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    Spatio-temporal pattern of cropland abandonment in China from 1992 to 2017: A Meta-analysis
    Xuezhen ZHANG, Caishan ZHAO, Jinwei DONG, Quansheng GE
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 411-420.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903001
    Abstract3987)   HTML601)    PDF (2529KB)(3127)      

    Cropland abandonment has increasingly occurred in China, which potentially affects national food and ecological security. This study collected existing publications focusing on cropland abandonment. Then, we extracted the key characteristics of cropland abandonment events, including time, location, magnitude, and driving force. The meta-analysis was carried out on these items to disclose the spatio-temporal pattern and main drivers of cropland abandonment in China in the last three decades. We found that there were a total of 163 counties in which cropland abandonment occurred according to the existing literature. These counties were mostly located in southern China and, in particular, exhibited a pattern of a T-shape on 90 degree anticlockwise rotation. The vertical axis exhibited a north-south belt across southeastern Gansu Province, eastern Sichuan Province, Chongqing, western Guizhou Province, and northern Yunnan Province. The horizontal axis exhibited a west-east belt along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River across southern Hubei Province, northern Hunan Province,w and central to southern Anhui Province. In the provinces of Hunan, Sichuan, and Anhui, cropland abandonment can be found in 24, 23, and 21 counties, respectively; in Hubei, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, and Yunnan provincial-level areas, there are more than 10 counties with cropland abandonment. The formation of the “T” structure underwent two stages. Before 2010, there were 102 counties with cropland abandonment that mainly existed along the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River, where the horizontal axis occurred. Since 2010, there have been 63 counties with cropland abandonment, mostly existing in the north-south belt from southeastern Gansu to northern Guizhou, where the vertical axis occurred. The spatio-temporal patterns of cropland abandonment events matched well with the labor emigration from agriculture in the context of regional economic development and industrial restructuring. The low economic efficiency of agriculture and the shortage of agricultural labor are two common drivers leading to cropland abandonment in 86% and 78% of counties, respectively.

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    Ecological risk assessment based on terrestrial ecosystem services in China
    Feng CHEN, Hongbo LI, Anlu ZHANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 432-445.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903003
    Abstract2249)   HTML294)    PDF (1928KB)(1705)      

    The ecological risk assessment was previously explored according to ecological entity characteristics, such as point source threat and regional landscape pattern change, and ignored the factors related to the human well-being. The academic contribution of the essay is to integrate ecosystem services into assessment system of ecological risk in a new perspective. In this paper, the spatial mapping of ecosystem services on China's land is reconstructed with the aid of GIS and RS. Moreover, the ecological risk analysis model is established in order to quantitatively expound the spatial pattern of the ecological risk based on ecosystem services, and identify ecological risk control priority regions at different confidence levels. The results showed that: (1) From 2000 to 2010, the average annual value of total terrestrial ecosystem services index in China was between 0-2.17, and slightly fluctuated between 0.30-0.57 over the years. Some 24.7% of the regions with significantly increasing value included Taiwan, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, inland Xinjiang of northwest China, 37.1% of the regions with significantly decreasing value, including northeast China, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central and eastern regions of China; (2) The risk losses of ecosystem services were exposed to different situations under different confidence levels. When the confidence level was 90%, the potential loss ratio of the total ecosystem services index was 24.19%, and the ecological risk index was 0.253. Furthermore, by analyzing the relationship between confidence level and ecological risk index, when the confidence level was high, the probability of risk was reduced correspondingly, but the losses correspondingly increased when risk occurred; (3) We investigated the scenario as an example under the 90% confidence level. The different eco-regions with the risk characteristics are as follows: the top six eco-regions with average ecosystem services risk index are Inner Mongolia Plateau, North China Plain, Loess Plateau, Northeast China Plain, Hengduan Mountain Region, and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The proportions of the eco-regions with extreme risk are 55.89%, 26.63%, 24.35%, 20.62%, 18.70% and 25.12%, respectively.

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    Explanation of land use/cover change from the perspective of tele-coupling
    Enpu MA, Jianming CAI, Jing LIN, Yan HAN, Liuwen LIAO, Wei HAN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 421-431.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903002
    Abstract1914)   HTML266)    PDF (1686KB)(1427)      

