a new stage of interdisciplinary integration. Under this context, geographical sciences urgently needs to seek new paths through the deep integration of disciplines to better improve the knowledge system and contribute to the country and society development effectively. Based on the perspective of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), this paper firstly deeply analyzes the current status and problems of the integration and development of geographical sciences in China, and points out that it is not fully integrated with the frontier of international geographical sciences, and the global political, economic and cultural influence of geographical research in China needs to be strengthened; considers that the ability of Geographic Sciences integrating national major practical needs for theoretical and technological innovation should be improved; suggests that the internal discipline system of geographical sciences in China should be further optimized according to the needs of knowledge integration. Then, this paper proposes three paths for the integrated development of geographical sciences under the guidance of funding policies, that is, the interdisciplinary integration facing the frontiers of science and technology in the world, the multiple fields integration facing the major national development strategies, and inner-discipline integration facing the optimized application codes of NSFC. In future, based on maintaining the continuity and stability of the development of disciplines, the NSFC will encourage the integration of geographical sciences with other disciplines and fields through the improvement and innovation, so as to promote and build a healthier and more innovative system.

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    Remotely sensed mapping and analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of land use change across China in 2015-2020
    KUANG Wenhui, ZHANG Shuwen, DU Guoming, YAN Changzhen, WU Shixin, LI Rendong, LU Dengsheng, PAN Tao, NING Jing, GUO Changqing, DONG Jinwei, BAO Yuhai, CHI Wenfeng, DOU Yinyin, HOU Yali, YIN Zherui, CHANG Liping, YANG Jiuchun, XIE Jiali, QIU Juan, ZHANG Hansong, ZHANG Yubo, YANG Shiqi, SA Rigai, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1056-1071.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205002
    Abstract1675)   HTML87)    PDF (5124KB)(470)      

    The continuous remote sensing monitoring of land use/cover change at the national scale is of great scientific significance for land spatial planning and blueprint drawing of "Beautiful China" in the new era. Landsat 8 OLI, GF-2 and other satellite remote sensing data were used to develop the data of land use change across China during 2015-2020 and China Land Use/Cover Dataset in 2020 (CLUD 2020) by integrating remote sensing big data and expert knowledge-assisted human-computer interaction interpretation methods. Long time series land use dynamic database at a 30-m resolution in China was established at 5-year interval in the end of 1980s-2020. On this basis, the general trend, regional differences and main characteristics of land use change in 2015-2020 were revealed from national and regional scales. The research indicated that integrating vegetation cover change at a 30-m resolution and land change information generated by remotely sensed big-data cloud calculation into the expert human-computer interaction interpretation can effectively improve the efficiency of mapping and the accuracy of land use change detection. The overall accuracy of CLUD 2020 first-level type mapping reaches 95%. In general, the intensity of territorial development entered a stable state compared with 2010-2015. During the period, the cropland continued to decrease. Nationwide farmland was encroached by urban development and construction, paddy fields in Northeast China continued to decrease, and cultivated land in Xinjiang was reclaimed in the south and abandoned in the north. The built-up land continued to increase, showing a spatial pattern that "the expansion of built-up land changed from the agglomeration of coastal areas and mega and large cities in 2010-2015 to the surrounding sprawl of large, medium and small towns in the central and western regions in 2015-2020". Although the area of natural ecological land for forest and grass continued to decrease nationwide, the intensity decreased compared with 2010-2015. Under the continuous impact of climate change, the area of water in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau increased significantly. The pattern of land use change is closely related to the national macro strategy for high-quality development during the "13th Five-Year Plan" period (2016-2020) and ecological civilization construction, as well as the impact of climate change.

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    Digital twin space and its applications: Concurrent discussion on the space reconstruction of geographical research
    LI Shuangcheng, ZHANG Wenbin, CHEN Liying, LIANG Ze, ZHANG Yajuan, WANG Zheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (3): 507-517.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202203001
    Abstract1606)   HTML248)    PDF (1476KB)(404)      

    The past two years have witnessed an explosive growth of digital twin research and its increasing application in a wide range of fields and scales. This urgently calls for a methodological framework to guide and consolidate the research and application of digital twin in various fields and with different structures and scales. In this paper, we first summarized and analyzed the development patterns of digital twin research in various fields, and then coined a term "digital twin space" (with definition and characteristics) as a framework to generalize and consolidate digital twins of various scales. Taking digital twin city as an example, we briefly elaborated the application of twin space. Space, as the carrier of the research object or the research object itself in geography, consists of natural geographical space, social space, and cyberspace. These three types of spaces, however, have not been fully integrated in different branches of geography. In order to boost comprehensive geography research, we propose to reconstruct geographical space research by integrating the three types of geographical spaces with the twin space. Digital twin space can interact with the physical space bilaterally in real time and thus break the barriers among the three types of geographical spaces from inside, which further helps realize the tasks of simulating realities, predicting changes, and regulating processes in integrated geography research.

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    Assessment of ecological benefits of key national ecological projects in China in 2000-2019 using remote sensing
    SHAO Quanqin, LIU Shuchao, NING Jia, LIU Guobo, YANG Fan, ZHANG Xiongyi, NIU Linan, HUANG Haibo, FAN Jiangwen, LIU Jiyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (9): 2133-2153.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202209001
    Abstract1565)   HTML105)    PDF (10476KB)(604)      

