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    Bole-Taipei Line: The important function and basic conception as a line for regional balanced development
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 211-225.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002001
    Abstract2881)   HTML89)    PDF (4532KB)(536)      

    Promoting regional coordinated development strategy is one of the most important strategies in the new period of China. Faced with the reality of unbalanced and insufficient regional development in China, it is objectively necessary to construct one or more main axes supporting the coordinated and balanced development of regions to become the identification line representing the pattern of coordinated regional development. The results show that the Bo-Tai line, the northwest-southeast axis connecting Bole of Xinjiang and Taipei of Taiwan, can be built into a national development backbone line and regional balanced development line, just perpendicular to the Hu Line. In 2016, the area of southwest half and northeast half of Bo-Tai Line accounts for 59:41, while the population accounts for 45:55, the economic aggregate accounts for 40:60, the per capita GDP ratio accounts for 44:56, the population density ratio accounts for 38:62, the economic density ratio accounts for 32:68, and the urbanization level ratio accounts for 48:52. The main average indicators gradually tend to present a balanced development pattern. Further analysis shows that Bo-Tai Line is a strategic shoulder pole connecting two core zones of the Belt and Road, and is the peaceful reunification line of China's national tranquility and Taiwan's return. The Bo-Tai Line is also a solid line supported and connected by comprehensive transportation channels and a Pipa type symmetrical line for the development of cities and urban agglomerations. It is the backbone of the two-way opening up and the linkage development line between land and sea. It is also an important dividing line that promotes the coordinated development of the eastern, central and western regions, and addresses the imbalance and inadequacy of regional development. The Bo-Tai Line plays an irreplaceable strategic role in promoting the coordinated and balanced regional development. It is suggested that the construction of Bo-Tai Line should be included in the national development strategy, and the development strategic plan of Bo-Tai Line should be formulated to fully release the multiple potential functions. We should build three strategic support points (the northwest endpoint, the central strategic node and the southeast endpoint), carry out a comprehensive scientific investigation of the Bo-Tai Line, and strengthen the scientific cognition and publicity, and promote China's development in a higher-level, higher-quality, more coordinated, safer and more civilized direction. And we should make the Bo-Tai Line known to China and the world, and let the Bo-Tai Line truly become the backbone of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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    Development of aeolian geomorphology in China in the past 70 years
    DONG Zhibao, LYU Ping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 509-528.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003006
    Abstract1710)   HTML276)    PDF (1256KB)(557)      

    Wind is the second largest fluid shaping the earth's landscape besides water. The aeolian landform formed by wind is widely distributed in the global arid regions, and more than 40% of the land area is affected by the aeolian process in the world. Owing to a close relationship with the human's living environment, aeolian geomorphology has received continuous attention from the international academia since the end of the 19th century. Although aeolian landforms are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of China, the relevant study started in the late 1950s. This paper summarizes the development of aeolian geomorphology during the past 70 years in China, which has experienced three stages: the initial stage before reform and opening-up; the development stage between the reform and opening-up to the end of the 20th century; and international stage since the beginning of the 21st century, even partially beyond the international standard nowadays. There are many influential achievements in China, including dunes movement, regional comprehensive study on aeolian landforms, formation and evolution process of unique aeolian landforms, Gobi, the secondary flow around dunes and the exploration of extraterrestrial planets. Aeolian research in China has the potential to lead the international aeolian research in the future, but the aeolian geomorphologists must have following strategic thinking on meta-synthesis, the guidance of the earth system science, the global view and development of the outer space era.

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    Measure and distribution of urban elderly in poverty: An empirical study in Beijing
    GAO Xiaolu, WU Danxian, YAN Bingqiu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (8): 1557-1571.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008001
    Abstract1649)   HTML79)    PDF (1994KB)(426)      

    Poverty among older people in urban areas is growing along with population ageing and urbanization in China, but the absence of proper indices and method to measure urban elderly poverty brings difficulty to the understanding of the spatial pattern of elderly poverty in cities and policy making in poverty reduction. It is necessary to consider the association of elderly poverty with education, health, family relationship and social support levels of older people and set poverty cutoff more appropriately. With a factor analysis method, we develop a resource-based poverty index to identify poor older residents on the basis of survey data in eight typical residential communities in Beijing. Then, the elderly poverty rates for different residential communities are estimated and the spatial patterns of urban elderly poverty are investigated. It is found that, (1) resource, health, independence and age factors interpret the variation of older residents, among which the score of resource factor constitutes an appropriate indicator of urban elderly poverty. (2) Elderly poverty rate differs significantly for different types of residential communities. With the spatial distribution data of various communities being considered, the poverty rate of elderly population in Beijing is estimated to be 9.55%. (3) The elderly poverty rate of town centers away from the central city is the highest and the poverty rate drops down from the outer to inner areas of the central city gradually. The density of the elderly in poverty, on the other hand, goes to the highest in town centers and the inner city areas, followed by outer central city and the fringe of the central city. These results provide evidences for the formulation of urban policies against elderly poverty in the city.

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    Progress of applied research of physical geography and living environment in China from 1949 to 2019
    CHEN Fahu, WU Shaohong, CUI Peng, CAI Yunlong, ZHANG Yili, YIN Yunhe, LIU Guobin, OUYANG Zhu, MA Wei, YANG Linsheng, WU Duo, LEI Jiaqiang, ZHANG Guoyou, ZOU Xueyong, CHEN Xiaoqing, TAN Minghong, WANG Xunming, BAO Anming, CHENG Weixin, DANG Xiaohu, WEI Binggan, WANG Guoliang, WANG Wuyi, ZHANG Xingquan, LIU Xiaochen, LI Shengyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (9): 1799-1830.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202009001
    Abstract1409)   HTML53)    PDF (3064KB)(434)      

    Physical geography is a basic discipline of natural science. Since its research object is the natural environment, it is closely related to human survival and development. China's natural environment is complex and diverse; therefore, according to national demand and regional development needs, physical geographers have also made remarkable achievements in applied foundation and application, making important contributions to the planning of national major economic construction and social development, protection of macro-ecosystem and resources and environment, and regional sustainable development. This paper summarizes the practice and application of physical geography in China in the last 70 years (1949-2019), differences between the natural environment and natural zoning, land use/cover change, natural disasters and risk prevention and control, the process of desertification and its administration, lower-yield field transformation of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, engineering construction of permafrost areas, geochemical element abnormity and endemic disease prevention and control, positioning observation of natural geographical factors, geographical spatial heterogeneity identification, and geographical detector. Finally, it proposes the future application research directions of physical geography.