    The existing research on the mechanism of LUCC cannot fully illustrate dynamics of land use/cover driven by long-distance interaction in the global context. To fill this gap, a theoretical framework of tele-coupling interpretation is intentionally introduced in this paper. Starting with a general overview of previous studies on the mechanism of LUCC in perspectives of human society development, and followed by the empirical evidence for these mechanisms, this paper proposes an initial framework of tele-coupling interpretation. It is concluded that remote connection, globalization, and urbanization are the three major forms of tele-coupling that have driven LUCC. Specifically, in terms of environmental interactions between long-distance natural systems, climate change and large-scale climate events have cross-regional impacts. For example, they can directly affect vegetation dynamics by changing climate factors such as temperature and precipitation, resulting in the climatic tolerance range of vegetation, which in turn could change the distribution pattern of vegetation, leading to the land use/cover change. For socio-economic interactions between distant human systems, the globalization process may drive the land use/cover change through transmission and feedback of various flows of information, technologies, capital and goods at different levels of administrative spaces. Regarding to urbanization, it could alter the land use/coverage in remote areas directly or indirectly through the process of production factor aggregation. Based on these elaborations, this paper further puts forward the key contents and basic steps of the application of tele-coupling framework in LUCC research. Firstly, a "time-space-event" trinity analysis path of land use/cover change is established, which links the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use/cover with the sequence of events that drive the change. This kind of analysis seeks to use specific social, economic, and natural events to explore the driving forces to land use/cover change. The operational analytical method with five steps is thus proposed for this purpose. Secondly, the distance decay curve method and the event sequence classification method inside and outside the area should be applied for decomposing driving forces to the near-remote land use/cover change. Finally, a comprehensive network-based inter-system study or cross-system synthesis is badly needed to better understand land use/cover change at the regional (global) scale. Cross-system synthesis is the key step to realize the transformation from micro case studies to a macroscopic comprehensive integration, and its primary mission is to clarify the mutual feedback of factor flows between multiple systems and their impact on land use/cover change. In conclusion, the new method is expected to achieve a synchronous explanation of land use/cover change driven by multiple long-distance systems, in an aim to have a holistic and better understanding of the human-nature coupling system at the regional (global) scale.

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    New research progress of eye tracking-based map cognition in cartography since 2008
    Weihua DONG, Hua LIAO, Zhicheng ZHAN, Bing LIU, Shengkai WANG, Tianyu YANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 599-614.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903015
    Abstract1517)   HTML70)    PDF (4829KB)(675)      

    Maps are a necessity in people's lives. Map cognition research, a science of investigating perception, learning, memory, reasoning and decision making of maps, has long been an important issue in the foundation of cartography. As a core part of map cognition research, studies on visual cognition of maps have made a series of achievements promoted by advancements of related fields (e.g., psychology, cognitive science and computer vision) and new techniques (e.g., eye tracking, EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging). Particularly, eye tracking approach has gained much attention, which has been used as a crucial method to investigate map cognition. This paper reviews the new progress of eye tracking based visual cognition of maps which have been made since 2008. We summarized these progresses in six aspects: (1) stimulus: from static maps to dynamic and interactive maps; (2) research extent: from map cognition to map-based spatial cognition; (3) experiment environment: from lab environment to real environment; (4) map dimension: from 2D to 3D; (5) individual differences: from single dimension to multiple dimensions; (6) research purpose: from theory exploration to application. We also summarized future research challenges, difficulties and possible solutions. We hope this review can serve as an initial effort to open more endeavor for future eye tracking investigations into map cognition.

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    Principle of big geodata mining
    Tao PEI, Yaxi LIU, Sihui GUO, Hua SHU, Yunyan DU, Ting MA, Chenghu ZHOU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 586-598.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903014
    Abstract1396)   HTML142)    PDF (1932KB)(1157)      

    This paper reveals the principle of geographic big data mining and its significance to geographic research. In this paper, big geodata are first categorized into two domains: earth observation big data and human behavior big data. Then, another five attributes except for "5V", including granularity, scope, density, skewness and precision, are summarized regarding big geodata. Based on this, the essence and effect of big geodata mining are uncovered by the following four aspects. First, as the burst of human behavior big data, flow space, where the OD flow is the basic unit instead of the point in traditional space, will become a new presentation form for big geodata. Second, the target of big geodata mining is defined as revealing the spatial pattern and the spatial relationship. Third, spatio-temporal distributions of big geodata can be seen as the overlay of multiple geographic patterns and the patterns may be changed with scale. Fourth, big geodata mining can be viewed as a tool for discovering geographic patterns while the revealed patterns are finally attributed to the outcome of human-land relationship. Big geodata mining methods are categorized into two types in light of mining target, i.e. classification mining and relationship mining. The future research will be facing the following challenges, namely, the aggregation and connection of big geodata, the effective evaluation of mining result and mining "true and useful" knowledge.