    We propose a theoretical framework for assessing the ecological benefits provided by national key ecological projects in China over the past 20 years. A dataset consisting of six primary indicators and nine secondary indicators of ecosystem structure, ecosystem quality, and ecosystem services for the period 2000-2019 was generated using ground survey and remote sensing data. Ecological benefits were quantitatively evaluated following the implementation of national key ecological projects in China. Areas with medium, relatively high, and high degrees of ecological restoration accounted for 24.1%, 11.9%, and 1.7% of the national land area, respectively. Degrees of ecological restoration were higher in areas with a greater number of ecological projects. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly concentrated in the Loess Plateau, the farming-pastoral zone of northern China, the Northeast China Plain, and an area spanning the border areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and Hunan. The relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in vegetation net primary productivity were 85.4% and 14.6%, respectively, and the relative contributions of climatic factors and ecological projects to changes in water erosion modulus were 69.5% and 30.5%, respectively. The restoration potential of national vegetation coverage was 20%, and the restoration potential percentages of forest and grassland vegetation coverage were 6.4% and 23%, respectively. Climatic conditions can inhibit ecological restoration. Areas with relatively high and high degrees of ecological restoration were mainly distributed in areas with an annual average temperature greater than 0 ℃ and annual precipitation greater than 300 mm. Therefore, the limitations associated with climate conditions should be considered during the implementation of national ecological projects. The implementation of single ecological projects or single ecological restoration measures should be avoided, the use of combined measures should be emphasized, and the benefits of ecological investment funds should be maximized.

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    Multi-dimensional proximity, trade barriers and the dynamic evolution of industrial linkages between China and the world market
    HE Canfei, YU Changda
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 275-294.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202002
    Abstract1478)   HTML194)    PDF (2658KB)(417)      

    As China enters the new normal era, the existing mode of joining into the global production network is confronted with the dual dilemma of internal dividend disappearance and external trade frictions. It is very important to explore the characteristics and driving forces of dynamic evolution of industrial linkages between China and other countries or regions in the world. Based on the world input-output table database from 1995 to 2014, this study depicts the global industrial interdependence network from the national scale using input—output analysis and social network analysis, and focuses on the evolution of China's role and position in this pattern using spatial econometric model. The main findings are as follows: China has become a bridge between East Asia and Southeast Asia and other emerging markets, thus upgrading from an "outsider" to an important hub in the industrial network linking Europe and the United States. However, from 2015 to 2019, the expansion of China's foreign industrial linkages has gradually reached a plateau. From the perspective of supply side, China's resource and manufacturing industries are constantly embedded in the supply side of the global production network. However, the overall external supply capacity of most China's service industry is relatively below global average. In terms of demand, China, as the "factory of the world" and a major country in infrastructure construction, has an increasing global influence in manufacturing and infrastructure. Nevertheless, the international influence of productive services like Transportation, Logistics and Finance has been declining since 2005. The Chinese industries obtain the local added value overall to continue to grow, but the efficiency of the added value capture is low. On this basis, this study explores the influence of multi-dimensional proximities and trade protectionism on China-global industrial linkages and their value added. Among them, the geographical and cognitive proximity has the most extensive influence, while the social and institutional proximities only promote and strengthen the intermediate production linkage with more complex forms of industrial linkages and final demand linkages. However, technical barriers and anti-dumping investigation have weakened China's foreign industrial links. The sanitary and phytosanitary measures have a significant weakening effect on the final demand linkage, but not on the intermediate product production. To sum up, the upgrading of production-oriented service industry and the efficiency of the acquisition of overall added value are the potential directions for the expansion of China's foreign industrial linkages, while the construction of domestic industrial cycle and industrial diversification are the reasonable measures for the expansion of China's foreign industrial linkages.

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    The rule cognition and theoretical construction of spatial pattern in China
    LU Yuqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 2885-2897.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112002
    Abstract1464)   HTML367)    PDF (1559KB)(868)      

    "Hu Huanyong Line", T-shaped development model, and dual-nuclei structure model can be roughly summarized as a "one-line, two-axis, and dual-nuclei" structure. They are all rule cognition and theoretical refinements on spatial pattern in China which were proposed by Chinese human geographers in different periods. "Hu Huanyong Line" is proposed based on the regular recognition of regional differences. This is the extension and expansion of geographical differentiation laws of physical geography in human geography, following the basic assumption of homogeneous regions. The discovery of the T-shaped model of Lu Dadao and the dual-nuclei structure of Lu Yuqi transcended the analytical thought of regional differentiation laws. They follow the basic assumptions of functional areas. Among them, the T-shaped model is the practical application of the point-axis system theory proposed by Lu Dadao in China. From the phenomenon perspective, the dual-nuclei structure is attached to the T-shaped development model, but subsequent research has completed the transformation from special to general. It has accomplished the whole process of scientific research in scientific discovery, mechanism analysis, mathematical derivation and practical application. Eventually, it becomes a regional spatial structure theory with strong broad applicability. From the theoretical level, "Hu Huanyong Line" based on the assumption of homogeneous region and T-shaped model based on the assumption of functional region belong to the analysis results of spatial differentiation law, but they can also be called theories. They are individual theories in geography, while the dual-nuclei structure theory belongs to a more general and applicable theory in the general scientific sense. Obviously, the trinity analysis of the "Hu Huanyong Line", the T-shaped model, and the dual-nuclei structure theory shows that, China is a country that is very suitable for regional analysis and geographical laws and theories refinement based on this. The research in this paper can provide research ideas and method references for the summary of regional spatial structure laws and theory refinement of human geography.

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    The dynamics of world economy geography and the role of China in economic globalization
    ZHU Shengjun, YANG Bofei, LIU Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 315-330.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202004
    Abstract1458)   HTML219)    PDF (1667KB)(320)      

    From the perspective of economic geography, this paper studies the changing spatial pattern of world economy and China's role in different waves of economic globalization. Firstly, this study finds that the geographical pattern of world economy changes from "core-periphery" to "chain-reconfiguration", and to current "network-imbalance". Meanwhile the driving force of economic globalization shifts from "trade globalization" to "manufacturing globalization". At present, "multiple globalization" is involving into a new engine to driving the development of economic globalization. We then discuss that how China changes its role in economic globalization by changing modes of strategic coupling. We argue that the role transition of China breaks the traditional developing path which developed countries set for developing countries and theoretical spatial order put forward by classical industry gradient transfer, bringing new restructuring power and possibility for changing pattern of globalization. Finally, we discuss the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the development of economic globalization and the development trend of economic globalization in the post-pandemic era. Based on the analysis, we come up with some suggestions regarding to the potential development paths of China under the background of economic globalization.