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    Relief degree of land surface and its geographical meanings in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China
    FENG Zhiming, LI Wenjun, LI Peng, XIAO Chiwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1359-1372.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007003
    Abstract1392)   HTML76)    PDF (4161KB)(621)      

    Relief degree of land surface (RDLS) is one of the key indicators in the fields of suitability assessment of human settlements (SAHS) as well as resources and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) evaluation at the regional scale. Currently, there is still a lack of in-depth research on the determination of the optimal window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation and its correlation analysis with two topographical parameters, e.g., elevation and relative height difference. These issues further affect the effective representation of the RDLS in the delineation of local to regional topographic relief. Therefore, an objective understanding of the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China greatly contributes to promoting the construction of national ecological security barrier and regional green development. In this study, based on the 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM Version 2), the optimal window size for calculating and evaluating the RDLS in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was accurately determined using the average change-point method, and the first 30 m RDLS thematic map for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was generated accordingly. Next, the interrelation between the RDLS and elevation and relative height difference was quantitatively examined. Based on that, the effective representation or geographical meanings of the RDLS in the plateau were defined. The results/conclusions include: (1) The optimum window size for the RDLS calculation and evaluation in the study area based on the 30 m GDEM is a rectangular neighborhood of 41×41 pixels, equaling to an area of about 1.51 km2. The average change-point analysis approach shows that the optimum window size for regional RDLS analysis is unique. (2) The average RDLS of the study area is approximately 5.06, along with over 60% of the plateau ranging between 4.5 and 5.7. On the whole, the topographic relief increases from the northeast to the southwest and west parts. Gentle to small-relief landforms are mostly seen in the Qaidam Basin, the Southern Tibet Valley, and the Hehuang Valley (Yellow and Huangshui river valleys). Also, the differences in the local surface relief in varied latitudinal sections (along the mountain range) are small, while those at longitudinal level are big, showing hierarchical and regular fluctuations (crossing the mountain trending). (3) Correlation analyses showed that different values of the RDLS in the plateau correspond to geomorphic units with different elevations and relative height differences. The profile characteristics of the mountains in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on different terrain reliefs indicate that the height above sea level of low mountains steadily increases first, then experiences sudden rise and severe fluctuation in surface relief, and finally forms the orderly ups and downs of the extreme mountains, e.g., the Himalayas.

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    Modern agricultural geographical engineering and agricultural high-quality development: Case study of loess hilly and gully region
    LIU Yansui, FENG Weilun, LI Yurui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (10): 2029-2046.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202010001
    Abstract1379)   HTML36)    PDF (6060KB)(260)      

    Agricultural geography is the interdisciplinary subject of agricultural science and geographical science, and agricultural geographical engineering is the further deepening and systematic application of the interdisciplinary research of geography and engineering in the field of modern agriculture and rural revitalization, and it is an important material basis to ensure the agricultural high-quality development. With the innovative development of modern agricultural science and technology and human-earth system science, the scientific and technological needs of regional agricultural infrastructure are increasingly strong, and agricultural geographical engineering experiments have become an important task of agricultural engineering technology research and farmland system management. This article expounds the scientific connotation, experimental principles and technical methods of agricultural geographical engineering, and takes the loess hilly and gully region as an example to carry out the experimental research on geographical engineering and discussed the countermeasures for high-quality agricultural development. Results show that: (1) Agricultural geographical engineering experiments mainly include soil and water allocation, soil layer composition, field experiment, ecological protection, geospatial analysis and monitoring for specific regional geographical environment and agricultural development issues, aiming to explore coupling law of resource elements for regional high-standard farmland construction and healthy agricultural ecosystem construction, and establish a sustainable land use system and multifunctional agricultural management model. (2) Agro-ecosystem experiments mainly includes trench slope protection methods, healthy farmland system structure, crop-soil matching relationship, economic analysis of farmland input and output, which aimed to reveals the coupling mechanism and optimal control approach of "crop-soil relationship" by carrying out interactive experiments and field trials for land improvement and crop optimization. (3) Optimization and regulation of crop-soil relationship is the main content of engineering experiment design, which includes six stages: climate-crop optimization, soil-body structure improvement, terrain-crop optimization, soil quality improvement, soil-crop optimization and benefit-crop optimization. (4) The core tasks of the application of agricultural geoengineering technology are to deepen the comprehensive research, reveal the micro-coupling mechanism and establish the engineering test paradigm, and its application path is mainly reflected in three dimensions of time, space, and logic. The geographical engineering experiment of modern agriculture and its application in the new era are conducive to enriching the frontier theories and methodology of agricultural geography, and are of great significance to the advancement of geographical engineering research and the decision-making of agricultural and rural high-quality development.

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    Regional differentiation of population in Tibetan Plateau: Insight from the "Hu Line"
    QI Wei, LIU Shenghe, ZHOU Liang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 255-267.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002004
    Abstract1379)   HTML76)    PDF (3571KB)(459)      

    The Tibetan Plateau is regarded as a typically sparsely populated area both from Chinese and global perspectives. There exists a large difference in population distribution of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on the town-level census data in 2010, we compiled a spatial population database to calculate the population density of the Tibetan Plateau. We found that the population distribution on this plateau was characterized in four dimensions, namely longitude, latitude, polarization and altitude. In addition, similar to the "Hu Line" for Chinese population distribution, we introduce the "Qilian-Gyirong Line" (short for Qi-Ji Line), a spatial division line of population geography in the Tibetan Plateau. Our main results are summarized as follows. (1) There are significant regional differences in the spatial population distribution in the Tibetan Plateau. The population density in the southeast was higher than that in the northwest. Compared to longitude-oriented, latitude-oriented and altitude-oriented regional differences, the polarization-oriented regional difference of population distribution was more prominent. This finding indicates that fewer people live in areas close to the cold-arid core of the Tibetan Plateau. (2) The spatial population distribution is closely related to the natural and environmental factors, including altitude, soil, water resources, climate and vegetation. The interaction between the natural factors has an impact on enhancing the regional difference of population. (3) The "Qiji Line" reveals the spatial differences of population in the Tibetan Plateau. The areas on either side of the line are approximately similar, whereas the population shares in the southeast and northwest halves are 93% and 7%, respectively. (4) In general, the population differences on both sides of the "Qiji Line" were stable over time. During 1982-2010 the population share in the southeast half decreased counterbalanced by an increased share in the northeast half. In the future, the majority of the people are expected to live on the southeast side. This is likely to imply two major policy initiatives. More attention is required on the urbanization development and transportation network construction in the southeast half and the increasing eco-environmental pressures from the growing population in the northwest half.