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    The Coupled Human and Natural Cube: A conceptual framework for analyzing urbanization and eco-environment interactions
    LIU Haimeng, FANG Chuanglin, LI Yonghong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1489-1507.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908001
    Abstract1223)   HTML243)    PDF (3788KB)(1136)      

    The coupled urbanization and eco-environment system is an important aspect of coupled human and natural systems. However, the time-space compression, long range interactions, and reconstruction of socio-economic structure at the global scale pose great challenges to the traditional analysis frameworks for human-nature systems. We are in urgent need of developing a brand new analysis framework. In this paper, based on the connotation of the coupled urbanization and eco-environment system and its four dimensions — space, time, appearance and organization, we propose a conceptual framework "Coupled Human and Natural Cube (CHNC)" to explain the coupling mechanism between urbanization and eco-environment, which is inspired by the theories including human-earth areal system, telecoupling, planetary urbanization, and perspectives from complexity science. We systematically introduce the concept, connotation, evolution rules and analysis dimensions of the CHNC. It is worth noting that there exist various "coupling lines" in the CHNC, which connects different systems and elements at multiple scales, and forms a nested, interconnected organic bigger system. The rotation of the CHNC represents the spatiotemporal nonlinear fluctuation of the urbanization and eco-environment system in different regions. As the system exchanges energy with the environment continually, the critical phase transition occurs when fluctuation reaches a certain threshold, and leads to emergence behaviors of the system. The CHNC has four dimensions — pericoupling and telecoupling, syncoupling and lagcoupling, apparent coupling and hidden coupling, intra-organization coupling and inter-organization coupling. We mainly focus on the theoretical connotation, research methods and typical cases of telecoupling, lagcoupling, hidden coupling, and inter-organization coupling, and finally put forward a human-nature coupling matrix to integrate multiple dimensions. In summary, the CHNC provides a more comprehensive and systematic research paradigm for understanding the evolution and coupling mechanism of the human-nature system, which expands the analysis dimension of coupled human and natural systems, and provides some scientific supports to formulate regional sustainable development policies for human wellbeing.

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    Exploration on the theoretical basis and evaluation plan of Beautiful China construction
    Chuanglin FANG, Zhenbo WANG, Haimeng LIU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (4): 619-632.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904001
    Abstract1142)   HTML226)    PDF (5913KB)(1185)      

    Beautiful China construction (BCC) is of fundamental importance for the sustainable development of the Chinese nation and a Chinese practice of the 2030 UN sustainable development agenda. The Chinese government has made strategic arrangements for the BCC with a five-pronged approach. President Xi Jinping proposed the schedule and roadmap for the BCC at the National Ecological Environmental Protection Conference. But at present, the theoretical basis, evaluation index system, evaluation criteria and construction effect of the BCC are not clear. This paper puts forward the basic connotation of the BCC from a broad and narrow perspective, regards the theory of man-earth harmony and Five-dimensional integration as the core theoretical basis of the BCC, and further constructs the evaluation index system of the BCC, which includes five dimensions: ecological environment, green development, social harmony, institutional improvement and cultural heritage, and uses the United Nations human development index (HDI) evaluation method to scientifically evaluate the construction effect of 341 prefecture-level cities (states) in China in 2016. The results show that the average value of the BCC Index (Zhongke Beauty Index) is 0.28, which is generally at a low level. The average of the sub-indexes of the ecological environment beauty index, the green development beauty index, the social harmony beauty index, the system perfect beauty index and the cultural heritage beauty index are respectively 0.6, 0.22, 0.29, 0.22, and 0.07. The sub-index values are all low, and the regional development is quite different, which indicates that the construction process of Beautiful China is generally slow and unbalanced. In order to implement the schedule and roadmap for the BCC with high quality and high standards, it is recommended that we construct and publish a general evaluation system for the BCC process, carry out dynamic monitoring and phased comprehensive evaluation of the BCC process, compile and publish the evaluation standards for BCC technology, do a good job in the comprehensive zoning of Beautiful China, carry out pilot projects for the construction of Beautiful China's model areas according to local conditions, and incorporate the achievements of Beautiful China into the assessment indicators of all levels of government.

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    Comprehensive evaluation on China's man-land relationship: Theoretical model and empirical study
    YANG Yu,LI Xiaoyun,DONG Wen,HONG Hui,HE Ze,JIN Fengjun,LIU Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1063-1078.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906001
    Abstract1053)   HTML172)    PDF (4667KB)(1107)      

    Relationship is a classic concern of geographical research, which is also a research field where China's human and economic geography has made notable contributions to international geographical research. The connotation of man-land relationship changes constantly during its dynamic evolution process. Therefore, a scientific evaluation on the status of modern man-land relationship in China is the basis for an accurate understanding of it with which paths of coordinating conflicts between man and land can be sought. Based on the territorial system theory of man-land relationship and a review of the new characteristics of modern man-land relationship in China, this study constructs a theoretical framework to make a comprehensive evaluation on man-land relations using the following four indicators: intensity of human activities, carrying capacity of core resources, ecological and environmental constraints, and openness of man-land system. Counties are taken as the basic spatial units in the evaluation. The following results are found: there are apparent differences between eastern and western China in terms of intensity of human activities and the distribution pattern of it follows the layout of core urban agglomerations; the carrying capacities of core resources take on a relatively dispersed spatial distribution; there is a high level of spatial mismatch between land, water, core energy resources, and the intensity of human activities, which intensifies the tension of regional man-land relationship; areas with strong ecological and environmental constrains are concentrated on both sides of the Heihe-Tengchong Line (also known as the Hu Huanyong Line) and in the southwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; overall, the level of openness of China's man-land system is not high, with relatively open areas mainly concentrated in economically developed regions. The evaluation results show that about 86% of the regions in China are faced an unstrained man-land relationship, but noticeable man-land conflicts are found in some areas, particularly in southeastern coastal areas. In the western region of China, man-land relationship is relatively unstrained though the level of man-land system evolution is low.