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    Analysis of the Bole-Taipei Line as the divide for regional coordinated development: Evidence from greenhouse gas emissions of Chinese cities
    FANG Kai, HE Jianjian, ZHANG Jiaqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 3090-3102.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112015
    Abstract1399)   HTML179)    PDF (5440KB)(376)      

    As the international political and economic situation has been undergoing profound changes, achieving regional coordinated development is essential for China to form a new development pattern dominated by the domestic economic cycle. The Bole-Taipei Line, which is perpendicular to the Hu Huanyong Line and is proposed by Professor Fang Chuanglin in February 2020, has the potential to be an appropriate representative of the coordinated and balanced line of China's regional development. By investigating the spatio-temporal distribution of greenhouse gas emissions among 338 Chinese cities from 2005 to 2015, and making use of the Theil index and the Gini coefficient that are appropriate for measuring the spatial equality on both sides of the Bole-Taipei Line and within the southwest and northeast parts, respectively, this paper attempts, for the first time, to underpin the scientific basis of the Bole-Taipei Line as China's regional coordinated development line. We find that: (1) Overall emissions of the carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated greenhouse gas show a balanced distribution on both sides of the Bole-Taipei Line, and there are small regional differences in sectoral CO2 emission intensity and per capita CO2 emissions. (2) There is a generally balanced distribution of greenhouse gas emission intensity and per capita emissions, as well as the sectoral CO2 emission intensity and per capita emissions within the southwest and northeast parts of the Bole-Taipei Line. The industrial and agricultural sectors serve as the major emitters of greenhouse gases and therefore require a low-carbon transition towards a more balanced distribution of greenhouse gas emissions on both sides of the Bole-Taipei Line. In conclusion, the greenhouse gas emissions as a measure of the magnitude of human activities on both sides of the Bole-Taipei Line are relatively balanced, which has justified the scientific robustness and rationality of the Bole-Taipei Line as a strategic line for socioeconomic development, and provided novel insights into China's regional coordinated development.

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    Building natural resources surveying and monitoring technological system: Direction and research agenda
    CHEN Jun, WU Hao, ZHANG Jixian, WANG Donghua, LIAO Anping, LIU Wanzeng, ZHANG Jun, MIAO Qianjun, FENG Wenli, LU Weihua
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (5): 1041-1055.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202205001
    Abstract1376)   HTML42)    PDF (2668KB)(279)      

    Designing and building up the natural resources surveying and monitoring technological system (referred to as the "Technological System") is an important measure to establish and improve the natural resources management, promote the intensive and economical utilization of natural resources, and harmonize the coexistence between man and nature. It is a geo-science related research project with many complicated factors and challenging tasks. Following the mandates and requirement of the unified natural resources surveying and monitoring, the paper firstly analyzes the basic problems in designing and building up the "Technological System" from the holistic characteristics of the surveying and monitoring process and the systematic characteristics of its engineering implementation. A comprehensive overall framework of "Technological System" is resulted and discussed. Then the development direction of "Technological System" is proposed and analyzed, including the collaborative data sensing, automatic information processing, elaborative natural resource scene modeling and management, as well as intelligent knowledge service. Then the article discusses the digital-intelligent realization path of the "Technological System" to meet the advanced and practical requirement. It has led to the formulation of the future research agenda with five major research and development tasks, including the development of space-sir-ground-ocean-web collaborative sensing network system, construction of automatic information processing platform, spatio-temporal scene modeling of natural resources, development of spatio-temporal knowledge service of natural resources, and reconstruction of engineering technical flow. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the strategic needs analysis, enhance key technologies innovation and promote interdisciplinary collaboration in order to effectively build up the "Technological System" and promote its operational application.

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    The finding and significance of the super altitudinal belt of montane deciduous broad-leaved forests in central Qinling Mountains
    ZHANG Baiping, YAO Yonghui, XIAO Fei, ZHOU Wenzuo, ZHU Lianqi, ZHANG Junhua, ZHAO Fang, BAI Hongying, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHANG Xinghang, LIU Junjie, LI Jiayu, JIANG Ya
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (9): 2236-2248.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202209007
    Abstract1359)   HTML75)    PDF (3374KB)(304)      

    Mountain altitudinal belts are the miniature of horizontal differentiation and succession of climatic and vegetational zonation. However, altitudinal belts' vertical range, transition model, inner structure and combining pattern vary from place to place. In Mt. Taibai of the central section of China's north-south transitional zone, we have found an altitudinal belt with the largest range in the world, namely, the montane deciduous broad-leaved forest, which extends continuously from the mountain base to about 2800 m, including basal oak belt, typical oak belt of two sub-belts and cold-tolerant pioneer birch belt of two sub-belts, which could otherwise develop independently. Characterized by a "three layers and five sub-belts" structure, this "super altitudinal belt" is much vertically broader than the threshold of 1000 m for normal altitudinal belts. Its formation is closely related with its transitional geographic location, integral spectrum of altitudinal belts in central Qinling Mountains, rich and diverse species of deciduous woody plants, and their strong competitiveness. The finding of the super altitudinal belt has multiple significance: Its existence is another significant physio-geographic feature of China's north-south transitional zone; it shows that an altitudinal belt may have rather complex inner structure and broad vertical range in some special mountain environment. This broadens our understanding of altitudinal belt structures and their mechanisms, and is of great significance for developing structural theory for montane altitudinal belts. This finding also demonstrates that there are many big questions for us to explore and study in the north-south transitional zone, and it is expected that our finding could trigger in-depth study of local climate and biodiversity responsible for the formation of this super belt, and of the complex structure and ecological effect of China's north-south transitional zone.

