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    Adjustment and optimization of geographical sciences application code of NSFC
    XIONG Juhua, WANG Jia, SHI Yunfei, LI Fei, ZHANG Xinlin, GENG Haopeng, ZHANG Qing, GUAN Dongjie, WANG Tianfu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2283-2297.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011001
    Abstract1494)   HTML53)    PDF (2597KB)(298)      

    The adjustment and optimization of discipline application code is an important part and breakthrough point of the task of "science foundation discipline layout reform" of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the application code of geography discipline, systematically sorted out the problems existing in the current version of the application code for geography discipline, discussed the framework concept, principles and formation process of the new version (2021 Edition) application code system, and emphatically explained the historical evolution, scientific connotation and discipline orientation of the new application code. Compared with the previous versions, the new version of the application code system has the following four unique features: (1) The logic of the system is more reasonable; the first level code name has been changed from "Geography (D01)" to "Geographical Science (D01)". (2) The disciplines are more integrated by setting the second-level application code instead of the three-level application code, which can better reflect the interdisciplinary integration. (3) The fields are more comprehensive; according to the development trend of disciplines and the needs of economic and social development, codes of emerging disciplines and fields such as "disaster geography", "land science", and "geographic big data and spatial intelligence" have been added to the list. (4) More attention has been given to technology, namely, "geographic observation and simulation tools" are identified to encourage the development of key tools and instruments for the research of geographical issues.

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    Urban scaling law and its application
    GONG Jianya, XU Gang, JIAO Limin, QIN Kun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 251-260.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102001
    Abstract1472)   HTML68)    PDF (2438KB)(495)      

    The introduction of complexity science in urban geography has provided a new perspective to understand cities. Urban scaling law is one of the simple rules behind complex urban systems, which describes how urban indicators scale with urban population size within the system of cities. Social interaction-related urban indicators, such as GDP and innovation, super-linearly scale with urban population in a power law form, while infrastructure-related urban indicators, such as roads and gas stations, sub-linearly scale with population. Other urban indicators linearly scale with population, which are related to human individual needs, such as jobs and household electricity consumption. In this study, we first summarize the content and progress of urban scaling law during the past decade (2007-2020) from the following four aspects: the validation of urban scaling law, the explanation on the mechanism of urban scaling law, the application of urban scaling law, and the criticism of urban scaling law. We further compare the fundamental differences between the urban scaling law and urban allometric growth. Urban scaling law describes quantitative relationships between urban indicators and population size across cities, while urban allometric growth emphasizes the temporal growth of individual cities. Our analysis indicates that the cross-sectional urban scaling law cannot be applied to predict temporal trajectories of individual cities. Finally, we introduce the scale-adjusted metropolitan indicator (SAMI) for the evaluation of economic performance and urban land use efficiency in 291 Chinese cities, which is based on the theory of urban scaling law. The conventional evaluation of cities based on per capita indicators ignores the non-linear scaling relationship between urban indicators and population size. For example, the GDP per capita of large cities ranks high thanks to their advantages of population size. SAMI eliminates the influence of city size and can compare urban performance more objectively. Cities with higher SAMIs of GDP experience a higher efficiency in economic output (GDP) and they are concentrated in southeast coastal regions, middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and Xinjiang. On the contrary, cities in the northeastern China and Central China Plains experience a relatively low efficiency in economic output. Future studies are encouraged to focus on the mechanism of urban scaling law, the unified model for the evolving urban system across cities and over time, and the scaling law within cities.

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    Changes of the physical and human geographical environment in China during the past 2000 years
    GE Quansheng, ZHU Huiyi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 3-14.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101001
    Abstract1463)   HTML153)    PDF (1859KB)(954)      

    Understanding the changes of physical and human geographical environment during the past 2000 years in China is beneficial to establish the position, direction, focus areas, and initiatives of "Beautiful China" construction. In this paper, we integrated the results published in research papers, summarized the general characteristics of geographical environment changes in the history, and explored the implications of these changes on the construction of ecological civilization. The results implied that historical changes in China's land surface had been mainly manifested by the multi-scale quasi-periodic fluctuations and regional differentiation of climate, the fragmentation of the Loess Plateau, the expansion of desertified land in the northern regions, the gradual migration of delta coasts, the large scale shrinkage of lake systems especially in the Yellow River and the Yangtze River basins, and the decline in area of forests and the grasslands of northern China. Meanwhile, the economic and social changes were prominently reflected in the population growth and pattern changes, the migration of economic center to the southeast, the expansion of cultivated land to the periphery, and the transportation network evolution. From the above results, we could achieve the following enlightenments: in the future, the deserts in the northern region would still exist, and the lake systems in the middle and lower reaches of both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River were difficult to restore. The grain transportation from the south to the north disappeared in the history. But there was still much room for improvement in the coverage rate of forests, the transportation network could still achieve a higher level, and at the same time, we must mitigate the risk from climate change in the coastal cities.

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    Characteristics, mechanism and response of urban shrinkage in the three provinces of Northeast China
    MA Zuopeng, LI Chenggu, ZHANG Pingyu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 767-780.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104001
    Abstract1416)   HTML59)    PDF (3803KB)(460)      

    Understanding the population loss and economic decline in the three provinces of Northeast China from a perspective of urban shrinkage is of great significance to deepening the transformation theory of China's old industrial bases. The main results can be summarized as follows. Since 2000, obvious differences in urban growth and shrinkage have occurred in Northeast China. Some 42.85% of cities showed an urban shrinkage. The manufacturing and service industries in cities of urban growth (growing cities) are increasingly advanced, while the development of new pattern industries and industrial structure upgrading are slow in cities of urban shrinkage (shrinking cities) and the economic competitiveness of these shrinking cities is weakening. There is a close spatial correlation between growing and shrinking cities. On the one hand, growing cities continuously absorb the production factors such as population and capital of shrinking cities through the agglomeration effect, and on the other hand, they increase the pressure of economic transformation of shrinking cities through the spatial transfer of traditional industries. The shrinkage degree varies from high to low from north to south, and shows a trend of 'first strengthening, then weakening' from east to west. The processing cities have the highest shrinkage degree, followed by industrial and mining cities, and the tourism and port cities have a relatively low shrinkage degree. The factors influencing urban shrinkage include the development lag of public service facilities, the misalignment of industrial development and market demand, the low correlation degree of industrial structure, the aging of population structure, and the agglomeration effect of regional central places, their intensity of action enhancing in turn. According to the economic long wave theory and local circumstances, Northeast China will experience a long-term urban shrinkage in the future. It should be a strategic choice to develop this region to actively adapt to the shrinkage, and optimize and reorganize population and economic factors through smart urban shrinkage.