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    The theoretical basis and technical path of cyberspace geography
    GAO Chundong, GUO Qiquan, JIANG Dong, WANG Zhenbo, FANG Chuanglin, HAO Mengmeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1709-1722.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909001
    Abstract941)   HTML160)    PDF (3797KB)(811)      

    As a new spatial form of human activities, cyberspace is the common carrier of human and information. Cyberspace security is an important foundation of national security. The scientific description of cyberspace is an important cornerstone of cyber event analysis, cyberspace governance and cyber security guarantee, and also a new field of geographic science research in the information age. In the context of rapid development and fierce competition in global cyberspace, it is urgent to strengthen the intergration of geography and cyberspace security, and to carry out theoretical and methodological innovations based on traditional geosciences, and to create cyberspace geography. Cyberspace geography is the extension of geoscience research content from real space to virtual space. Its theoretical basis has evolved from the traditional theory of man-land relationship to the theory of man-land-network relationship; its research contents include constructing the mapping relationship between cyberspace and real space, redefining the basic concepts of distance and region in cyberspace, constructing the language, model and method system of cyberspace visualization, drawing the cyberspace map and exploring the evolution laws of the structure and behavior of cyberspace; its technical path includes the data collection and fusion of cyberspace elements, the visualization of cyberspace and the intelligent cognition of cyberspace situation and behavior. The intelligent cognition covers the assessment of cyberspace situation, transmission and traceability analysis of network hot events, situation simulation and risk prediction of cyber events, etc. The establishment of cyberspace geography will certainly provide a new perspective for the scientific cognition of cyberspace, the discipline construction of geography and cyberspace security science, as well as the prevention and control of national cyber security and the construction of a community of common future in cyberspace.

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    Geomorphological regionalization theory system and division methodology of China
    CHENG Weiming,ZHOU Chenghu,LI Bingyuan,SHEN Yuancun
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (5): 839-856.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201905001
    Abstract932)   HTML175)    PDF (4541KB)(926)      

    Geomorphological regionalization and geomorphological types are the two core contents of geomorphologic research. Despite that there are many research achievements on the study of geomorphological regionalization, defects still exist such as the inconsistence of landform indicators, the small quantity of division grades, the disparity of geomorphological characteristics, the difference of mapping results and the small scale of zoning maps. New requirements for the national geomorphological regionalization therefore should be proposed at the request of national geo-information surveying and other national specific projects. On the basis of combing the theories of geomorphological regionalization in China including plate tectonics and crustal features, geomorphological features from endogenic and exogenic forces, and differences and regional differentiations of geomorphological types, a new research program of China's geomorphological regionalization with five grades, that is, major region, sub-major region, region, sub-region and small region, was proposed based on the previous geomorphological regionalization proposed in 2013 which divided the whole China into 6 major geomorphological regions and 37 districts. The major contents of the new geomorphological regionalization program can be summarized as follows: (1) principles of the national multi-grades geomorphological regionalization were established, (2) hierarchical indicator systems of the geomorphological regionalization (i.e. characteristics of the terrain ladder under the control of tectonic setting, combinations of regional macro-form types, combinations of endogenic and exogenic force and basic types of morphology, combinations of regional morphological types, combinations of regional micro-morphological types) were constructed, (3) naming rules and coding methods of the geomorphological regionalization were proposed, (4) precise positioning techniques and methods of the multi-grades geomorphological regionalization based on multi-source data were developed. On the basis of this new geomorphological regionalization project, the partitioning works of national five-grade geomorphological regionalization of 1:250,000 of China were successfully completed. And the geomorphological regionalization systems of the whole China were divided into 6 major regions, 36 sub-major regions, 136 regions, 331 sub-regions and more than 1500 small regions. In addition, the database and the management information system of the national geomorphological regionalization were then established. This research is of important guiding significance for promoting the development of China's regional geomorphology and the application research based on geomorphological regionalization.