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    The relationship between urban spatial growth and population density change
    ZHAO Rui, JIAO Limin, XU Gang, XU Zhibang, DONG Ting
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 695-707.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004003
    Abstract1348)   HTML58)    PDF (4990KB)(535)      

    Exploring the relationship between urban spatial growth and population density change is the basis of urban sustainable development research, which is of great significance for formulating effective land policies to promote urban compact development. The research selected 23 cities with a population of more than 1 million in China and Europe as the study areas. Based on the land use and population data in the study areas in 1990, 2000, and 2014, the research calculated the growth rate of sample urban space during each period, and the urban compactness index was then established to divide the urban spatial growth mode into compact type, maintenance type and spread type. The characteristics of spatial growth, population density change, and their relationship were further discussed. The results are as follows: (1) Population density decline is widespread in cities of China and Europe. Population density in cities of China is relatively high, and the rate of decline is fast, whereas population density in cities of Europe is relatively low and the rate of decline is slow. From 1990 to 2014, the growth rate of urban spatial radius in China was significantly higher than that in Europe. There is a strong negative correlation between the growth rate of urban space and the change rate of population density (with a Pearson's r of -0.693). (2) From 1990 to 2000, most of the sample cities' spatial growth mode were compact. From 2000 to 2014, most Chinese cities' spatial growth mode transformed into spread type and rate of population density decline increased. By contrast, European cities' spatial growth mode maintained to be compact or transformed into maintenance, and the rate of population density decline decreased. (3) Compact spatial growth does not necessarily lead to an increase in population density, but it tends to lower the rate of population density decline, relative to spread spatial growth. The comparative analysis of Chinese and European cities shows that if cities maintain a compact spatial growth mode, the rate of population density will be lowered. If cities' spatial growth mode transforms from compact to spread, it will intensify the decline of urban population density over time.

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    Progress of ecohydrological discipline and its future development in China
    XIA Jun, ZHANG Yongyong, MU Xingmin, ZUO Qiting, ZHOU Yujian, ZHAO Guangju
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 445-457.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003001
    Abstract1281)   HTML234)    PDF (2758KB)(623)      

    Ecohydrology is a key discipline developed in recent decades, which can give aid in the protection and restoration of complex ecological systems (e.g., mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake), ultimately promoting the ecological civilization construction and the green development of China. In this paper, the progress and existing challenges of ecohydrological discipline are elaborated, and the future development directions are proposed according to the international scientific frontiers and national demands on ecological civilization construction. The main directions are to develop new ecohydrological monitoring methods and improve comprehensive observation network of ecohydrological systems; to perfect the ecohydrological mechanisms and their basic theories; to promote the integrations of multi-scales and multi-elements by considering both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; to promote the multidisciplinary integrations between ecohydrology and social sciences. Furthermore, specific future research interests in China are proposed as follows: multi-source information fusion and comprehensive monitoring system construction, spatio-temporal patterns of key ecohydrological elements and their variation characteristics; integrated models of ecological, hydrological and economic processes and their uncertainty estimation; interdisciplinary studies including physical and social sciences. The application prospective in China is further explicated in a variety of ecosystems (e.g., forest, grassland, river and lake, wetland, farmland and urban area). This paper is expected to provide a reference to support the development strategy of the ecohydrological discipline in China, and to give a theoretical foundation and technical support for the implementation of national ecological civilization construction.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Spatial variation of the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention
    GU Hengyu, MENG Xin, SHEN Tiyan, CUI Nana
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 240-254.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002003
    Abstract1279)   HTML70)    PDF (2982KB)(536)      

    It is demonstrated that the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention are different among geographic units, which seems to be ignored by previous researches. Based on the data from the 2015 national migrant population dynamic monitoring survey (CMDS) and related statistics, this article uses the Semiparametric Geographically Weighted Regression (SGWR) model and k-means cluster method to examine the spatial variation of the factors influencing floating population's settlement intention in 282 prefecture- and provincial- level cites of China. Results provide the following conclusions. (1) The settlement intention of urban floating population is mainly influenced by the floating population characteristics instead of the destination characteristics. (2) Social and economic factors are closely related to the floating population's settlement intention. Meanwhile, the demographic, family and mobility factors exert a significant impact on such an intention. To be specific, there exists an inhibitory effect on floating population's settlement intention in factors such as income, marriage, and cross provincial mobility. However, housing expenditure, participation rate, number of children and other factors can effectively contribute to such intention. (3) Zonal spatial differentiation patterns of the influencing factors' coefficients are illustrated by the SGWR model, which can be further divided into four categories ("E-W", "N-S", "NE-SW" and "SE-NW"): The positive influences of ethnic and family factors are decreasing from the northern to southern regions, while the influence of employment ratio in the secondary industry is declining from the northwest to the southeast regions, and the impacts of factors such as the number of children and per capita GDP are diminishing from the northeast to the southwest regions. In eastern developed areas, the settlement intention of floating population with higher income is comparatively lower, while migrants with higher housing expenditure in southern China have a stronger intention to settle down. (4) Four influencing zones are detected by the k-means method: Floating population's settlement intention in North China, Central China and East China is significantly affected by multiple factors; In the northwest region and part of the southwest region, migrants' settlement intention is mainly influenced by demographic and social factors; The northeast region and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia's floating population's willingness to stay is mainly related to economic and family factors; Apart from housing expenditure, coefficients of other factors are relatively small in southern China and part of the central, eastern and southwestern regions. Additionally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the service and management of the floating population in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Research progress and prospect on development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, JIN Gui, HE Shujin, WANG Chengxin, LI Zhaohua, WANG Zhanqi, SONG Malin, YANG Qingyuan, ZHANG Anlu, CHEN Jiancheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 226-239.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002002
    Abstract1216)   HTML46)    PDF (1353KB)(422)      

    In this paper, we review and sort out research progress on development geography since the 20th century, involving its connotation and theory, fields and methods, and development trends in this paper. Specifically, we systematically reviewed the research and application of development geography in the fields such as in the convergence of underdeveloped countries or regions, the convergence in the process of improving the quality of life in developed countries or regions. Then, in line with the analysis of the research progress on development geography in foreign countries, we indicate the development conditions and disciplinary advantages of development geography in China. Further, we pointed that future development geography research in China should focus more on the latest international academic frontier research and national macro-strategic needs. The future research of development geography should be guided by the theory of sustainable development, with the core of improving the sustainable livelihood capacity and regional green development level in underdeveloped areas, and aiming at constructing industrial policy and development geography theory and interdisciplinary integrated research system, and focusing on research on the spatial pattern, diffusion characteristics and convergence mechanism of regional development, to explore the regulatory policies and scientific paths that serve regional economic construction and industrial development.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Geographical missions and coupling ways between human and nature for the Beautiful China Initiative
    GE Quansheng, FANG Chuanglin, JIANG Dong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 1109-1119.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006001
    Abstract1173)   HTML87)    PDF (1934KB)(488)      