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    Spatial distribution patterns of Pinus tabulaeformis forest and Pinus massoniana forest in Qinling-Daba Mountains and the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones
    YAO Yonghui, KOU Zhixiang, HU Yufan, ZHANG Baiping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2298-2306.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011002
    Abstract1370)   HTML54)    PDF (4387KB)(586)      

    Qinling Mountains is not only the geographical boundary between North and South China, but also the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones. It plays an important role in the geo-ecological pattern of China. However, there is controversy about the specific location of this geographical boundary in academic community due to the complexity, transition and heterogeneity of the transitional zone, as well as the differences in the delimitation indicators and research purposes. To further reveal the characteristics of the North-South transitional zone and clarify the specific location of the geo-ecological boundary between North and South China, combined with SRTM topographic data, temperature and precipitation data, Pinus massoniana forest and Pinus tabulaeformis forest, which represent subtropical coniferous forests in South China and temperate coniferous forest in North China respectively, were chosen to analyze their spatial distributions in the Qinling-Daba Mountains and the climatic conditions at their boundary with the climatic indexes of annual precipitation, the coldest month (January) average temperature, the warmest month (July) average temperature and the annual average temperatures. The results show that: (1) Pinus massoniana and Pinus tabulaeformis forests and the climate indicators of their boundary can be used as one of the vegetation-climate indicators for the delimitation of subtropical and warm temperate zones. The boundary between the subtropical coniferous forest (Pinus massoniana forest) and temperate coniferous forest (Pinus tabulaeformis forest) in Qinling-Daba Mountains is located along the south slope of Funiu Mountain to the north edge of Hanzhong Basin (the south slope of Qinling Mountains) at an altitude of 1000-1200 m, where the climatic indictors are stable: the annual precipitation is about 750-1000 mm; the annual average temperature is about 12-14 ℃; the coldest monthly average temperature is 0-4 ℃; and the warmest monthly average temperature is about 22-26 ℃. (2) It could be more scientifically to delimitate the boundary of subtropical and warm temperate zones in China by comprehensively considering the vegetation-climate indicators. Additionally, the boundary between subtropical and warm temperate zones in Qinling-Daba Mountains should be a transitional zone consisting of the boundaries of coniferous forests, broad-leaved forests and shrubs between subtropical and warm temperate zones. The results provide a scientific basis for the selection of delimitation indicators of subtropical and warm temperate zones.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern evolution and formation mechanism of missing person incidents in China
    LI Gang, XUE Shuyan, MA Xueyao, ZHOU Junjun, XU Tingting, WANG Jiaobei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 310-325.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102005
    Abstract1310)   HTML48)    PDF (5128KB)(268)      

    The problem of missing persons brings about serious harm to their families and the society. An in-depth investigation of this issue is of great importance to protecting human lives and human rights. In this research, we collect the missing persons data during the period from 2015 to 2019 from the "China's Child Safety Emergency Response (CCSER)" platform. We use a series of techniques including text analysis, mathematical statistics, and spatial analysis to analyze the socio-demographic characteristics, evolution and formation mechanism of spatio-temporal patterns of missing persons in China. Major findings include: (1) The number of missing males is larger than that of missing females. The highest missing rate is found in people aged 8-16, followed by aged 2-7, aged 0-1, and aged 60-65. Three categories of missing persons are observed in the data, which are (in order of decreasing frequency): unconscious disappearance, active disappearance, and passive disappearance. Six sub-types of missing persons in a descending order by frequency are: running away from home, wandering away, abduction, physical or mental illness, losing track, and family dissension. (2) Hump-shaped curves are observed for temporal variations of the number, gender and age of missing persons, and the curves are symmetric about the year of 2017. The local spatial autocorrelation tests indicate that incidents of missing persons generally exhibit "low-high" and "high-low" clustering patterns. Provinces with a high incidence of missing persons are Guangdong, Zhejiang and Sichuan. (3) With respect to the spatial mobility of missing persons, intra-provincial mobility is more prevalent than inter-provincial mobility. Guangdong, Sichuan, Henan, and Jiangsu experience the highest intra-provincial mobility rate. Dominant paths of inter-provincial mobility are "Anhui-Jiangsu" route and "Guangxi-Guangdong" route. (4) The underlying mechanism of missing person incidents can be understood from the perspective of "strong and weak ties in social network". That is, the strentgth of people's social ties can impact the occurrence of missing persons.

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    Spatial evolution characteristics and driving forces of Chinese highly educated talents
    GU Hengyu, SHEN Tiyan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 326-340.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102006
    Abstract1218)   HTML64)    PDF (1787KB)(630)      

    Talents are the core driving force for regional innovation and development, and they are also the key to urban competition in the future. Based on the data of the sixth population census and the national 1% population sampling survey in 2015, this paper uses the concentration index (CI), Gini index (GI) and several related spatial analysis methods to examine the spatial patterns of highly educated talents across China and the drivers behind these patterns from 2010 to 2015. The results are as follows: (1) Talents show highly concentrated and unbalanced spatial distribution patterns at the city level over the five years, but the trend of concentration and imbalance has gradually eased. Results from standard deviation ellipse (SDE) indicate that the distribution direction of highly educated people is "NE-SW". Furthermore, there is a significant spatial spillover effect in the distribution of talents, with three major urban agglomerations of China as the highlands. (2) Economic opportunities are the dominant drivers for the distribution of highly educated talents in China. Among them, wages are the core driver, and gross GDP and industrial structure of each city also exert a significant impact. (3) After controlling the impacts of economic opportunities, local quality variables represented by basic public services (e.g., education and medical care), transportation accessibility and urban consumption facilities play an important role in the distribution of highly educated talents. (4) There are significant differences between the driving factors for talents in urban agglomerations and non-urban agglomerations: economic opportunities are the main driving force for the distribution of talents in both urban agglomerations and non-urban agglomerations, while local qualities including education, consumption, transportation and natural environment have a more significant impact on the distribution of talents in urban agglomerations. This study provides references for the formulation of urban and regional talent policies and regional development policies.