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    Production of space and developmental logic of New Urban Districts in China
    ZHUANG Liang,YE Chao,MA Wei,ZHAO Biao,HU Senlin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1548-1562.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908005
    Abstract888)   HTML138)    PDF (2940KB)(850)      

    New Urban Districts (NUDs) are the important spatial carriers of urbanization. Since the reform and opening up in China, NUD has been playing a more and more crucial role in the process of urbanization, and has undergone a surging growth in recent years. NUDs in China are unique because of the most widespread 'building city' movement. Many researches focus on new districts or new towns in the broad sense, but little research has been done in a narrow sense in academia. The development of comprehensive NUDs will be of great significance to the sustainable transformation of China's cities in the future. Based on the critical theory of spatial production, this paper examines the spatiotemporal evolution and internal logic of NUDs. The establishment and development of NUDs is a rapid and trinity dialectical process of spatial production: representations of space is guided by the top-down governmental power; spatial practice is reflected in the hierarchical and regional difference of spatial elements, such as type, pattern, distance and area of NUDs; spaces of representation are the tensions between governmental power and urban development rights, as well as the countermeasure mechanism. In this trinity dialectical process, the extensibility of spatiotemporal sequences ensures the unity and continuity of spatial production or reproduction of NUDs. However, under the governmentoriented model, NUDs are also facing a series of challenges like the management coordination of administrative area and the increasing unbalanced regional development. Thus, it is time to keep a critical thinking and reinterpretation for the development of NUDs in China, which should be a key concern to achieve balanced regional development and new-type urbanization in the new era.

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    Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1941-1961.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910001
    Abstract852)   HTML154)    PDF (9943KB)(775)      

    Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

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    Assessment of territorial ecosystem carbon storage based on land use change scenario: A case study in Qihe River Basin
    Wenbo ZHU, Jingjing ZHANG, Yaoping CUI, Hui ZHENG, Lianqi ZHU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 446-459.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903004
    Abstract842)   HTML102)    PDF (2918KB)(676)      

    The change of regional land use is the main cause for the change of carbon storage in territorial ecosystem, which affects the process of carbon emission and sink. However, previous studies on the impact of future land use change on ecosystem carbon storage considering temporal and spatial scales in the basin are still absent. This study analyzed land use change from 2005 to 2015 in the Qihe River Basin, Taihang mountainous areas, and used Markov-CLUE-S composite models to predict land use pattern of this region in 2025, under three scenarios of natural growth, farmland protection and ecological conservation. Based on the data of land use, we used carbon storage module in InVEST model to evaluate carbon storage of territorial ecosystem during the past 10 years and the future. The results showed that: (1) The carbon storage and carbon density of the ecosystem in the Qihe River Basin in 2015 were 3.16×107 t and 141.9 t/hm2, respectively, and they both had decreased by 0.07×107 t and 2.89 t/hm2 during the 10 years. (2) From 2005 to 2015, the carbon density was mainly reduced in low altitude areas, and the ratio of the increased areas was similar to that of the reduced areas in the high altitude areas. The decrease of carbon density was mainly caused by expansion of construction land in the middle and lower reaches, and degradation of forestland in the upper reach of Qihe River Basin. (3) From 2015 to 2025, the carbon storage and carbon density of ecosystem will decrease by 0.03×107 t and 1.38 t/hm2 respectively in the natural growth scenario, mainly due to the reduction of carbon sequestration capacity in low altitude areas. The farmland conservation scenario will slow down the decrease of carbon storage and carbon density (0.01×107 t and 0.44 t/hm2), mainly due to the enhancement of carbon sequestration capacity in low altitude areas. The ecological protection scenario will increase carbon storage and carbon density significantly to 3.19×107 t and 143.26 t/hm2 respectively, mainly appearing in the area above 1100 m. The ecological protection scenario can enhance carbon sequestration capacity, but it cannot effectively control the loss of farmland area. Therefore, the land use planning of the study area can comprehensively consider the ecological protection scenario and farmland conservation scenario, which not only increases carbon sink, but also ensures the farmland quality and food security.

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    Analysis of the geo-relationships between China and its neighboring countries
    CHEN Xiaoqiang, YUAN Lihua, SHEN Shi, LIANG Xiaoyao, WANG Yuanhui, WANG Xiangyu, YE Sijing, CHENG Changxiu, SONG Changqing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1534-1547.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908004
    Abstract832)   HTML123)    PDF (3545KB)(627)      

    Geo-relationships, as an important field of research in geography, have attracted much attention from scholars. Quantitative research on geo-relationships based on big data is an important supplement to traditional geo-relationships study. This paper uses GDELT mass media data to express the geo-relationships between China and its neighboring countries as a global relationship of cooperation and conflict, and identifies the stage division of these relationships using ordered cluster analysis. Social network analysis is conducted for each stage of the cooperation and conflict relationship, and community detection is used to further analyze and interpret the networks of cooperation and conflict. Finally, we highlight bilateral relations in various stages and conduct a China-centered equilibrium analysis. Three main results are presented. First, from 1979 to 2017, the cooperation and conflict relationship between China and its neighboring countries demonstrated an obvious three-stage temporal division. China has gradually become the center of the network, and a broad cooperation pattern centered on China and supported by Russia, Japan, and South Korea has formed. Second, the highlighted bilateral relations in each stage, such as China-Vietnam, China-Japan, China-Russia, and DPRK-ROK, show varied development trends and driving factors. Third, with the process of China's peaceful rise, cooperation between the country and its neighbors is becoming more and more balanced, and conflict between them is expanding.