    Beautiful China Initiative (BCI) aims at sustainable development with blue sky and green land, lucid waters and lush mountains, prosperous society and rich people, and harmony between humans and nature. The BCI is a Chinese practice to implement the SDGs 2030 of the United Nations, and an important method to promote the harmonious development between humans and nature and to win the gold and silver mountains by maintaining clear waters and green mountains. Geography, an applied cross-discipline serving the country's socio-economic development, has comprehensive and regional characteristics. Geographers shoulder the historical mission of building a beautiful China, and are duty-bound to take the lead in becoming pioneers and practitioners of the BCI. The theory of pericoupling and telecoupling between humans and nature is the theoretical foundation of the BCI. The interdisciplinary and comprehensive integration of geography is the practical means for the BCI. The complex system simulation and optimization of geography provide a scientific tool for coupling ways between humans and nature of the BCI. The main coupling ways for geography to promote the BCI include: carry out major scientific and technological projects and coupling demonstrations; perform dynamic assessment and monitoring of the coupled human and natural systems for the BCI; draw up the strategic coupling roadmap and the action plan of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for the BCI; build a concept of beautiful land to comply with the objectives of the National Territorial Space Plan of China; develop a comprehensive regionalization of coupled human and natural systems in accordance with local conditions, and build a group of beautiful urban agglomerations and national parks; undertake pilot projects for the construction of Beautiful China and summarize the regional coupling models for the BCI. These coupling paths will ensure that the whole country and each of its provincial-level region are getting closer to the target according to the schedule and roadmap for building a beautiful China, and diverse regions will achieve the overall goals in the competition.

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    The basic theory and methodology of rural revitalization planning in China
    LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (6): 1120-1133.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202006002
    Abstract1143)   HTML61)    PDF (4130KB)(557)      

    Agricultural and rural modernization is the general goal of the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. The scientific formulation of the rural revitalization planning is related to the implementation effect of the national rural revitalization strategy. How to establish the basic theory of rural revitalization and develop the methods of rural revitalization planning have become important tasks of academic research and government decision-making. This paper constructed the theoretical model and method system of rural revitalization planning, tried to carry out the main function-oriented zoning, dominant type classification and principal purpose classification of rural regional system, and established the spatial system of rural revitalization planning and its optimal adjustment scheme. This system was applied to the overall rural revitalization planning in Yanchi County of Ningxia. By establishing the principle of rural revitalization planning that sticks to ecological priority, adaptation to local condition, industrial support and urban-rural integration, it put forward that the priority should be given to the development of rural professional cooperation organizations and the mixed economy of villages and towns, and the acceleration of the construction of advantageous industrial system characterized by the industrialization of tan-sheep, day lily, and minor cereals, and highlighted by the wisdom of eco-cultural tourism. Moreover, it was encouraged to give prominence to the position of the central town in space, and form the village organism and housing industry coordination body with the county seat and three key towns as the center of integrated industry development. The typical case study of Yanchi County has shown that the main contents and technical points of rural revitalization planning were embodied in the following four aspects: (1) determining the overall orientation of rural revitalization planning, and clarifying the phased development mode, key areas; (2) developing the county area based on the main function-oriented zoning, leading type classification and main purpose classification system, and exploring the territorial pattern and differentiation rules; (3) establishing the county development mode and industrial system, formulating coordination schemes of different main function-oriented zones, and revealing the spatial configuration and structural relationship of different dominant types; (4) exploring the local association and hierarchical system of each dominant type in its scale and level. The main task of implementing the rural revitalization planning is to promote the formation of a new pattern of urban-rural development with factors gathering, reasonable structure and orderly space in accordance with the objective requirements of "industrial prosperity, ecological livability, rural civilization, effective governance and prosperous life". China is facing great differences in rural development and many problems in transformation. Regional disparities and urban-rural differences determine the complexity, diversity and differences of rural governance and rural revitalization planning. China's rural transformation-urban and rural integration-rural revitalization-high quality development will become the major development logic and new normal in the future. The research on rural revitalization planning in the new era should focus on the overall situation of regional coordination and urban-rural integration, and solve the practical problems of "rural disease", so as to serve the national rural revitalization planning and scientific decision-making.

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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Spatial distribution and its influencing factors of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi Province
    LIU Min, HAO Wei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 878-888.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004015
    Abstract1084)   HTML44)    PDF (3107KB)(454)      
    Methods

    of spatial analysis technology of GIS as well as Geodetector are proposed to identify the spatial distribution and influencing factors of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi Province from 2001 to 2017, based on data from tourism administration network, Geospatial Data Cloud, government reports and statistical yearbooks. These influencing factors include socio-political factor (including related policies, resident population and traffic conditions), economic-industrial factor (including the proportion of three industries, tourism income and GDP) and natural environmental factor (including altitude, river system and average temperature). The results show that: (1) Dynamic factors, such as socio-political factor as well as economic-industrial factor, changed greatly, while static factors, such as natural environment factor, changed little; (2) Nine third-level influencing factors affected the spatial distribution of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi to different degrees, five of which, including related policies, resident population, traffic conditions, tourism income and GDP, were continuously strengthened from 2001 to 2017, while the proportion of three industries decreased in a fluctuating way. For the rest of third-level influencing factors, i.e. altitude, river system and average temperature, their influence on the spatial distribution of national A-level tourist attractions in the province remained relatively stable. (3) With respect of the evolution of national A-level tourist attractions in Shanxi from 2001 to 2017, the extent of impacts of the socio-political factor, one of the second-level factors, increased year by year and the factor became the most important, followed by the economic-industrial factor, while the natural environmental factor had the minimum influence. The results can provide a strong support for assessing and guiding the overall development of regional tourism, promoting the development of tourism, and providing a scientific method to optimize the spatial structure of tourist attractions and tourism industry upgrading.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution of global food security pattern and its influencing factors in 2000-2014
    MA Enpu, CAI Jianming, LIN Jing, GUO Hua, HAN Yan, LIAO Liuwen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 332-347.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002009
    Abstract1075)   HTML60)    PDF (2791KB)(475)      

    Food security is the basic foundation in accomplishing of the overall Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As the objective in SDGs of "halving the proportion of hungry people by 2015" has not been achieved as scheduled, it will become more challenging to realize its final goal of zero hunger by 2030. So exploring the underlying causes of global food security pattern from perspectives of spatio-temporal evolution is badly needed. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation method with multi-indices was applied to evaluate the food security level of 172 countries in 2000-2014 based on an established global database with country-specific time series data. Then the spatial pattern and changing characteristics of global food security by country was conducted through the spatial autocorrelation analysis. Upon this basis, the underlying factors affecting the food security pattern were further identified and analyzed with a multiple nonlinear regression method. The findings and results show that: (1) The global food security pattern can be summarized as "high-high and low-low agglomerations" of socio-economic status and food security level. The most food secure countries are mainly distributed in the regions with more advanced economy such as North America, Oceania, parts of East Asia, and Western Europe. On the contrary, the least food secure countries are mainly distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, West Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia. (2) At 99% confidence level, Western Europe and sub-Saharan Africa are respectively the hot and cold spots in global food security landscape, while in non-aggregation areas such as Haiti and North Korea, there exist long-term food insecurity problems. (3) The spatio-temporal pattern of global food security is generally stable, but the internal changes in the extremely insecure groups are significant. The countries with the most changeable levels of food security are also the countries with the most food insecurity. (4) Annual mean temperature, per capita GDP, the proportion of people who have access to clean water, and political stability are the key factors affecting the global food security pattern. The study indicates that while the global food security situation has improved since 2000, there was a reverse sign or omen in 2013. Affected by climate change, residents' purchasing power, infrastructure condition, and political and economic stability, global food security has in fact been volatile and some areas in the world are still facing acute food security problems. In addressing this challenge, a food security strategy based on the four dimensions, i.e. food supply, food access, food use and political stability, and a worldwide rural revitalization approach, is highly recommended. Meanwhile, it is necessary to progressively introduce some diversified modes of production such as urban agriculture to build a more resilient food system in those fully urbanized regions.