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    The ideological origins and geographical demarcation significance of Hu Huanyong Line
    DING Jinhong, CHENG Chen, ZHANG Weijia, TIAN Yang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1317-1333.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106001
    Abstract1198)   HTML88)    PDF (986KB)(448)      

    In the early 20th century, China was faced with domestic crisis and foreign invasion, and the man-land contradictions were unprecedented fierce. Geographers pondered and explored the issues of national fortune such as China's population status, northwest exploitation and internal migration, thus China's population geography emerged as the times required. "The distribution of population in China" published by Hu Huanyong in 1935 is a symbol of maturity of China's population geography. The Hu Huanyong Line (also known as Hu Line) proposed in this paper, which he originally called the Aihui-Tengchong Line, is a significant geographical demarcation of China's population. The existence and stability of the Hu Line have been repeatedly verified by census data, and its scientific principles have also been revealed and explained by the academic circles from aspects of nature, economy, social culture, etc. This paper points out that grain and employment are the two hidden logics behind the Hu Line. The Hu Line is becoming a crucial national geographic demarcation, which has an increasingly essential impact on the cognition and analysis of China's national conditions. Recent research on the Hu Line has been widely extended in various fields and meanings, and there arose some amendments and adaptations of the line in practice. Under the influence of "Premier Li Keqiang's three questions", whether the Hu Line can be broken through has become an academic hot spot. This paper holds that it is more important to create more opportunities of the northwest region than to increase the share of population so as to balance regional development.

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    Impacts of climate and land use/cover changes on runoff in the Hanjiang River basin
    TIAN Jing, GUO Shenglian, LIU Dedi, CHEN Qihui, WANG Qiang, YIN Jiabo, WU Xushu, HE Shaokun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2307-2318.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011003
    Abstract1053)   HTML72)    PDF (3823KB)(432)      

    As a link between the atmosphere and the geosphere, the hydrological cycle is affected by both climate change and Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC). However, most existing research on runoff response focused mainly on the impact of the projected climate variation, neglecting the influence of future LUCC variability. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the co-impacts of both projected climate change and LUCC on runoff generation. Firstly, the future climate scenarios under BCC-CSM1.1 and BNU-ESM are both downscaled and corrected by the Daily Bias Correction (DBC) model. Secondly, the LUCC scenarios are predicted based on the Cellular Automaton-Markov (CA-Markov) model. Finally, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is used to simulate the hydrological process under different combinations of climate and LUCC scenarios, with the attempt to quantitatively evaluate the impacts of climate change and LUCC on runoff generation. In this study, the Hanjiang River basin is used as the case study area. The results show that: (1) compared with the base period (1966-2005), the annual rainfall, daily maximum and minimum air temperatures during 2021-2060 will have an increase of 4.0%, 1.8 ℃, 1.6 ℃ in RCP4.5 scenario, respectively, while 3.7%, 2.5 ℃, 2.3 ℃ in RCP8.5 scenario, respectively. (2) During 2010-2050, the area proportions of forest land and construction land in the study area will increase by 2.8% and 1.2%, respectively, while those of farmland and grassland will decrease by 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively. (3) Compared with the single climate change or LUCC scenario, the variation range of future runoff under both climate and LUCC is the largest, and the influence of climate change on future runoff is significantly greater than that of LUCC. This study is helpful to maintain the future water resources planning and management of the Hanjiang River basin under future climate and LUCC scenarios.

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    Review and prospect of the 80th anniversary of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    GE Quansheng, LIAO Xiaohan, GAO Xing, FENG Zhiming, LIU Weidong, LIAO Xiaoyong, ZHU Yunqiang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2537-2546.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012001
    Abstract1002)   HTML123)    PDF (1099KB)(467)      

    The year 2020 marks the 80th anniversary of the establishment of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (IGSNRR), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Looking back over the past 80 years, the institute has experienced the initiation of Institute of Geography of China in Beibei, Chongqing in 1940, then the founding of Institute of Geography, CAS in 1953 and Commission for Integrated Survey of Natural Resources, CAS in 1956, and the final merger of the above two institutes into the IGSNRR in 1999. After the endeavour of three generations, IGSNRR innovates geography and resource sciences and has made contributions in different stages to the development of the country and the progress of human civilization. This paper commemorates the 80th anniversary of the IGSNRR by reviewing the development and progress of the institute over the past 80 years, summarizing the classic scientific research achievements and the major science and technology infrastructures, as well as looking forward to the future of IGSNRR.

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    Development and prospect of human-economic geography
    LU Dadao, LIU Yansui, FANG Chuanglin, CHEN Mingxing, WANG Jiaoe, XI Jianchao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2570-2592.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012003
    Abstract978)   HTML64)    PDF (4000KB)(542)      

    Human geography is one of the three major branches of geography. Since the establishment of Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGSNRR, CAS) in 1940, human-economic geography has gone through several important periods, such as budding, rise, maturity, fluctuation and prosperity. Outstanding progress and remarkable results have been achieved in scientific research, cultivation of talents and service of national strategic decision-making. Pioneering achievements have been made in the study of economic geography, agricultural geography, industrial geography, transportation geography, urban geography, rural geography, tourism geography and regional sustainable development, which has driven the overall innovation and development of China's human-economic geography. The IGSNRR has undertaken a series of national tasks and attained major achievements in the fields of agricultural regional planning and land use research, industrial base construction and transportation layout, urban system construction and urbanization, regional development and planning. And it has made important contributions to supporting the national strategy and leading the development of human-economic geography. This research made a systematic review of the establishment and growth history, research fields, research teams and academic achievements of the human-economic geography of IGSNRR in the past 80 years, as well as its role in serving national and regional economic and social development. Through selecting 6216 papers (4576 in Chinese and 1640 in English) published by the human-economic geographers of the IGSNRR, research progress and academic achievements in stages are reviewed. Finally, new consideration and prospect were proposed to face the ecological civilization construction, new urbanization, rural revitalization strategy and beautiful China construction. Our purposes are to innovate the frontier theory of human-economic geography and establish a new interdisciplinary system, and strive to strengthen research on territorial space governance, regional sustainable development, human-earth system science, urbanization and rural revitalization, and innovation of national modern geography.