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    The spatial-temporal patterns of the impact of human activities on vegetation coverage in China from 2001 to 2015
    Jianbang WANG, Jun ZHAO, Chuanhua LI, Yu ZHU, Chongyang KANG, Chao GAO
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 504-519.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903008
    Abstract831)   HTML110)    PDF (5333KB)(768)      

    Based on MODIS-NDVI and climate data, using an artificial influence model based on coefficient of variation to quantitatively calculate the human impact of vegetation cover(NDVIH) in China from 2001 to 2015, Sen+Mann-Kendall model and Hurst index were used to analyze the spatial-temporal feature and the future trends. It was found that: (1) In the year from 2001 to 2015, the Spatial Differentiation of NDVIH in China was more obvious from southern part to northern part, with an average annual mean value of -0.0102, the vegetation coverage decreased slightly under human activities, the negative impact area accounting for 51.59% which is slightly larger than the positive impact area. (2) The interannual variation of NDVIH in China is obvious, showing the negative impact volatility decreased, the rate of decline is 0.5%/10a; among which the positive and negative effects all showed an increasing trend, the positive growth rate (0.3%/10a) is much larger than the negative impact (0.02%/10a). (3) During 2001-2015, the center of gravity of positive impact has moved to the northeast, the center of gravity of negative impact has moved to the southwest, vegetation cover in northeastern China has improved under the influence of mankind, and human activities in the southwest have increased the degree of vegetation destruction. (4) The proportion of "negative impact reduction" and "positive impact increase" trend of NDVIH in China appeared to be the largest which accounting for 28.14% and 25.21% of the total, and the ecological environment is improving. (5) The reverse characteristics of NDVIH change were stronger than the same characteristic in China, mainly showed a negative impact which decreased at the first and then increased with the rate of 15.59% of the total area.

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    Spatial heterogeneity of the effects of mountainous city patternon catering industry location
    TU Jianjun,TANG Siqi,ZHANG Qian,WU Yue,LUO Yunchao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1163-1177.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906007
    Abstract829)   HTML94)    PDF (5885KB)(602)      

    Accurately and effectively estimating the effects of urban pattern on industrial location is always an important issue that has received much attention in urban geography. However, current studies have mainly focused on the influence of a single type of urban functional spaces on industrial location using statistical data based on administrative units. And these studies have not conducted in-depth research into the spatial heterogeneity of influences. Against the existing shortcomings, taking the central Chongqing as an example, this research aimed to investigate how different urban functional spaces influenced the catering industry distribution based on kernal density, spatial autocorrelation and geographic weighted regression from point of interest (POI) data. The research reveals the following points: (1) the spatial distribution of restaurants was characterized by a multi-center spatial structure of "one main, two subs and four third-level centers", which directly reflected the urban pattern. (2) Not only the scale of restaurant agglomeration was closely related to urban expansion sequence, but also the direction of restaurant agglomeration was consistent with urban expansion direction. (3) The urban functional spaces had different or even opposite influences on the restaurant distribution in different city groups. The effect of residential space on the restaurant distribution was all positive, which increased from the central to the peripheral groups. The influence of commercial space on restaurant distribution was weakened from the inside to the outside of the barrier of the mountains, but there might be a phenomenon of commercial dependence in the groups where the location was isolated and the business development was immature. Since the restaurants in the peripheral groups was more dependent on the transport accessibility, the effect of urban traffic space on restaurant distribution in the peripheral groups was greater than that in the central groups, which resulted in a phenomenon of traffic dependence. The urban public space in central groups played a greater role in promoting restaurant assembled than that of the peripheral groups on account of high-quality public service in central groups. The influence of urban leisure space on restaurant distribution was related to the number and popularity of scenic spots. (4) Moreover, different urban functional spaces had different influences on the spatial distribution of restaurants, and urban commercial space had the greatest impact due to its high density of urban construction and population density. This study is especially valuable for understanding the function mechanism of urban pattern on industrial location and providing a scientific basis for making rational urban development plan.

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    Development and management tasks of the Yellow River Basin: A preliminary understanding and suggestion
    LU Dadao, SUN Dongqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2431-2436.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912001
    Abstract799)   HTML139)    PDF (828KB)(554)      

    The Yellow River Basin and the areas along the Yellow River play an important strategic role in national development. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC, delivered an important speech at the symposium on ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin in Zhengzhou, which is of great strategic significance. This paper gives a preliminary understanding of the comprehensive governance and the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It points out that the task of the comprehensive and profound transformation and development of the Yellow River Basin in the new era is still arduous, and change of concept is required. Continuing to promote the clean and efficient use of energy, promoting industrial development in accordance with local conditions, preventing extensive development and protecting cultivated land resources should be regarded as important measures to strengthen the comprehensive management and guarantee the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It is believed that the "Yellow River Economic Belt" does not exist at the national economic level, and it is not appropriate to identify "the Yellow River Delta" as a national strategy.