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    Research progress of human-earth system dynamics based on spatial resilience theory
    LIU Yanxu, FU Bojie, WANG Shuai, ZHAO Wenwu, LI Yan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (5): 891-903.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005001
    Abstract1028)   HTML57)    PDF (1459KB)(477)      

    The concept of human-earth system represents a dynamic structure formed by the interaction between human and earth within a specific region. Considering the complexity of the system, it is necessary to construct a more powerful indicator system to describe the interaction and reflection processes between human and earth systems. The term of spatial resilience can be understood as the overall ability of regional space to absorb, recover or transform natural and social disturbances. Spatial resilience targeted at securing the structural stability of human-earth system, and it also provides a new approach for the shaping of targeted theoretical models and quantifiable indicator system in the study of human-earth system. This study reviews the research progress of spatial resilience from three perspectives, including: ecological policy and ecosystems spatial resilience from a natural perspective; environmental changes and spatial resilience of community production and living from a social perspective and the spatial resilience integrated indicator system from a comprehensive description perspective. Then the article puts forward three important directions of spatial resilience research in China, including understanding the spatial state that guaranteed system sustainability, identifying the spatial thresholds of human-earth system dynamic process, and satisfying the national demands of ecological protection and social development. This study also discusses the spatial resilience indicator system in various human-earth system functional areas from aspects of system structure, function and threshold. By the deepening of the theories and methods of spatial resilience, the human-earth system dynamics can be further understood, so as to improve the regional level accuracy on simulating the socioeconomic, environmental and political paths, and provide key theoretical and methodological support for the decision-making of sustainable development at global, national and regional levels.

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    Spatio-temporal distribution of the climatic seasonsin China from 1961 to 2016
    MA Bin, ZHANG Bo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 458-469.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003002
    Abstract1009)   HTML50)    PDF (7600KB)(438)      

    In this study, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of the climatic seasons in China from 1961 to 2016 are analyzed by using the climatic seasonal division standard (QX/T152-2012) issued by the China Meteorological Administration, the Chinese daily surface temperature dataset (V2.0, 0.5°×0.5°) issued by the National Meteorological Information Center, and the revised multiple regression model. The linear trend and extreme-point symmetric mode decomposition method (ESMD) are used to analyze the variations in the distribution area, durations, and start date of the climatic seasons. The main results are as follows. There are four climatic seasonal regions in China, namely, the perennial-winter, no-winter, no-summer and discernible regions, while there are no perennial-summer or perennial-spring regions. Considering the area variation of each region, the range of the perennial-winter region is significantly narrower, and the area of no-winter region increases, while the areas of no-summer and discernible regions have no significant changes. The regions with significant changes in the normal climatic seasons are mainly distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Inner Mongolia Plateau. The regions with significant changes in the durations of the climatic seasons are mainly found in the northern China. The advance of the summer start date has led to a significant increase in the durations of climatic seasons in the central and western Inner Mongolia, Hexi Corridor and Xinjiang, and the postponement of the winter start date has resulted in a decrease in the number of winter days in these areas. In general, the climatic seasons at high altitudes in western China have more significant changes than those in the eastern coastal plains. Overall, the distribution and changes of the climatic seasons in China are revealed by this investigation, which could provide a reference for operational weather forecasting and climatic region division.

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    Evolution processes of the sandbanks in the Zhenjiang-Yangzhou reach of the Yangtze River and their driving forces (from 1570 to 1971)
    YANG Xiao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1512-1522.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007013
    Abstract995)   HTML56)    PDF (5878KB)(378)      

    Under the influence of the changing relationship between the Yellow River and the Huaihe River, the lower reaches of the Huaihe River had gradually drained into the Yangtze River since 1570 AD, and finally became a tributary of the Yangtze River. This transformation added new variations to the evolution of the Yangtze River's fluvial processes by changing the original riverbed features and currents of the Zhenjiang-Yangzhou reach. This article analyzed three surveyed maps, discussed related historical literature and investigated some antique maps to explore the formation and the evolution of the sandbanks outside the estuary of the Huaihe River. Some sandbanks including the Yumin Sandbar and Nanxin Sandbar appeared before the 17th century due to the disintegration of original sandbars such as Tengliao Sandbar,which disappeared during the Chenghua and Hongzhi reigns in the Ming Dynasty (1465-1505 AD). Since the Huaihe River entered into the Yangtze River, the Yumin Sandbar and Nanxin Sandbar had continued to expand and banked to the north along with the newly-formed sandbanks. At last, the northern channel of the Zhenjiang-Yangzhou reach demised and the riverbed transformed from a straightforward bifurcation into a curved one. Accordingly, the formation of meandering flow began to erode Guazhou Town on the upstream concave bank and silt Zhenjiang Town on the convex bank, gradually reshaping the Zhenjiang-Yangzhou reach of the Yangtze River into its current configuration.

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    Characteristics of warming hiatus of the climate change in Northwest China from 1960 to 2019
    LI Zhe, DING Yongjian, CHEN Aijiao, ZHANG Zhihua, ZHANG Shiqiang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (9): 1845-1859.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202009003
    Abstract961)   HTML40)    PDF (4240KB)(250)      

    The mean global surface air temperature data indicate that there might be a global warming hiatus during 1998-2012. However, whether it existed around the world is still controversial, and the characteristics of the hiatus in Northwest China remain unclear. Based on the in-situ observation data of air temperature from 1960 to 2019, we analyzed the characteristic of hiatus in Northwest China through the cumulative anomaly curve, the Mann-Kendall test, Move-t test, the Yamamoto test and the linear trend estimation. The results showed that the statistically significant change-point of the annual mean air temperature in Northwest China was in 1986, 1996, and 2012, respectively. The air temperature suddenly rose in 1996, and then kept stable from 1998 to 2012. The annual mean air temperature showed an obvious cooling trend by -0.20 ℃ decade-1 in Northwest China from 1998 to 2012. Meanwhile, the annual mean air temperature in winter had the largest decrease rate and that of summer increased. The east of Northwest China displayed the most significant cooling during 1998-2012, and the Tibetan Plateau was still heating up at the same time. The air temperature of Northwest China rose substantially after 2012, especially in winter, and southern Xinjiang experienced the strongest warming during 2012-2019. Generally speaking, the warming hiatus was evident in Northwest China during 1998-2012 except the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the marked upward trend in air temperature after the hiatus in Northwest China due to the crucial environment.