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    Changing spatial patterns of internal migration to five major urban agglomerations in China
    CAO Guangzhong, CHEN Sichuang, LIU Tao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1334-1349.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106002
    Abstract975)   HTML86)    PDF (3104KB)(367)      

    Internal migration in China has presented a series of new characteristics recently. The secondary migration and spatial redistribution of existing migrants become increasingly important in determining the future patterns of urbanization. Urban agglomerations (UAs) have long been the major destination of China's internal migration. They are also appointed as the main form of future urbanization in the recently released national planning of new-type urbanization. Five major UAs were selected as a case study, including three coastal ones, namely the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH), and two inland ones, namely the Middle Yangtze River (MYR) and the Chengdu-Chongqing (CC) region. Based on data of the latest population census and the dynamic monitoring survey of floating population in the five major UAs, this paper first examined the spatial patterns of in-migrants from multiple dimensions of destination, origin, and distance of migration. The trends and urbanization effects of migration on the destination and origin were then assessed by comparing the settlement and hukou transfer intentions of migrants with different origins and destinations. The results showed the coexistence of common and distinct features in these mega regions. Although the continuous attractiveness of central cities for migrants was observed in all regions, peripheral cities in the YRD and PRD have become increasingly attractive as well, leading to a moderately dispersing trend in these two pioneering coastal UAs. Moreover, the concentration level and spatial distribution of migrants among cities were generally stable in the YRD and PRD but continuously adjusting in the BTH and two inland UAs. The fastest growth was found in inter-county migration within province and the slowest in intra-county migration. The coastal UAs were strongly preferred by inter-provincial migrants, while the inland ones could only attract migrants from the same or surrounding provinces. Despite this, significant distance attenuation was found in all of them. In terms of the origins of migrants, those from central provinces had flowed mainly to the YRD and PRD, whereas those from the northeast showed a high preference for the BTH region. We can anticipate the future patterns of migration and urbanization from the settlement intentions of migrants from and to different cities. From the destination view, the advantage in public services made central cities considerably more attractive than other cities. Hence, they are expected to be continuously faced with severe contradiction between supply and demand of public services. In the inland UAs, however, central cities and ordinary ones are able to share the pressure of public service provision. From the original view, the high-quality and equally accessible public services are important for inland regions to attract return migrants, and providing high possibility for the return-migration-induced urbanization. However, the population loss in the northeast may become a long-term trend that can hardly be reversed in the visible future.

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    The process of rural development and paths for rural revitalization in China
    GUO Yuanzhi, LIU Yansui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (6): 1408-1421.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202106007
    Abstract949)   HTML41)    PDF (2748KB)(235)      

    China is a large agricultural country, and issues concerning agriculture, rural areas and farmers are closely related to national economic and social development. To achieve the "Two Centenary Goals", rural revitalization strategy has become the choice to resolve unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development in China. Rural development is a comprehensive process of cycle accumulation and dynamic evolution of rural regional system. Thus, it is of great significance to systematically analyze the process and regional pattern of rural development to scientifically promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy in the new era. Based on the theory of human-earth areal system and human-earth system science, this study examines the process and features of rural development in China from 1978 to 2050, discusses the internal relationship between rural transformation and rural revitalization, reveals the spatial pattern of the level of county rural revitalization in 2017, and finally puts forward the key problems and countermeasures for rural revitalization in the new era. Results show that the evolution of China's rural development in the period of 1978-2050 can be divided into three stages, i.e. solving the problem of food and clothing (1978-2005), building a well-off society (2005-2020) and realizing prosperity (2020-2050). In general, it is a dynamic and continuous process from low-level and basic-type to high-quality and innovation-type. Rural revitalization is a special stage of rural transformation, and a strategic choice to solve the prominent problem in rural development when it has evolved to a certain stage, thus boosting rural development to a higher stage. In 2017, when rural revitalization strategy was initiated, the level of rural revitalization in 57.3% of the counties in China was between 0.40 and 0.50, and there was an obvious gradient differentiation from the east to the west, with significant clustering characteristics and positive correlation. Specifically, the counties featured by "high-high (H-H)" clustering were mainly distributed in the third step of the terrain and the middle of Sichuan Basin; while the counties featured by "low-low (L-L)" clustering were concentrated in western China except Sichuan Basin, the eastern part of Inner Mongolia and the north of Tianshan Mountains. Due to the regionalism, stage and the difference in constraints of rural development, the focuses of rural revitalization in the new era lie in scientifically identifying the targeting areas of rural revitalization, comprehensively judging the trends of rural development, and systematically diagnosing the dominant constraints of different types of rural areas, so as to take targeted measures to make up for the shortcomings of the modernization of agriculture and rural areas. Besides, it is necessary to fully understand the interactions between urban and rural areas, thus promoting urban-rural integrated development.

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    The principle of relatedness in China's regional industrial development
    HE Canfei, ZHU Shengjun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2684-2698.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012010
    Abstract867)   HTML47)    PDF (1861KB)(337)      

    Geographical distribution and agglomeration of industries have been a long lasting concern of economic geographers. Some studies have stressed geographical proximity and industrial agglomeration as the key driving force of uneven distribution of industries. Recently, evolutionary economic geography, based on evolutionary economics, has adopted a dynamic and historic perspective to study the evolution of regional industrial dynamics. It argues that geographical proximity is neither sufficient nor necessary for efficient knowledge spillovers; instead, it calls for more attention to the idea of cognitive proximity as well as its importance in regional industrial dynamics. The idea is that for knowledge spillovers to take place effectively, some kind of cognitive proximity in terms of shared competencies must be in place. Inspired by this, we examine China's regional industrial development through the lens of cognitive proximity, and propose the "principle of relatedness", that is, the probability of a region to enter/exit one specific economic activity is heavily dependent on regional pre-existing economic profile and local knowledge base. This paper first introduces some key, relevant concepts, and then reviews empirical studies that are underpinned by the "principle of relatedness". Furthermore, it discusses the applicability of "principle of relatedness" in the Chinese context. Our main findings are as follows: (1) theories on resource base view and knowledge spillovers both support the existence of the "principle of relatedness"; (2) the "principle of relatedness" enables us to better understand China's regional economic development, innovation and resilience; however, (3) the effectiveness of the "principle of relatedness" may be compromised by external shocks and internal institutions. One policy implication from the "principle of relatedness" as well as our empirical research is that Chinese regions should seek to diversify related industries and enhance related variety of their regional profiles. In doing so, they are able to become more economically resilient and achieve more sustainable economic development.