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    Theoretical analysis on the mechanism and evolution law of urban-rural integration development
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 759-776.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204001
    Abstract1342)   HTML122)    PDF (3366KB)(415)      

    Urban and rural areas are always an inseparable organic integration, and the high-quality new urbanization is the process of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization. "urban disease" and "rural disease" are connected with each other, and are the causes of each other, which are known as "urban and rural diseases". The radical cure of "urban disease" and "rural disease" requires rural revitalization and new urbanization. Based on the review of the research on urban-rural integration development at home and abroad, this study analyzes the pathological roots and opposition pattern of urban and rural areas from the theoretical level, explores the main controlling factors, driving mechanism, sustainability and four-stage regularity of urban-rural integration development, constructs the measurement test system of urban-rural integration development, and puts forward the triangular model of urban-rural multi-integration development. It is known that the urban-rural integration development in China is in the high integration stage of more towns and less villages in the late urbanization, and will enter the deep integration stage of more towns and less villages, namely the final stage of urbanization. This study explores the policy evolution path of urban-rural integration development in China since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. China has generally experienced the policy evolution process from urban-rural coordinated development to the integration of urban-rural development and then to urban-rural integration development, and played an important guiding role in promoting new urbanization and rural revitalization. From the path level, it is suggested that the Central Urban and Rural Work Conference should be jointly convened, the National Urban-Rural Integration Development Plan should be jointly compiled, and the strategy of deep integration of urban-rural development should be implemented. The new urbanization and rural revitalization should be used as two different means to solve urban and rural diseases and improve the quality of urban and rural development. The theory and method of urban-rural integration development should be innovated, and the evaluation system should be constructed to quantitatively evaluate the depth of urban-rural integration development and build beautiful cities and beautiful villages. We should promote the development of new urbanization and rural revitalization in the direction of high synchronization, deep integration and co-prosperity, as well as improve the quality of urban and rural development and realize urban and rural modernization in a comprehensive way.

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    The spatiotemporal pattern evolution and influencing factors of CO 2 emissions at the county level of China
    WANG Shaojian, XIE Zihan, WANG Zehong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 3103-3118.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112016
    Abstract1164)   HTML201)    PDF (4458KB)(814)      

    County is the pivotal platform and region unit to realize the new-type urbanization. The study of county-level CO2 emissions is of great significance to improve China's urbanization strategy, accelerate the achievement of ecological civilization and low-carbon transformation. Based on the data of China's county-level CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2017, this paper analyzed the overall tendency, regional differences, spatiotemporal pattern and agglomeration characteristics of per capita CO2 emissions. Meanwhile, under the STIRPAT model and EKC hypothesis, this study employed the panel quantile regressions to explain the dynamic impact of socio-economic development on per capita CO2 emissions. The main conclusions show that: (1) China's county-level CO2 emissions show an increasing trend of rapid growth followed by slow growth. The regional disparity of per capita CO2 emissions is distinct and shows a more uneven trend. (2) On the whole, China's county-level CO2 emissions present a spatial pattern of "high in the north and low in the south". The per capita CO2 emissions level in economically developed areas is much higher than that in other areas, thus brings about an obvious spatial polarization effect. (3) There is a significant positive spatial correlation of per capita CO2 emissions within counties. The number of counties with High-High concentration gradually increases and the distribution center gradually moves to Northwest China, while the number of Low-Low concentration counties decreases continuously and they were mainly distributed in the central and southern regions. The agglomeration type of county-level per capita CO2 emissions presents a spatial locking effect. (4) Population density and government expenditure have an inhibitory effect on county-level per capita CO2 emissions, while the scale of secondary industry output value and carbon emission intensity have significant promotive influence. And there is an inverted "N-shaped" relationship between economic development and per capita CO2 emissions in the counties with low- and middle-level emissions. The adjustment of socio-economic development structure plays a critical role in achieving China's total CO2 emission reduction target. Therefore, the policy makers of emission reduction strategy should consider the regional disparity to realize the development and transformation of backward counties. And the key urban agglomerations should play a leading role in carbon emission reduction simultaneously. In addition, improving energy use efficiency through technological innovation should be the key way to the reduction of carbon emissions in China's counties at the present stage.

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    History of the ideas on economic geography in China: Period focus, evolution and prospect
    LI Xiaojian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (8): 1873-1891.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202208003
    Abstract1152)   HTML77)    PDF (2628KB)(277)      

    The history of Chinese economic geography as a research field is virtually an evolution of ideas on the relationship between economic activities and geographical environment. In ancient times, the idea on adapting to geographical conditions to cultivate economic activities had emerged, and numerous cases of regional practices were recorded in local chronicles. In the period from 1840 to 1948, economic geography appeared as a scientific discipline, and relevant research on agricultural and industrial geography was carried out. In the period from 1949 to 1978, the ideas on economic geography of the Soviet Union were fully introduced, with research focusing on the use of natural conditions and resources, and on the relationship between production distribution and geographical contexts to meet the national needs of economic development. In the period from 1979 to 2000, starting from territorial management and land planning, the important perspective formed on the relationship between man and land, and the theoretical progress was made in the establishment of Point-axis Concept and other spatial structural patterns. Economic geographers also made proposals on government regulations based on an expanding trend of regional differences. In the period from 2001 to 2020, one of the foci related to the relationship between man and land was the major fuction-oriented zoning, and other hot topics included issues of industrial agglomeration, urban economic zones, rural revitalization, and the impact of new factors on formation mechanism of the spatial structure of economic activities. The development of Chinese economic geography thought can be sorted into three threads. The first one is the long-lasting records that consist of rich historical documents, from the description of a large number of economic locations and differences of their geographical contexts, to the exploration of the relationship between economic activities and geographical environment. Together with a large number of local chronicles, the idea of man-land relations was hidden in the text. The second thread is the trajectory of travel notes which was developed into modern investigations and observations, providing important means of discovering scientific facts for the study of economic geography. The third thread is the introduction of ideas from other countries including investigation techniques, research methods and thinking logic, which further promotes the development of China's economic geography. The survey on the history of economic geography ideas can provide three enlightenments for further study of economic geography: (1) strengthening the exploration of the relationship between economic activities and the geographical environment; (2) encouraging problem-oriented critical thinking; (3) improving the weaknesses of China's economic geography research, such as the reduction theory and the deductive method.