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    Discussion on rural sustainability and rural sustainability science
    HE Yanhua, WU Jianguo, ZHOU Guohua, ZHOU Bingbing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 736-752.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004006
    Abstract947)   HTML37)    PDF (5266KB)(359)      

    In the face of global environmental challenges, sustainable development has received much attention worldwide, and sustainability science has emerged in the 21st century as a globally well-recognized new area of science. Rural sustainability science, as an important part of sustainability science, is a use-inspired science aimed at understanding and improving the dynamic relationship between people and the rural environment from a transdisciplinary and multiscale perspective. In tandem with urban sustainability science, it provides much needed scientific support for dealing with rural decline and promoting rural sustainable development. In this paper, we first discuss the concepts of sustainability, rural sustainability, and rural sustainability science, and then propose a transdisciplinary integrated framework of rural sustainability science that focuses on agricultural sustainability, community sustainability, and rural human well-being. China is a nation with deep rural roots, complex problems involving interactions among agriculture, farmers, and villages, and huge urban-rural socioeconomic gaps. Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, China's rural areas have developed rapidly, but they still face numerous tough challenges. Rural revitalization strategies are needed for promoting the rural transition toward sustainability, but the necessary scientific basis and appropriate guidelines for formulating such strategies are still lacking. We argue that rural sustainability science can provide theoretical, technical, and decision-making support for the implementation of rural revitalization strategies. Our analysis of the current status of China's rural sustainable development indicates that the transition to sustainability is urgently needed, and so is the science that guides the transition. To address these problems, we call for transdisciplinary research that couples rural society and its environment, focusing on nine core issues in line with the needs of China's rural development and aiming to transfer knowledge of rural sustainability into local adaptive actions.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Contribution of climatic change and human activities to vegetation NDVI change over China during 1982-2015
    JIN Kai, WANG Fei, HAN Jianqiao, SHI Shangyu, DING Wenbin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (5): 961-974.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005006
    Abstract946)   HTML74)    PDF (5439KB)(461)      

    Based on the observed daily temperature and precipitation of the land surface of 603 meteorological stations in China, the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 3rd generation dataset, the changing patterns of NDVI in China during 1982-2015 were investigated and the corresponding contributions of the main driving forces, climatic change and human activities, to these changes were distinguished using the methods of trend analysis and multiple regression residuals analysis. The results showed that vegetation recovered in whole China in research period significantly. Shanghai was the single case with a decrease in growing season NDVI in the selected 32 provincial-level administrative regions, while the growing season NDVI in Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Chongqing increased much faster compared with other regions. The climatic change and human activities drove the NDVI change jointly as main forces in China and induced both a rapid increasing trend on the whole and a huge spatial difference. The impacts of climatic change on NDVI change in the growing-season ranged from -0.01×10 -3 a -1 to 1.05×10 -3 a -1, while the impacts of human activities changed from -0.32×10 -3 a -1 to 1.77×10 -3 a -1. The contributions of climatic change and human activities accounted for 40% and 60%, respectively, to the increase of NDVI in China in the past 34 years. The regions where the contribution rates of human activities were more than 80% were mainly distributed in the central part of the Loess Plateau, the North China Plain, and the northeast and the southwest of China. There were 22 provincial-level regions where the contributions of human activities were more than 50%, and the shares of contribution induced by human activities in Shanghai, Heilongjiang, and Yunnan were much greater than those of any other regions. The results suggest that we should focus more on the role of human activities in vegetation restoration in the whole country.

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    Spatio-temporal characteristics of urban land expansion in Chinese urban agglomerations
    OUYANG Xiao, ZHU Xiang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 571-588.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003010
    Abstract945)   HTML83)    PDF (4694KB)(464)      

    Comprehensive analysis of the characteristics, quality, and ecological effects of urban land expansion would be extremely valuable in high-quality development planning and decision-making. Using data of ten urban agglomerations of China from 1990 to 2015 at varying levels of urban development, this study analyzed the degree of urban land expansion based on the "human-land" synergistic relationship and examined the spatio-temporal characteristics and landscape ecological effects of urban development. Various development indexes for population, economy, and urban land were evaluated, including the urban land expansion intensity index, the intensity differentiation index, the landscape expansion index, and the pattern index. The results of the study are as follows: (1) From 1990 to 2015, the built-up areas in the urban agglomerations expanded continuously, while the expansion intensity showed a fluctuating trend. The highest values of expansion intensity for developed urban agglomerations appeared before 2010, while for the developing areas, the highest values came after 2010. (2) Overall, there was an asymmetrical urban growth among the agglomerations, and the areas with high urban expansion were mainly distributed along the coastal zones. At the national level, the epicenter of rapid urban growth moved from east to west, with the urban expansion in eastern China being much faster compared with the central, western, and northeastern regions. (3) The evolution in urban land use displayed two main spatial patterns, namely edge expansion and outlying, which varied based on the level of urban development. The spatial pattern in the developed urban clusters was more stable, while in the developing areas, the spatial structure started to take shape but have yet to be formed. (4) Urban expansion sprawling over suburban and rural areas resulted in relatively high degrees of fragmentation and structural complexity and instability of the landscape pattern. (5) The man-land synergy in these urban agglomerations increased gradually over time while the economy-land interaction was generally high, indicating an improvement in the overall quality of urban growth. The results of this study highlight the need to have stricter supervision of urban expansion particularly in the early stages of city development, to foster the development of small and middle-sized cities, and to propose a more balanced approach in urban land expansion. The findings here provide valuable lessons for high-quality development of land use in urban agglomerations of China.