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    The evolution of navigation performance of Northeast Passage under the scenario of Arctic sea ice melting
    HUANG Jixia, ZHANG Tianyuan, CAO Yunfeng, GE Quansheng, YANG Linsheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1051-1064.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105001
    Abstract857)   HTML139)    PDF (4743KB)(282)      

    The global warming has led to the acceleration of the melting of Arctic sea ice, and the opening of the Polar Silk Road has gradually been put on the agenda. In this paper, according to the navigation performance of eight important Russian ports reaching the Bering Strait through the Northeast Passage from 2030 to 2070, the sea ice data of six CMIP5 climate models under two RCPs and two ship types of PC6 icebreaker and OW (merchant ship) ship are adopted. Based on the study of the four factors of optimal route, navigation time, navigable mileage and navigation cost, the main conclusions are as follows: (1) With the change of time, the optimal navigation routes are gradually concentrated and orderly. The navigation capacity of merchant ship has been significantly improved, and by 2070 it will have the same navigation capacity as the PC6 icebreaker has. (2) The navigation time between the Russian ports and the Bering Strait has decreased by 14 h every 10 a, of which St. Petersburg Port has the most significant decline. By 2070, when the longitude difference between the Russian port and the Bering Strait increases by 1°, the navigation time of the port decreases by 0.4 h. (3) In the next 50 a, the navigable mileage of Northeast Passage will increase by 166 km every 10 a, among which the change pattern and average change pattern of navigable mileage in St. Petersburg Port are the most similar. (4) The navigation cost of the route from the Arctic port is reduced by $10,000 every 10 a, and the decrease of the total navigation cost of merchant ships is the most obvious under high emission concentration. Combined with the change of sea ice, the ports in central and western Russia have great potential for resource transportation. This study quantifies and evaluates the evolution of the navigation performance of the Northeast Passage under the future sea ice melting situation, which provides theoretical and data support for the navigation of the Northeast Passage and the Arctic port trade.

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    North-south transect series in vegetation of eastern China's north-south transitional zone and their significance for determining climate dividing line
    ZHANG Xinghang, ZHANG Baiping, WANG Jing, YU Fuqin, ZHAO Chao, YAO Yonghui
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 30-43.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101003
    Abstract846)   HTML63)    PDF (4493KB)(647)      

    The National Basic Resources Investigation Program "Integrated Scientific Investigation of the North-South Transitional Zone" introduced the concept of north-south transitional zone (Qinling-Daba Mountains). Variation of north-south series in vegetation of the Qinling-Daba Mountains is of great significance to reveal the transition, diversity and complexity of the regional structure of China's north-south transitional zone. Based on the survey data of plant communities, in this study, the eastern Qinling-Daba Mountains is divided into four geography units: north flank of eastern Qinling Mountains (EQMN), south flank of eastern Qinling Mountains (EQMS), north flank of eastern Daba Mountains (EBMN), south flank of eastern Daba Mountains (EBMS). The regional climate divisions on levels of plant species, plant community structure and species richness are explored. The results show that: (1) On plant species level, there are mainly north plants in EQMN, evergreen species and fewer north plants in EQMS. Then to the eastern Daba Mountains, there are mainly south plants which like wetness and heat. (2) On plant community structure level, there are 4 formations (3 northern formations, 0 southern formation, 1 widespread formation) in EQMN, 6 formations (3 northern formations, 1 southern formation, 2 widespread formations) in EQMS, 4 formations (0 northern formation, 2 southern formations, 2 widespread formations) in EBMN, 3 formations (0 northern formation, 3 southern formations, 0 widespread formation) in EBMS. In terms of the numbers and properties of formation, there is a mixture of northern and southern formations only in EQMS. On species richness level, the diversity of family, genus and species decreases with the increase of latitude, but the mixture of north and south plants occurred in the south flank of eastern Qinling Mountains. This paper studies the variation of series in vegetation, which increases the scientificity of determining north-south dividing line, and shows that the south flank of eastern Qinling Mountains is more suitable as the warm temperate-subtropical zones dividing line.

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    Sensitivity and areal differentiation of vegetation responses to hydrothermal dynamics on the southern and northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains in Shaanxi province
    QI Guizeng, BAI Hongying, ZHAO Ting, MENG Qing, ZHANG Shanhong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (1): 44-56.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202101004
    Abstract831)   HTML66)    PDF (3629KB)(609)      

    The Qinling Mountains, located at the junction of warm temperate and subtropical zones, serves as the boundary between North and South China. Exploring the sensitivity of vegetation response to hydrothermal dynamics can be conducive to understanding the pattern and dynamics of main vegetation types and the mechanism of their response to changes in temperature and moisture. Importance should be attached to the laws of vegetation change in different climate zones. To reveal the sensitivity and areal differentiation of vegetation responses to hydrothermal dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of NDVI and SPEI on the southern and northern slopes of the Qinling Mountains from 2000 to 2018 are explored using the meteorological data from 32 meteorological stations and the MODIS NDVI datasets. The results show that: (1) The overall vegetation coverage of the Qinling Mountains improved significantly from 2000 to 2018. The NDVI rise rate and area ratio on the southern slope were higher than those on the northern slope, and the vegetation on the southern slope exhibited better improvement than that on the northern slope. The Qinling Mountains showed an insignificant humidification trend. The humidification rate and humidification area of the northern slope were greater than those on the southern slope. (2) Vegetation on the northern slope of the Qinling Mountains was more sensitive to hydrothermal dynamics than that on the southern slope. Vegetation was most sensitive to hydrothermal dynamics from March to June on the northern slope, and from March to May (spring) on the southern slope. The vegetation on the northern and southern slopes was mainly affected by hydrothermal dynamics on a scale of 3-7 months, and it responds weakly to hydrothermal dynamics on a scale of 11-12 months. (3) 90.34% of NDVI and SPEI were positively correlated in the Qinling Mountains. Spring humidification in most parts of the study area could promote the growth of vegetation all the year round. The sensitivity of vegetation responses to hydrothermal dynamics with increasing altitude increased first and then decreased. The altitude of 800 to 1200 m was the most sensitive altitude for vegetation response to hydrothermal dynamics. The sensitivity of vegetation response at the elevation of 1200-3000 m decreased with the increasing altitude. The grass was the most sensitive vegetation type to hydrothermal dynamics on the northern and southern slopes of the Qinling Mountains, but most of other vegetation types on the northern slope were more sensitive to hydrothermal dynamics than those on the southern slope.