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    Special regionalization of cryosphere culture service in China
    WANG Shijin, XU Xinwu, DOU Wenkang, QIN Dahe
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (1): 16-34.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202201002
    Abstract1147)   HTML228)    PDF (6610KB)(656)      

    Drawing on the theories and methods of China's cryosphere service regionalization, physical and human geography regionalization, this paper integrates the components of China's cryosphere (glaciers, frozen soil and snow cover) and its social and cultural elements (nationalities, history, settlements, tourism culture and administrative divisions) and puts forward a special regionalization scheme of Chinese cryosphere culture service oriented by "cultural service+cultural industry+economic development" by using the methods of similarity and difference, comprehensiveness and dominance, hierarchy and logic, spatial continuity and administrative boundary. Based on spatial clustering method and the expert judgment, Chinese cryosphere culture divisions can be identified into five regions, namely, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau glacier-frozen soil- snow cover-culture region, northwestern China glacier - snow cover culture region, northeastern China frozen soil- snow cover culture region, northern China snow cover culture region and southern China snow cover culture region. According to the heterogeneity of culture and region, the five regions can be divided into 12 subcategories and 51 basic types. The thematic regionalization scheme is in good agreement with the spatial distribution of the cryosphere and the comprehensive regionalization of physical geography and human geography, which reflects the interdependent relationship between natural elements of the cryosphere and cultural elements of the cryosphere region and the rules of regional spatial heterogeneity. This research can deepen the understanding of China's cryospheric cultural service and their spatial heterogeneity, and provides a scientific basis for the protection, inheritance and promotion of cryospheric culture, as well as the development of cryospheric tourism industry, and the operation and management of related industries in different regions.

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    A discussion on some issues of hydro-geographical research
    LIU Changming, LIU Xuan, YANG Yafeng, WANG Hongrui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (1): 3-15.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202201001
    Abstract1060)   HTML148)    PDF (1512KB)(669)      

    Water-related issues have long been one of the most important topics in China, and these issues are related to a series of major national requirements, including social stability, people's livelihood and welfare, and economic development. Hydro-geography is an interdisciplinary subject of hydrology and geography that adopts the principles, perspective and methodologies of geography. The theory of the terrestrial surface system has an important enlightening effect on the systematic research of hydro-geography. First, this study discusses the cross-relationship and research content in hydro-geography, as well as the rise of research on global water systems and the ecohydrology. After summarizing the main advocates of terrestrial surface system theory and their viewpoints, this study explores the relationship between the comprehensive and regional aspects of geographic research, while proposing that the "three characteristics" (i.e., comprehensive, regional and orderly characteristics of processes) should be the research thought for hydro-geographical system. Furthermore, based on the expansion of the basic theories of the subject, this study presents several cases of systems science and technology that can deepen the spatiotemporal dynamic process mechanism (orderliness) of hydro-geography. Finally, several key development and research directions of hydro-geographic research in China are discussed, mainly including: research on the impact of climate change and impacts of human activities on the water cycle process; research on the dynamic evolution mechanism of the four major balances in ecohydrology; research on renewability of water resources; the process of evapotranspiration of plants (crops) and water-saving control; hydro-geographic zoning, mapping technology and intelligence technology applications.

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    A preliminary study of the strata and age of ancient agricultural terraces in the Ganjia Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau
    ZHANG Chenbin, WU Duo, CHEN Xuemei, YUAN Zijie, CHEN Fahu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (1): 66-78.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202201005
    Abstract1044)   HTML53)    PDF (3276KB)(398)      

    Agricultural terraces are a manifestation of man's ability to transform nature during the past thousands of years, and they have played an important role in the development of human society. The Ganjia Basin in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, is located in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. A large area of banded landscape is distributed on the hills and piedmonts in the Ganjia Basin, which is claimed to be composed of large-scale abandoned ancient terraces. Based on fieldwork, satellite remote sensing data and GIS analysis in the present study, we found that the ancient terraces cover an area of 42.2 km2 and are mainly distributed on slopes between 2936 and 3326 m a.m.s.l. (meters above mean sea level) on both sides of the Yangqu River and its tributaries in the basin. Additionally, we analyzed various environmental proxies, including magnetic susceptibility (MS), grain size, the contents of total organic carbon (nitrogen) (TOC, TN), and palynological assemblages, from three representative sections of ancient agricultural terraces (GJAT-1, GJAT-1, and GJAT-3), and compared them with the MS values and clay content of a natural profile with accurate chronological control in the Ganjia Basin. The results indicate that the terraces are reclaimed paleosols dating to the Late Holocene (3000 kyr BP), and that the homogeneous MS values of the top 25-35 cm of the terrace profiles differ from those of the natural soil section, which confirms the existence of a cultivation layer in the terraces. However, the increases in the contents of TOC and TN above the cultivated layer, and the fact that the trend of MS in the terrace profile is broadly in line with the natural profile, indicate that the terraces were only used for a short interval and have been abandoned for a relatively long time. Combined with historical documentary evidence, we infer that the ancient Xiahe agricultural terraces were constructed as a result of the "Gongjianshou (bowman) militia farming" policy during the Northern Song China (1074-1125 CE). Climate reconstructions for the Northern Hemisphere and northern China demonstrate that the temperature was higher and that the precipitation increased during this interval, providing a favorable environment for agricultural production. Overall, our results provide a typical example of societal adaptation to climate change in the past.