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    Influencing mechanism and policy suggestions of China- Mongolia-Russia high-speed railway construction
    DONG Suocheng,YANG Yang,LI Fujia,CHENG Hao,LI Jingnan,BILGAEV Alexey,LI Zehong,LI Yu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (2): 297-311.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201902007
    Abstract768)   HTML51)    PDF (2441KB)(838)      

    The construction of China-Mongolia-Russia high-speed railway (CMRHSR) is a strategic move to promote inter-connectivity of transportation infrastructure and to build international land transportation corridor among China, Mongolia and Russia. However, a well-planned CMRHSR demands that we accurately clarify the main influencing factors of high-speed railway construction, reveal its influence mechanism and spatial pattern, and formulate targeted prevention and control measures. Therefore, this study analyzes the main factors influencing the construction of the CMRHSR, clarifies its influence mechanism on high-speed railway construction. By establishing an integrated influence index evaluation model (IIIEM), we evaluate the magnitudes of different influencing factors in all research units, and reveal their spatial pattern. We found that economy, society and ecology are the key factors influencing high-speed railway construction. Regions with great economic influence are Zabaykalsky Krai, Republic of Buryatia, and Mongolia due to their underdeveloped economy, slow even negative economic growth, sparsely distributed and declining population, as well as poor transportation, which suggests poor profitability for high-speed railways in the short-term. Regions with great social influence are Mongolia, Zabaykalsky Krai, Republic of Buryatia and Irkutsk Oblast due to the high unemployment rate in Mongolia and relatively low government and residential support because of geopolitical and ecological destruction concerns arising from high-speed railway construction, which reduces the feasibility on the construction of high-speed railway. Regions with great ecological influence are Heilongjiang, Buryat Republic, Irkutsk Oblast, and Zabaykalsky Krai due to their favorable ecological environment and rich biodiversity, which suggests a high ecological destruction risk; regions with great disaster influence is Mongolia due to its frequent disasters, which may increase the difficulty of railway construction. Then, according to the distribution of influencing factors, we propose designs for the east and west CMRHSR and policy suggestions to mitigate impacts on high-speed railway construction. Suggestions include establishing innovative cooperation mode of "high-speed rail for resources and markets" to reduce economic influence; strengthening communication and high-tech propaganda to reduce social influence; setting up buffers and applying high-tech engineering techniques to reduce ecological risk. Some measures are proposed to mitigate construction influence such as establishing joint prevention system of three major ecological risks in China, Mongolia and Russia trans-border areas, and enhancing strategic collaboration and promoting economic integration among the three countries.

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    Cognition and construction of the theoretical connotation for new-type urbanization with Chinese characteristics
    Mingxing CHEN, Chao YE, Dadao LU, Yuwen SUI, Shasha GUO
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (4): 633-647.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904002
    Abstract755)   HTML119)    PDF (2827KB)(809)      

    Since the reform and opening up, China's rapid urbanization has boosted the development of economy and society, but it is also confronted with tremendous challenges. The multidisciplinary research has promoted the issue of National New-type Urbanization Planning, which indicates the transformation of China's urbanization strategy. Further research, however, is needed to explore the theoretical construction of China's new-type urbanization. The paper summarizes the development process of China's urbanization and points out its characteristics, which includes peri-urbanization, special national conditions, complicated factors and governance system. China's urbanization makes a great contribution to the world. Moreover, the literature demonstrates the significance of urbanization to the discipline of human and economic geography and the scientific connotations of new-type urbanization, which refers to peiple-oriented, harmonious, inclusive and sustainable. Under the background of the humanism transformation, new-type urbanization should transform from population urbanization to people-oriented urbanization. There are six crucial scientific issues: people-oriented urbanization and equalization of basic public services, urbanization with integrated and coordinated development of urban and rural, urbanization in the context of resources and environment carrying capability and climate change, diverse regional modes, spatial effect and mechanism, as well as big data and innovation of technical methods. The paper makes efforts to illustrate a framework of China's new-type urbanization connotation, which provides references for theoretical research and policy formulation.

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    Population distribution pattern and influencing factors in Tibet based on random forest model
    Chao WANG, Aike KAN, Yelong ZENG, Guoqing LI, Min WANG, Ren CI
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (4): 664-680.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904004
    Abstract746)   HTML136)    PDF (3428KB)(628)      