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    Paths of high-quality development in China's coastal areas
    SUN Jiuwen, JIANG Zhi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 277-294.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102003
    Abstract817)   HTML43)    PDF (2620KB)(403)      

    High-quality development is the key measure to overcome the middle-income trap and join the advanced economy. With the deepening of reform and opening up, coastal areas have increasingly become the ballast of the economic growth, the center of national manufacturing, the frontier zone for building an innovative country, the pacesetter for constructing an open economy, and the demonstration window for green development. With typical characteristics of high-quality development, coastal areas will effectively drive the hinterland areas to the right track of high-quality development in order to form a strong support for the country's high-quality development, shaping a new pattern of coordinated regional development. According to the status quo and characteristics of high-quality development in coastal areas, this paper focuses on exploring outstanding problems of coastal areas as a whole and the northern, central and southern coastal areas in the process of high-quality development from five aspects of economic growth, industrial strength, innovation ability, opening up and green development. By analyzing realistic reasons for these problems, valuable references for the design of targeted high-quality development paths are designed. In the new era, coastal areas should grasp the historical opportunity of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development, Yangtze river delta integration, Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area construction, follow to improve industry core competitiveness, mobilize the vitality of innovation, build high-standard open economy, deepen ecological conservation by combining strategies of industrial upgrading, independent innovation, opening up and ecological civilization. By the method of working in concert to promote high-quality development in the northern, central and southern coastal areas, the leading role of coastal areas can be consolidated.

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    Chinese balanced regional development strategy from the perspective of development geography
    DENG Xiangzheng, LIANG Li, WU Feng, WANG Zhenbo, HE Shujin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (2): 261-276.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202102002
    Abstract788)   HTML31)    PDF (801KB)(269)      

    Large regional differences and uneven regional development is fundamental of China. Regional balanced development is an important topic in the field of development geography. This study reviews the course of regional balanced development in China and summarize the characteristics of regional balanced development in each period. This study suggests that inter- regional development of China shows a state of succession between balanced development and non-balanced development. Each succession brings the quality of social development to a new level and gradually make social development move towards the state of high- quality development and balanced regional development. Then, this study discusses the scientific connotation of regional balanced development. Under the guidance of sustainable development theory, we should pay attention to the resource endowment difference in different area, solve the problem among economy, human and nature and promote spatial balance of regional development and green development of ecological economic coordination. The balanced promotion of regional people's well-being is the ultimate goal of regional balanced development. In the end, based on the thinking of development geography, this study discusses the path of regional balanced development in China from three aspects of society, economy and ecology. Suggestions are put forward for the balanced development of China's regions and the improvement of people's well-being.

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    Evolution process and characteristics of spatial structure of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River
    ZHU Zheng, ZHU Xiang, LI Shuangshuang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 799-817.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104003
    Abstract788)   HTML38)    PDF (10088KB)(268)      

    The spatial structure reflects the hierarchical structure, functional structure, and community form between cities in the urban agglomeration, representing the expansion model and development characteristics of the urban agglomeration within a certain time range. In this study, the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River (UAMRYR), which is the first approved national urban agglomeration in China, is selected as the research object. The land use / land cover datasets, Landsat images, and urban population data were used in this study to analyze the evolution process and characteristics of the UAMRYR during 1990-2019 at the macro and micro levels. The research methodology includes the development of the spatial database, construction of the grid system, calculation of the urban expansion degree, and building of the expansion rose map. Based on the characteristics and the rules of historical development, a scenario analysis is processed on the development situation for 2020 and 2030. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) From 1990 to 2019, the spatial structure of the UAMRYR has transitioned from "three centers" into "single core, double centers, and multi- clusters", and then into "double cores, multi-centers, and multi-clusters". The "double cores" of the Wuhan metropolitan area and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration has developed into giant cores and will continue to expand during 2020-2030, becoming superlarge cores with built-up areas of about 2000 km2 and 1500 km2, respectively. Nanchang is relatively small and would remain as the regional development center radiating the Jiangxi Province. Seven development sub-centers have been formed, namely Xiangyang, Yichang, Jingzhou, Changde, Hengyang, Jiujiang, and Shangrao, and are expected to increase further in the future. (2) In the development process, four main axes of the Yangtze River, Wuhan to Changsha, Wuhan to Nanchang, Nanchang to Changsha, and several secondary axes have been formed. However, due to the lack of strong border hub and bridgehead city, the driving force of the axes on the urban agglomeration needs to be further improved. (3) There are several development problems in the area. The polarization effects of cores in the Wuhan metropolitan area and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration are extremely strong and continue to present a development trend. Jiangxi Province lacks a strong core, thus various environmental problems emerged due to the over-concentration of urban built-up areas. These places are urgently adjusted in order to control the speed of expansion, cultivate new regional centers, and strengthen the axis function.

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    The inheritance, development and transformation of industrial geography in China: Based on analysis of articles published in Acta Geographica Sinica during 1934-2019
    HE Canfei, WANG Wenyu, GUO Qi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (8): 1815-1834.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202108001
    Abstract787)   HTML1)    PDF (2077KB)(0)      

    It is very important to summarize the research, understand the development process and direction of industrial geography in China scientifically under the context of the development of international industrial geography. Based on 154 papers on industrial geography published in Acta Geographica Sinica from 1934-2019, this paper reviewed the development process of industrial geography in China and the progress of research in major fields. This paper showed that China's industrial geography is a unique theoretical system based on the integration of Western industrial geography theory and Soviet-style industrial geography theory, under the tasks of theory development and practices. Going through exploration, growth, perspective changing and deepening, industrial geography is gradually brought into line with the international researches on the content and paradigm. The development of discipline needs to meet the national strategic demand, raise theoretical innovation capacity, strengthen the application of new methods and techniques, and develop theories of industrial geography with the Chinese institutional context.