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    Spatial variation of migrant population's housing quality and its determinants in China's prefecture-level cities
    WANG Yufan, CHAI Kangni, ZHUO Yunxia, FENG Changchun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 2944-2963.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112006
    Abstract1018)   HTML160)    PDF (3765KB)(739)      

    Based on data from the 1% National Population Sample Survey 2015 and the 2014 China Migrant Population Dynamic Survey (CMDS), the paper selects four indicators to measure housing quality of the migrant population including floor area, housing facilities, construction period and living communities (urban or rural) and discusses the phenomenon about spatial differentiation of migrant populations' housing quality in 310 prefecture- and provincial-level cities in China, using GIS spatial analysis methods such as Moran's I coefficient and Getis-Ord Gi*. Besides, we investigate the influencing factors of migrant populations' housing quality. Some conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) Compared with the local residents, the housing quality of the migrants is not that worse. (2) The spatial distribution of housing quality of migrant population presents marked spatial differentiation on cities of different levels and scales, population sizes and geographical divisions. (3) The results of spatial autocorrelation analysis demonstrate that there is a significant positive spatial correlation in the indicators of the migrant population's housing quality on a national scale, and identify the phenomenon of their spatial clustering and the centers of such spatial clustering. (4) The housing quality is influenced by both internal factors of migrant population and external factors of in-flow cities. (5) Population, economic development and the housing market play different roles in the housing quality of migrant population.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution of migration in China from 1995 to 2015
    KE Wenqian, ZHU Yu, CHEN Chen, Guy J. ABEL, LIN Liyue, LIN Jie
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 411-425.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202010
    Abstract1003)   HTML57)    PDF (4472KB)(434)      

    Based on the data of usual residence from 2000 and 2010 censuses and 1995 and 2015 micro-censuses and using the method proposed by Abel G. J., this paper estimates the O-D migration flows among prefectural-level administrative units in China for the period 1995-2015. By using the indicators of migration flows and migration rates, and the methods of GIS spatial analysis and community detection in social network analysis, it further reveals the characteristics of spatio-temporal evolution of migration in China since 1995. The results can be summarized as follows. (1) The scale and intensity of migration in China have been increasing, while their differences among regions have been gradually decreasing. This suggests that migration has experienced a gradual transformation from a "low-activity era" including a limited number of regions to a "high-activity era" involving the majority of regions. (2) Six regional types of migration among prefectural-level administrative units, namely, large-scale active net in-migration, small-scale net in-migration, large-scale active net out-migration, small-scale active net out-migration, active balanced migration and inactive migration, are identified. The spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the regional types of migration in China indicate that each active migration regional type has been undergoing a change of continuous diffusion, while the inactive migration regional type has seen a significant reduction over time. (3) The spatial patterns of migration are quite different between regions on both sides of "Hu Line", manifested in the fact that the scale and intensity of migration flows on the southeastern side of the line is higher than that on the northwestern side, which means that the "Hu Line" is quite stable and robust in the last 20 years. (4) Patterns of migration flows indicate that while intra-provincial migration has continuously strengthened, inter-provincial migration has exhibited more complicated spatial patterns, mainly reflected in different changing trends of attractiveness to migrants among the three coastal city clusters, and the increasing migration flows within southwest China. As a result of combined effects of inter- and intra-provincial migration flows, the structure of migration flows in China's eastern, central and western regions has been undergoing changes, resulting in the internal differentiation of urban agglomerations and the declining spatial scope under their influence in the coastal areas, Hubei as the single independent "city community" in central China, as well as the relative stability in northwest China and continuous change in southwest China.

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    An understanding of academic atmosphere and innovative culture
    LU Dadao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (6): 1291-1298.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202206001
    Abstract953)   HTML39)    PDF (1084KB)(202)      

    The author describes his understanding of current academic atmosphere and innovative culture in the field of geographical sciences based on his observation from five perspectives. The key points can be illustrated as follows: (1) According to geographical methodology, the theories, concepts, judgments of geography are based on observation, analysis and conclusion regarding the spatial characteristics and variation of a substance that objectively exists on the earth surface. (2) In light of issues concerning specific cases, this paper highlights the importance of "be well-grounded and speak up moderately" to the knowledge accumulation and application of the researchers. (3) The study comes up with some comments on "what is scientific innovation" and "how to achieve scientific innovation". (4) In the academic practice, we should correctly handle the relationship between individuals and their research teams. (5) Science research should adopt and support the consulting to the government departments concerned.