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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Theoretical analysis of "natural-social-trading" ternary water cycle mode in the inland river basin of Northwest China
    DENG Mingjiang, LONG Aihua, LI Jiang, DENG Xiaoya, ZHANG Pei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1333-1345.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007001
    Abstract926)   HTML62)    PDF (2682KB)(412)      

    The continuous and intense human activities have greatly changed the structure, path and driving force of the natural water cycle evolution, which conversely influences the water security of human being. With the process of globalization and market economy, human activities not only affect the artificial development of water and soil resources, but also extend to the economic field. The "flow" of water trade contained in product has become an important internal factor that drives the evolution of the regional water cycle and affects regional water security. Traditional water cycle research, which focused on the watershed scale, is difficult to reveal the linkage, two-way feedback mechanism and co-evolution dynamic mechanism in water cycle among different regions. Starting from the phenomenon of continuous and water-intensive agricultural products export in Northwest China, this research elaborates the phenomenon, the process, the structure and their driving forces of the unitary natural water circular, nature-human society binary circular, and trading water circular within multi-regional social economic complex systems by theoretical analysis. We explicated the theoretical framework for constructing the "natural-social-trading" ternary water cycle in the inland river basin, including mode of process, driving force of water cycle, conceptual model, influencing factors and ecological environment effects. Furthermore, we discussed the frontier of water cycle research in inland river basin based on ternary water cycle model-social hydrology. We advocated that the future study on water cycle and water resources should focus more on the external forces driving the water cycle of the inland river basin and its two-way mutual feedback and co-evolution, providing theoretical references for the decision-making of water security, ecological environment security and ecological civilization construction in inland river basins.

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    The effects of vegetation coverage changes on ecosystem service and their threshold in the Loess Plateau
    ZHANG Kun, LYU Yihe, FU Bojie, YIN Lichang, YU Dandan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (5): 949-960.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202005005
    Abstract900)   HTML69)    PDF (3608KB)(536)      

    The Loess Plateau is the core region of the "Green to Grain" Program, which makes it become the most successful example of ecological restoration in China. It is the common demand of both academic research and management practice to analyze the effects of vegetation restoration on ecosystem service and identify the threshold effects of vegetation restoration. However, there still is a research gap in related studies, especially for the thresholds of vegetation in the ecosystem service change at regional scale. In this study, we chose the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) as an index to indicate the vegetation coverage change in the Loess Plateau in 2000-2015, and took soil conservation service, water yield service and carbon sequestration service as indexes to exhibit the ecosystem service changes. The spatiotemporal changes of vegetation coverage and ecosystem services and their interaction were quantitatively analyzed. On such a basis, we further assessed the effects of vegetation coverage change on ecosystem services and quantitatively identified their thresholds. The results indicated that: (1) The vegetation coverage significantly improved in 2000-2015. Meanwhile, the differences of ecosystem service changes were prominent, with the carbon sequestration service getting significant enhancement, soil conservation service getting certain improvements and the water yield service maintaining steady. (2) There are differences among the correlations between vegetation restoration and changes of ecosystem service. The correlation of vegetation coverage-carbon sequestration service was the strongest, followed by that of vegetation coverage-soil conservation service. (3) The vegetation restoration could promote the improvement of the overall level of regional ecosystem service. Furthermore, we revealed the threshold effect in the promotion. The threshold occurrence resulted in the decrease of promotion efficiency of vegetation restoration, with vegetation coverage reaching 44%, 32%, 34% and 34% in forest zone, forest-grass zone, grass zone and grass-desert zone, respectively.

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    Adjustment and optimization of geographical sciences application code of NSFC
    XIONG Juhua, WANG Jia, SHI Yunfei, LI Fei, ZHANG Xinlin, GENG Haopeng, ZHANG Qing, GUAN Dongjie, WANG Tianfu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2283-2297.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202011001
    Abstract861)   HTML1)    PDF (2597KB)(0)      

    The adjustment and optimization of discipline application code is an important part and breakthrough point of the task of "science foundation discipline layout reform" of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the application code of geography discipline, systematically sorted out the problems existing in the current version of the application code for geography discipline, discussed the framework concept, principles and formation process of the new version (2021 Edition) application code system, and emphatically explained the historical evolution, scientific connotation and discipline orientation of the new application code. Compared with the previous versions, the new version of the application code system has the following four unique features: (1) The logic of the system is more reasonable; the first level code name has been changed from "Geography (D01)" to "Geographical Science (D01)". (2) The disciplines are more integrated by setting the second-level application code instead of the three-level application code, which can better reflect the interdisciplinary integration. (3) The fields are more comprehensive; according to the development trend of disciplines and the needs of economic and social development, codes of emerging disciplines and fields such as "disaster geography", "land science", and "geographic big data and spatial intelligence" have been added to the list. (4) More attention has been given to technology, namely, "geographic observation and simulation tools" are identified to encourage the development of key tools and instruments for the research of geographical issues.

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    Universities and geographical research development in China based on the bibliometrics analysis
    WU Yaqun, LI Shuangshuang, YAN Junping, WANG Chengbo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 302-317.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002007
    Abstract831)   HTML50)    PDF (4244KB)(307)      

    This study analysed the geographical development characteristics of Chinese universities from hierarchical and regional perspectives by establishing a publishing index, defining development patterns, and dividing relevant grades on the basis of academic articles during 1986-2018. The articles were published in the top four Chinese geographic journals: Acta Geographica Sinica, Geographical Research, Scientia Geographica Sinica, and Progress in Geography. We discuss the factors influencing the geographical development of Chinese universities. The results showed that (1) temporally, publication trends indicated an increase in geographical research in China from 1986 to 2018, which featured spatial agglomeration and quantitative hierarchy. So, we divided the number of publications into three categories (high, medium, and low) using systematic clustering analysis. (2) We examined the development history of different types of university involved in projects to promote the development of Chinese higher education by national and local governments. Universities sponsored by Project 985 were the largest contributors to the number of published articles, which formed the nucleus of geographical research, and universities sponsored by Project 211 contributed a medium-high number. For other universities, the annual number of published articles prior to 2006 was generally low and increased slowly. Since 2006, the number in some universities increased rapidly, while others remained low-stationary, showing the evolution of the coexisting pattern of high-medium-low categories. (3) Spatially, in eastern China, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Nanjing are centres of geographical research, ranking at the top in terms of geographical knowledge production. In addition, universities in the central region developed rapidly after 2004. Universities in the western region showed an asymmetric pattern, specifically, the northwest was stronger that the southwest. (4) The historical pattern of geographical research could be summarized using J, S, and linear curves. The findings revealed that the number of universities with J and linear curves was higher than those with S curves, while the number of universities that published papers at the middle and low levels was larger than those at the high level. In the future, geographical development will experience increasing improvement, although there is the external gap between the core and periphery for Chinese universities, i.e., between western and eastern universities, as well as with other universities and those sponsored by Projects 985 and 211. (5) A framework has been constructed to illustrate the development disequilibrium and factors influencing the geographical development of universities. It is suggested that future practices should not only involve the introduction of excellent research teams and the provision of policy support, but also the utilization of regional characteristics to cultivate teams that can achieve sustainable geographical development in China.