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    Innovative development and prospect of physical geography
    LIU Changming, ZHENG Du, CUI Peng, GE Quansheng, LIU Jiyuan, WU Shaohong, TANG Qiuhong, SONG Xianfang, YANG Linsheng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2547-2569.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012002
    Abstract777)   HTML50)    PDF (1176KB)(337)      

    Physical geography (PG) has always been the core discipline of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGSNRR, CAS) since its establishment in 1940. It aims to serve the grand needs of national development. PG has made significant scientific and technological achievements and progress in the fields of comprehensive physical geography, climatology, geomorphology, hydrology, soil geography, biogeography, chemical geography, etc. These achievements have set up the worldwide priority status of PG, and made great contributions to the scientific and technological innovation, regional sustainable economic and social development. This paper reviews the innovative development of PG in the IGSNRR, summarizes the academic achievements and landmark progress, and looks forward to the future development strategy. Four key points are presented including the interaction mechanism of land surface elements-process, the dynamics of land surface pattern, the comprehensive integration and simulation of process of land surface system, and the sustainable paradigm and regulation mechanism of orderly human activities of land surface system.

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    Spatiotemporal patterns and influencing factors of rainstorm-induced flood disasters in China
    HU Pan, CHEN Bo, SHI Peijun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (5): 1148-1162.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202105008
    Abstract776)   HTML99)    PDF (10412KB)(458)      

    Understanding the influencing factors and controls of rainstorm-induced floods, which have caused tremendous losses of human lives and national economy, is a pressing need for flood risk management in China. Based on the meteorological disaster census data of counties in China, hourly precipitation data at 2420 stations, statistical yearbook, terrain data and other data, the authors (1) investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of flood impacts in China over the period from 1984 to 2007 using trend analysis techniques and (2) explored the driving factors of the spatiotemporal pattern by adopting the geospatial statistical analysis tool (Geodetector). This study considered the spatiotemporal patterns and their interplays among county-level flood impacts (i.e., flood-induced mortality rate, proportion of population affected, and economic loss in percentage), disaster-formative environmental factors (i.e., population density, urban population percentages, average elevation, river density, average slope, and average distance to the seashore), and extreme precipitation characteristics (i.e., annual average volume and duration of extreme rainfall). The results show that: (1) there were no consistent temporal trends of extreme rainfall characteristics over the study period across China. (2) The frequencies of flood disasters in the Yangtze and Pearl rivers and southeast coastal areas increased significantly, but the casualties over these regions decreased. (3) Flood-induced casualties, proportion of population affected and economic loss in percentage increased in Northwest China; and meteorological factors, disaster-formative environment factors such as geographical conditions and social economy, and geographical conditions contribute mostly to the proportion of population affected, flood-induced death and economic loss in percentage. These results indicate that more attention should be paid to improving the flood control capacity of small or medium-sized cities in the inland river basins, especially in Northwest China, and we should recognize the important roles that disaster-formative environment plays in triggering flood losses.

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    Key scientific issues and research directions of the interconnected river system network
    LIU Changming, LI Zongli, WANG Zhonggen, HAO Xiuping, ZHAO Changsen
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (3): 505-512.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202103001
    Abstract772)   HTML36)    PDF (804KB)(317)      

    Water resources in China are unevenly distributed in time and space, which mismatches with China's economic and social patterns. The water situations severely restrict China's sustainable development. There are many problems in the present river and lake systems in China, mainly including frequent occurrences of flood and waterlogging, water shortage, river and lake shrinkage, severe water pollution, and water ecology and environment degeneration. It is one of the key subjects to protect water resources in China's economic and social developments. China's water conservancy development strategy is to actively propel the establishment of the interconnected river system network (IRSN), improve the ability of water resources allocation, guarantee river and lake health, and control floods and droughts. It is of significance to conduct research on the theories and techniques of IRSN. This paper mainly analyzed the situation of water resources that faces China, and then discussed the necessity and urgency of IRSN, proposed the key scientific issues of IRSN, and prospected the research framework for solving the relevant issues.

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    Disciplinary structure of geographic science in China
    CHEN Fahu, LI Xin, WU Shaohong, FAN Jie, XIONG Juhua, ZHANG Guoyou
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (9): 2069-2073.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202109001
    Abstract737)   HTML0)    PDF (727KB)(5)      

    The modern international and domestic science advancements have brought forward new opportunities as well as higher requirements to the development of geographic science in China. In planning the disciplinary structure of geographic science in the "Development Strategy of Discipline and Frontier Research in China (2021-2035)", we propose a modified disciplinary structure for the geographic science in the new era. The geographic science in China can be categorized into four secondary disciplines, i.e., integrated geography, physical geography, human geography, and information geography, considering the current situation and development outlook of geographic science. The tertiary disciplines under each secondary discipline are nearly fully developed, and a few quaternary disciplines under tertiary disciplines have already been widely accepted and used. We hope this new disciplinary structure can play a breakthrough role for improving the branches of geographic science, promoting the development of emerging disciplines under the framework of geographic science, and better serving the international and domestic development needs in the new era.

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    The short-term impact of COVID-19 epidemic on the migration of Chinese urban population and the evaluation of Chinese urban resilience
    TONG Yun, MA Yong, LIU Haimeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2505-2520.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011017
    Abstract693)   HTML48)    PDF (7856KB)(363)      

    The COVID-19 epidemic in 2020 has a severe impact on China's national economic and social development. Evaluating the short-term impact of the COVID-19 epidemic and the recovery of China's economy and society, as well as revealing its spatiotemporal characteristics, can provide a strong support for the economic situation research and urban restoration of the normalized epidemic prevention and control stage. Based on Baidu migration big data from January 13 to April 8 in 2020 and that of the same period in history, this paper constructs the Relative Recovery Index (RRI) and Recovery Gap Index (RGI). Furthermore, it reveals the daily characteristics, stage characteristics, and spatiotemporal patterns of the short-term impact of the COVID-19 epidemic at multiple scales. The results are as follows: (1) The outbreak did not affect the travel rush before the Spring Festival. The process after the Spring Festival experienced a recovery stagnation period, a rapid recovery period, and a slow recovery period. The overall degree of recovery nationwide rose from less than 20% during the stagnation period to about 60% at the end of the rapid recovery period. The slow recovery period began on March 3, with a recovery index of over 70%. It will take a long time to fully recover to the historical level. (2) The intercity activities on weekends and in holidays were significantly weakened, especially in the central and northeastern regions. (3) The impact of the epidemic on each region is significantly different, in terms of the RRI, the western region > eastern region > central region > northeastern region. (4) The degree of recovery varies significantly between cities. From the Spring Festival to April 8th, the spatial pattern was high in the south and low in the north. According to the severity of the epidemic, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Chongqing are in the cluster of High confirmed case-High recovery; Hebei, Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Henan, Anhui and Hunan are in the cluster of Low confirmed case-Low recovery. (5) With the effective control of the epidemic, the recovery gap has shifted from the large-scale insufficiency of labor force in the urban agglomerations such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta into the insufficiency in the central cities and some provincial capital cities. The results of this paper show that the use of spatiotemporal big data for real-time impact assessment of major public health emergencies have good application prospects.