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    Spatial and temporal patterns and factors influencing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in China
    WANG Boyun, LIU Tianyu, LI Luning, LI Qiang, JIA Pengfei, CHEN Jin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 443-456.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202012
    Abstract952)   HTML63)    PDF (1781KB)(292)      

    It is essential to unravel the spatial and temporal patterns of the spread of the epidemic in China during the backdrop of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in 2020, as the underlying drivers are crucial for scientific formulation of epidemy-preventing strategies. A discriminant model for the spatio-temporal pattern of epidemic spread was developed for 317 prefecture-level cities using accumulated data on confirmed cases. The model was introduced for the real-time evolution of the outbreak starting from the rapid spread of COVID-19 on January 24, 2020, until the control on March 18, 2020. The model was used to analyze the basic characteristics of the spatio-temporal patterns of the epidemic spread by combining parameters such as peak position, full width at half maximum, kurtosis, and skewness. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to unravel the key drivers of the spatio-temporal patterns based on traffic accessibility, urban connectivity, and population flow. The results of the study are as follows. (1) The straight-line distance of 588 km from Wuhan was used as the effective boundary to identify the four spatial patterns of epidemic spread, and 13 types of spatio-temporal patterns were obtained by combining the time-course categories of the same spatial pattern. (2) The spread of the epidemic was relatively severe in the leapfrogging model. Besides the short-distance leapfrogging model, significant differences emerged in the spatial patterns of the time course of epidemic spread. The peaks of the new confirmed cases in various spatio-temporal patterns were mostly observed on February 3, 2020. The average full widths at the half maximum of all ordinary cities were approximately 14 days, thus, resonating with the incubation period of the COVID-19 virus. (3) The degree of the population correlation with Wuhan city has mainly influenced the spreading and the short-distance leapfrogging spatial patterns. The existence of direct flight from Wuhan city exhibited a positive effect on the long-distance leapfrogging spatial pattern. The number of population outflows has significantly affected the leapfrogging spatial pattern. The integrated spatial pattern was influenced by both primary and secondary epidemic outbreak sites. Thus, cities should pay great attention to traffic control during the epidemic as analysis has shown that the spatio-temporal patterns of epidemic spread in the respective cities can curb the spread of the epidemic from key links.

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    Characteristics and influencing factors of the key villages of rural tourism in China
    WANG Xiuwei, LI Xiaojun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 900-917.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204009
    Abstract936)   HTML67)    PDF (5352KB)(439)      

    The key villages of rural tourism are typical demonstrations for promoting the high-quality development of rural tourism, which are of great significance for optimizing rural tourism supply and leading rural tourism development. The article analyzes the spatial distribution pattern and structural characteristics of 1000 key villages of rural tourism nationwide by using Nearest Neighbor Index and Kernel Density Estimation. The study further reveals spatial differentiation of the key villages of rural tourism. The main factors affecting spatial distribution of the key villages of rural tourism are analyzed by using Multiple Linear Regression, Vector Buffer Analysis and Geographic Detectors. The conclusions can be drawn as follows. Firstly, there are more key villages of rural tourism in the eastern region than in the western region of China. The inter-provincial spatial density stratification feature is obvious and the spatial distribution pattern of double core-ring core cluster-ribbon zone is unique. Secondly, the spatial distribution of key villages of rural tourism has significant positive spatial correlation. The key villages of rural tourism are spatially dispersed in cold spots and concentrated in hot spots. Thirdly, kernel density estimation shows that villages of agricultural production type have high spatial distribution density, while the others have low density. Fourthly, the spatial distribution pattern is the result of five factors: natural ecology, social economy, transportation facilities, scenic resources and policy environment. Gross domestic product per capita and household consumption expenditure have a significant positive impact, while the distance from the tourist market and the distance from transportation access are negative influencing factors. Fifthly, the driving factors for the spatial distribution of various types of villages are different and closely related to the village resource endowment and development characteristics.

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    Spatio-temporal change of global land cover and China's contribution
    LI Guangdong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (2): 353-368.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202202006
    Abstract925)   HTML76)    PDF (7944KB)(462)      

    In recent decades, the global land cover has undergone drastic changes, and the impact of human activities on land cover change has become one of the most significant features of the "Anthropocene". The core tasks of coping with global "unprecedented changes in a hundred years" for China in the field of sustainable development is to scientifically assess the spatio-temporal process and new trends of global land cover change, analyze China's role and status in it, and propose optimal paths. We used geospatial analysis method and multi-source land cover data to explore the spatio-temporal process of global land cover change, analyze the transformation relationship between land types and the change trend of global "greening" and forest cover, and reveal the new characteristics and trends of land cover change in China. The results showed that the global land cover experienced significant changes from 1992 to 2015, and several hot spots formed, including central South America, sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia. China's forest coverage rate increased from 12.98% in 1990 to 23.34% in 2020, and the wetland area increased by 1908 km2, which contributed to the maintenance of global ecological security. The interactive conversion between cultivated land and forest is the most important land cover conversion relationship in the world. In terms of cultivated land occupied by urban land, China ranks first in the world, with an area of 73000 km2. The global leaf area index presented a global trend of significant increase from 1999 to 2019. With only 6.6% of the world's vegetation area, China contributed about 20% of the global increase in leaf area index and dominated the global "greening" process. The change of global forest coverage presents remarkably spatial agglomeration. China's forest area increased by 62.8376 million hectares (1990-2020), leading the world in forest restoration. The southwest China forest region and the Qinling-Daba mountains are the main areas of forest growth, and the Yangtze River Delta, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and parts of eastern Inner Mongolia are the main areas of deforestation. In the future, China should further enhance the balance and coordination between socioeconomic development and ecological protection, continue to promote the building of a beautiful China, and contribute more strengths and experiences to global ecological security and sustainable development.