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    Trade protection, export spillover effects and the expanding route of Chinese export market
    HE Canfei, YU Changda, JIN Lulu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 665-680.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004001
    Abstract828)   HTML49)    PDF (2558KB)(278)      

    In the context of globalization, the interests of countries are intertwined and complicated, thus leads to multiple types of trade frictions. In order to protect domestic industries, some countries frequently set up trade protection barriers to restrict Chinese exports, which has a significant impact on China's economic development. Therefore, it is crucial for us to clarify the impact of trade protection barriers on regional export expanding processes in China. Based on the data of the China Customs Database from 2002 to 2016, this article focuses on the expanding path of Chinese export products by integrating the supply and demand perspectives into the same framework. In addition to the introduction to trade barriers set in the demand market as external forces, we also take the external market relatedness effect into consideration, which enriches traditional export spillover mechanisms. The main findings are as follows: (1) With the process of product upgrading, Chinese export destination structure is gradually leaning to emerging economies. Eastern and Central China, which expand their exporting portfolio by exporting more technology-intensive and capital-intensive products, are main contributors to this process. (2) The evolution path of Chinese export products presents typical path dependence characteristics composed of market linkages and technological linkages. In comparison, market linkages, which have been formerly neglected, are more vital to the expanding process of Chinese export market. (3) Multiple trade barriers will inhibit export expanding by cutting off channels for products entry, thereby breaking the region's original export expanding routes. (4) External shocks have a common effect on expanding mechanisms of regional export products by weakening the path dependence of technological linkages and market linkages. In conclusion, absorbing foreign investment, regional economic cooperation and diversification of export product and destination structure are effective countermeasures against external shocks like trade barriers.

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    Spatial distribution of extreme poverty and mechanism of poverty differentiation in rural China based on spatial scan statistics and geographical detector
    PAN Jinghu, FENG Yaya
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (4): 769-788.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202004008
    Abstract828)   HTML33)    PDF (10931KB)(264)      

    Poverty has appeared as one of the long-term predicaments facing human development in the 21st century. The essence of extreme poverty is absolute poverty, where individuals experience long-term shortages of essential resources or suffer from harsh environment. Extreme poverty is the priority for poverty alleviation and the tough row to hoe. We select the major poverty influencing factors from natural and social factors to build an evaluation index system based on spatial poverty and related theories. First, we use Pearson correlation analysis to differentiate poverty impoverishing and alleviation factors. Then, we use GIS and back propagating neural networks to define a natural impoverishing index (NII) and social economic poverty alleviation index (SEPAI), respectively, at provincial, municipal, and county levels. We then calculate a poverty pressure index (PPI) at provincial, municipal, and county levels by combining NII and SEPAI, and explore poverty spatial characteristics. We used the flexible spatial scanning statistical method to identify the severely impoverished counties among the poverty-stricken counties with PPI>1.63, which had higher poverty rate and difficulty in poverty alleviation. Finally, we diagnose dominant factors that differentiate severely impoverished counties, and identify the dynamic mechanism of regional extreme poverty differentiation using the geodetector model. Besides, we construct a theoretical basis for anti-poverty in rural China. The results show that NII and PPI spatial distributions are highly consistent at provincial, municipal, and county levels, with a significant distribution pattern: high in eastern China and low in western China. In contrast, SEPAI has relatively low spatial consistency at provincial, municipal, and county levels. The PPI poverty distribution pattern tends toward large dispersion, small aggregation dividing across the Heihe-Bose Line. A total of 655 poverty-stricken counties were identified, mainly distributed in major ecologically functional and agricultural production areas in China. High risk areas identified by spatial scanning are mainly distributed in the northwest, southwest minority, and border areas. We also identified 208 severely impoverished counties, mostly located in inter-provincial fringe areas. The geodetector model identified seven dominant impoverishing factors, with significant differences between the four identified rural extreme poverty types: terrain detail oriented, location traffic dominated, economic income leading, and ecoenvironment constrained regions.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern and driving forces of urbanization in China's border areas
    SONG Zhouying, ZHU Qiaoling
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (8): 1603-1616.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202008004
    Abstract820)   HTML34)    PDF (3955KB)(333)      

    Border area is not only an important gateway for inland opening-up, but also an critical part in the building of a moderately prosperous society and optimizing national urban spatial pattern in China. Due to the location, natural resources endowment, and traffic accessibility, the urbanization development is relatively slow in border areas. Therefore, border area is a special area that should be given close attention, especially under the background of the Belt and Road Initiative and China's regional coordinated development program. Based on the county-level data from 2000 to 2015, this paper tries to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of urbanization in 134 border counties, and applies the geographical detector method to study the driving forces of urbanization in border areas. Conclusions are as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2015, urbanization rate in border areas was lower than the national average, and the gap was widening. Some border counties in southern Xinjiang, Tibet, northeast of Inner Mongolia, and Yunnan, are even facing the problem of population loss. (2) In the same period, urbanization rate in the northwestern and southwestern borders is low, but it grows relatively fast compared with other border counties; urbanization rate in Tibetan border area is the lowest and grows relatively slowly; urbanization rate in the northeastern and northern border areas is slightly higher, but it grows slowly or even stagnates. (3) Transportation and industry are the important driving forces of urbanization in border areas, while the driving forces of market is relatively weak. And there are obvious mutual reinforcements among the driving forces, while the effort of resource force increases obviously after interaction. (4) Urbanization rate in the northwestern and southwestern border areas grows relatively fast, with industrial power and transportation power, market power and administrative power as the main driving forces. Tibetan border area has the lowest urbanization rate and growth rate, as the driving force of urbanization with strong contribution has not yet formed in Tibet. In the northeastern and northern border areas, the contribution of transportation power to urbanization is greater than that of other forces, and its interaction with market and industry has obvious effects on urbanization.

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    Analytical methods and applications of spatial interactions in the era of big data
    LIU Yu, YAO Xin, GONG Yongxi, KANG Chaogui, SHI Xun, WANG Fahui, WANG Jiao'e, ZHANG Yi, ZHAO Pengfei, ZHU Di, ZHU Xinyan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (7): 1523-1538.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202007014
    Abstract806)   HTML51)    PDF (1385KB)(375)      

    Spatial interaction is a critical basis of understanding human processes on the land surface. Together with spatial dependence, it embodies the uniqueness and relatedness of geographical space, as well as the impact on the embedded geographical distribution patterns. Spatial interaction also has distinctive space-time attributes, and thus it is significant to geographical research. Big data bring new opportunities for the studies of spatial interaction, which enables us to sense and observe spatial interaction patterns at different spatial scales, and simulate and predict their dynamic evolution. This provides great support for the research of human activity regularities and regional spatial structures. In this article, we first demonstrated the relationship between spatial interaction and geospatial patterns, and introduced how to sense spatial interaction with big geodata. Then, we generalized the progress of relevant models and analytical methods, and introduced the corresponding applications in fields of spatial planning, urban transportation, public health and tourism. Some key issues were also discussed. We hope this review can provide guidance for the studies of spatial interaction supported by big data.

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