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    The review and applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy
    GAO Peichao, CHENG Changxiu, YE Sijing, SHEN Shi, ZHANG Hong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (7): 1579-1590.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202107001
    Abstract691)   HTML17)    PDF (2329KB)(164)      

    The field of geography has three unique characteristics, namely, regionality, integration, and complexity. Among them, complexity has become increasingly crucial to geography in the current era. Entropy is a key concept and an indicator of the complexity of a system; thus, the research and application of entropy play a fundamental role in the development of geography. During recent years, Boltzmann entropy (i.e., thermodynamic entropy) has emerged as a research hotspot in the entropy for geography. Proposed as early as the year 1872, it is the core of the well-known Second Law of Thermodynamics. However, its application in geography had remained at a conceptual level for lack of computational methods with spatial data. Fortunately, much progress has been made globally towards computing and applying spatial Boltzmann entropy (i.e., the Boltzmann entropy of spatial data). This paper aims to perform a comprehensive review of such progress, in terms of the thermodynamic origination of Boltzmann entropy, the difficulties in applying it to geography, computational models and algorithms of spatial Boltzmann entropy, and all the applications up to now. Four major conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The current focus of research is placed on the Boltzmann entropy of spatial raster data. Models have been developed for computing Boltzmann entropy with both qualitative and quantitative raster data. (2) Many algorithms have been developed and can be classified into three categories, namely total edge-based, Wasserstein distance-based, and multiscale hierarchy-based. (3) It has witnessed two groups of applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy to geography, namely landscape ecology and remote sensing image processing. (4) Future research is recommended to develop algorithms for more types of spatial data, validating previous conclusions drawn using Shannon entropy, and extending the applications of spatial Boltzmann entropy.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution process and integrated measures for prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic in China
    LI Gang, WANG Jiaobei, XU Tingting, GAO Xing, JIN Annan, YU Yue
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (11): 2475-2489.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202011015
    Abstract681)   HTML35)    PDF (5072KB)(324)      

    The sudden outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an unexpected emergency event in human society, is spreading globally and has severe impacts on human health and social development. Based on the confirmed COVID-19 cases' details manually extracted from the official reports and the relevant Point of Interest (POI) data, this paper aims to explore the sociodemographic characteristics of confirmed COVID-19 cases and examine the spatio-temporal evolution patterns on different spatial scales in China by using text analysis, spatial analysis and other methods. Furthermore, we provide targeted measures for prevention and control of this epidemic. The results indicate that: (1) In contrast to the twenty-four solar terms, the epidemic started at Heavy Snow, ran rampant in the Beginning of Spring, declined in the Awakening of Insects, and stagnated at the Vernal Equinox. It experienced four stages: the early period of Wuhan dominant outbreak, the middle period of cross-country diffusion, the later period of Wuhan dominant decline and the ending period of rare local epidemic transmission. (2) The spatial distribution presents a pattern of "one core, two arcs and multiple islands", mainly affected by the distance to Wuhan and the flow of population; the spatial evolution is manifested in the mode of "core outbreak - cluster occurrence - dispersion occurrence - point occurrence". The core aggregation area in each stage was located in Hubei province. Finally, by integrating the influencing factors and effective measures of the epidemic evolution in China, this paper proposes effective countermeasures for the spread of the current epidemic and the coordinated development of human resources in response to similar challenges in the future, which are manifested in instant response, coordinated cooperation, regular prevention and control, and strict prevention of importation, etc. Also, the directions of in-depth study in the future are pointed out.

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    Geographic information science development and technological application
    ZHOU Chenghu, SUN Jiulin, SU Fenzhen, YANG Xiaomei, PEI Tao, GE Yong, YANG Yaping, ZHANG An, LIAO Xiaohan, LU Feng, GAO Xing, FU Dongjie
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (12): 2593-2609.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202012004
    Abstract651)   HTML50)    PDF (1147KB)(367)      

    This study reviews the historical process of the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in the field of geographic information science. From the early survey and cartography research, to the creation of China's geographic information discipline and the establishment of the State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Systems, the development of the institute represents the history of (i) the development of original geographic information theory with Chinese characteristics, (ii) independent research and development of world-class geographic information software, and (iii) geographic information providing solid scientific and technological support for major national strategies. Generally, the development of geographic information discipline was summarized from the aspects of cartography, geoscience remote sensing, geographic information science, geodata sharing, major technological breakthroughs and national strategic support. Finally, from the perspectives of geoscience knowledge graphs, geographic big data analysis, remote sensing artificial intelligence, geographic system simulation and knowledge services, we look forward to the development of new scientific paradigms in geographic science.

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    China's city network based on Tencent's migration big data
    WANG Lucang, LIU Haiyang, LIU Qing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2021, 76 (4): 853-869.   DOI: 10.11821/dlxb202104006
    Abstract634)   HTML34)    PDF (5400KB)(349)      

    With the rapid development of economic globalization and regional integration, the connection between cities is increasingly close. The mobility and interdependence of elements have promoted the formation of city network and become a new regional organization model and spatial structure. Based on Tencent's migration data, this paper constructs a 372×372 relational data matrix, and systematically depicts the city network pattern in China from different modes of transportation. The results show that cities with high network correlation degree are mainly concentrated in the area east of the Hu Huanyong Line, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Chengdu-Chongqing region and other urban agglomeration areas, which have the highest concentration and become the main control power of China's city network pattern; and the cities in the northwest half are at a disadvantage status. According to the amount of migration, the Chinese city network is divided into national, large regional, regional, local and pedestal networks. The city network structure changes with the mode of transportation. When the network level moves down, the number of node cities tends to increase and the network density increases, but the network range tends to shrink. There is a close correlation between the network level and the migration path. National-level network related to air transportation, regional network related to railway transportation, and local network are relevant to automobile transportation. The economic space-time distance of different transportation modes determines the network structure, which is the basic factor that causes the network to differentiate with different paths.

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