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    The logic of rural spatial governance and revitalization
    GE Dazhuan, LU Yuqi, SUN Pan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 777-794.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204002
    Abstract913)   HTML50)    PDF (2252KB)(367)      

    The rural vitalization in the new era and space development and utilization are closely related. It is meaningful to construct a theoretical system and practical path of rural vitalization based on rural spatial governance. Based on the deconstruction framework of "demand→effect→path→strategy", this paper discusses the internal logic relationship between rural vitalization and spatial governance. The results show the following: (1) The reconstruction of rural value is the key to ensure the realization of rural vitalization; rural spatial governance can be a good way to realize the rights allocation and effective control of rural space; rural spatial governance includes material spatial governance, organization spatial governance, and ownership spatial governance; through spatial governance, the structure and function of physical space can be reconstructed, the organization relationship can be reorganized, and the value distribution can be reshaped. (2) The effect of spatial governance on rural vitalization is presented from the optimization of the urban-rural interaction, as well as the stimulation and strengthening of rural endogenous power, and the capabilities of grassroots organizations. (3) Rural spatial governance is an effective path to implement rural vitalization by promoting the urban-rural integration development, activating rural endogenous development, and ensuring the organizations mechanism. (4) The rural spatial governance system combines "top-down" and "bottom-up" forms to implement rational allocation of spatial development power. The channels, capabilities, and effects of multiple subjects participating in spatial governance will promote the realization of space development and the establishment of a system with equitable rights and interests. The "right-sharing" spatial governance can implement the rural revitalization strategy in urban-rural sharing, subject and regional sharing. In summary, the research will provide references for improving the scientific system of rural spatial governance and implementing the rural revitalization strategy.

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    Spatial distribution of rural building in China: Remote sensing interpretation and density analysis
    LI Xun, XU Weipan, HUANG Yaofu, CHEN Haohui, QIN Xiaozhen, LI Ying, DENG Mingliang, JIANG Junhao, QIN Yawen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (4): 835-851.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202204005
    Abstract892)   HTML59)    PDF (7852KB)(254)      

    The research on the distribution of rural buildings is one of the essential works of rural revitalization in China. Adopting Mask R-CNN deep learning framework and collecting sub-meter remote sensing image, this research successfully trains remote sensing interpretation models suitable for local rural buildings based on the human geographical characteristics in each province. A multi-scale database of Chinese rural building based on single rural building has been created, including 154 million agricultural houses in 1484 counties with a total construction area of 29.82 billion square meters. Based on the database, this paper analyzes the distribution characteristics of rural buildings at the county, town and settlement scales. At the county scale, the density of rural buildings showed a distribution pattern of 'dense in the east and sparse in the west', consistent with the population distribution pattern revealed by Hu Huanyong Line. At the town scale, the density of rural buildings increases from west to east with the descent of three terrain steps, and the spatial distribution tends to be balanced, corresponding to the agricultural productivities and topography in the agricultural zones. At the settlement scale, the distribution of rural buildings shows the pattern of 'dense in the south and sparse in the north', consistent to the climate condition, topography and arable land per capita. The construction of China's rural building spatial database could lay a solid foundation for the "computational" rural research in the future.

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    Review of the research progress in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region since 1980
    FAN Jie, LIAN Yanan, ZHAO Hao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2022, 77 (6): 1299-1319.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202206002
    Abstract853)   HTML61)    PDF (3182KB)(293)      

    In the past four decades, due to different research contents and spatial governance priorities, the names and scopes of regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan, Bohai Rim and Greater Bohai Sea have changed many times. As the earliest humanities and economic geography research in China, its object area has attracted more and more attention such as disciplines of economic trade, ecological environment, and urban and rural planning. Based on the academic papers, monographs, and influential scientific research projects, this article reviews the research progress of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in the past 40 years. The progress has experienced a change process of "Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan - Bohai Rim region - Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei". There are four recognizable phases in the research development to date. In the 1980s, economic geography mainly focused on land planning in the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, which was relatively limited in scale. In the 1990s, the research area was expanded to the Bohai Rim region, and the intersection of economic and trade science and geography was carried out in the process of economic integration in the eastern (northern) sub-regions. In the first decade of the 21st century, the research field turned to the integration of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, ecological environment science and urban planning science with large-scale intervention. In the 2010s, we started multidisciplinary regional comprehensive research on the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. During this period, the Chinese government carried out a series of major plans in the region, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Land Planning in the 1980s, the Bohai Rim Economic Cooperation Zone in the 1990s, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Metropolitan Region in the 2000s, and the Guidelines for the Coordinated Development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in the 2010s. These major plans have formed a benign interactive relationship with regional research. This interactive relationship not only significantly enhances the scientific nature of regional planning and strategic decision-making, but also effectively promotes the development of humanities and economic geography, and it has also enhanced the research on the evolutionary laws of regional complex systems under the strong interaction between human and nature.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of total factor productivity in China's manufacturing industry
    WANG Zeyu, WANG Yanxi, ZHAO Li, ZHAO Lu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (12): 3061-3075.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202112013
    Abstract820)   HTML30)    PDF (4107KB)(323)      

    Improving total factor productivity (TFP) in the manufacturing industry is essential to implementing China's manufacturing power strategy. In this study, we employed the super-efficiency SBM model, standard deviational ellipse, spatial autocorrelation, and the geographic weighted regression (GWR) to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of TFP in China's manufacturing industry from 2002 to 2016. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) During the study period, the overall trend of TFP in China's manufacturing industry showed an upward tendency of fluctuation, with an increase from 0.58 in 2002 to 0.80 in 2016. (2) The center of the gravity of TFP in China's manufacturing industry showed a "southwest-northeast-northwest" spatial evolution pattern, with its moving distance and speed gradually shrinking. The standard deviation ellipse was mainly located in central and eastern China with its distribution pattern shifting from northeast-southwest to true north-south while tending to scatter in the northeast-southwest direction and polarized in the southeast-northwest direction. The turning angle showed a trend of "shrinking-increasing-shrinking". (3) The positive spatial correlation of TFP in China's manufacturing industry gradually weakened during the study period. High-high agglomeration areas were mainly concentrated in coastal provinces and cities of eastern China such as Jiangsu and Shanghai, while low-low agglomeration areas were mainly in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Sichuan. (4) There are obvious spatial heterogeneities in the factors influencing the TFP of China's manufacturing industry. Financial development is the leading factor in the improvement of manufacturing TFP. Opening-up, industrial agglomeration, and transportation infrastructure have a positive effect on the TFP in the manufacturing industry, while the level of informatization has a restraining influence.

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