    Clarifying the spatial pattern of population distribution, its influencing factors and regional differences at the township level is of great guiding significance for formulating sustainable development policies in ecologically fragile areas. Based on the population census data of Tibet at the township level in 2010, the population density and spatial factors were extracted. The density and clustering characteristics of the population distribution were analyzed by spatial statistical method. The multiple linear regression method and the random forest regression method were used to explore the population influencing factors and their regional differences of population distribution. The results showed that: (1) The population density of Tibet at the township level showed a strong spatial non-equilibrium. The general trend was high in the southeast and low in the northwest, and there was a strong spatial coupling between the main rivers and the main traffic trunks in high density area. (2) The "core-edge" characteristic of population clustering was obvious, and roughly to the wave of Borong (Nyalam County)-Gangni (Anduo County) as the demarcation line. (3) In the multiple linear regression method, the artificial surface index had the greatest influence on the population distribution, followed by the nighttime light index and road network density. (4) Random forest method was more accurate than multiple linear regression method to predict the population density, which can be used to sort the importance of the influencing factors. The influencing factors of the first six factors were the night light index, artificial surface index, road network density, industrial output value, GDP and multi-year average temperature, and these factors were positively correlated with population density. Among topographic factors, the contribution rate of elevation and slope was the largest, which was negatively correlated with population density. (5) The influencing factors and their interactions of population distribution in Tibet showed obvious regional differences. The valley was a gathering area for population in the study region, mainly in Lhasa River Valley, Nianchu River Valley and Sanjiang River Valley. (6) Through the analysis of random forest regression, the conceptual model can be used to express the influencing factors of population distribution, and the dominant factors were summarized as land use structure, road accessibility and urbanization level.

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    Dynamic simulation of urbanization and eco-environment coupling: A review on theory, methods and applications
    CUI Xuegang,FANG Chuanglin,LIU Haimeng,LIU Xiaofei,LI Yonghong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1079-1096.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906002
    Abstract742)   HTML102)    PDF (1530KB)(807)      

    At present, urbanization and eco-environment coupling has become a research hotspot. Owing to the complexity of the coupling mechanism, as well as the limitation of mathematical statistics methods, the process simulation of urbanization and eco-environment coupling needs to be strengthened. Based on the systems science and cross-scale coupling theory, we can define the coupled urbanization and eco-environment system as a nonlinear open system with multiple feedbacks. Based on the above analysis, the progress of dynamic simulation for urbanization and eco-environment coupling is reviewed. (1) As dynamic simulation has become a trend, the relevant analysis of theory and mechanism is being improved. (2) Dynamic simulation technologies have shown a trend of diversified, refined, intelligent and integrated pattern. (3) The simulation application mainly focuses on three aspects, including multiple-case regions, multiple elements, local coupling and telecoupling, and regional synergy. In addition, we found some shortcomings. (1) The development and integration of basic theories are insufficient. (2) The method integration and data sharing is lagging. (3) The coupling relational chains and dynamic characteristics of the main control elements are not fully revealed. Besides, telecoupling simulation is not quantified and systematically integrated, and could not be effectively applied to spatial synergy. In future, we should promote the intersection of research networks, technology integration and data sharing, and then uncover the evolution process of coupling relational chains and the main control elements in urban agglomerations. Finally, we should build decision-making support systems for regional sustainable urbanization.

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    Geographical association between dietary tastes and chronic diseases in China:An exploratory study using crowdsourcing data mining techniques
    LI Hanqi, JIA Peng, FEI Teng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1637-1649.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908011
    Abstract733)   HTML123)    PDF (4086KB)(719)      

    Chronic diseases are the main cause for death in the world. Among all risk factors concerning chronic diseases, those related to an unhealthy diet are most important. Although much research was done on dietary behavior, there are only few quantitative studies on the relationship between dietary taste and chronic diseases. In this article, a taste dataset of the major categories of Chinese cuisine is established based on crowdsourced data from Chinese recipe websites. For a quantitative analysis of people's taste in different regions, additionally the locations of restaurants by category (using their respective points of interest) are integrated. Using the software Geodetector, these regional taste preferences are then correlated with the three chronic diseases, hemorrhagic stroke, pancreatic cancer, and upper respiratory tract infection. For all the three diseases, the results indicate very salty, moderate sweet and very spicy food as the primary risk factors. Also, the degree of sweetness is not linear with the risk of pancreatic cancer. These results are statistically significant. In this study, a quantitative method on discovering potential health risk factors based on mining of crowdsourced data is proposed for the first time. This method can be applied before disease-related experiments to filter potential factors, and it is helpful for the public health department to make quick corresponding intervention policies.

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    Revealing the climatic impacts on spatial heterogeneity of NDVI in China during 1982-2013
    Jiangbo GAO, Kewei JIAO, Shaohong WU
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 534-543.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903010
    Abstract693)   HTML92)    PDF (3689KB)(562)      

    Climate change is a major driver of vegetation activity, and thus its complex processes become a frontier and difficulty in global change research. To understand the complex relationship between climate change and vegetation activity, the spatial distribution and dynamic characteristics of the response of NDVI to climate change from 1982 to 2013 in China were investigated by the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. The GWR was run based on the combined datasets of satellite vegetation index (GIMMS NDVI) and climate observation (temperature and moisture) from meteorological stations nationwide. The results noted that the spatial non-stationary relationship between NDVI and surface temperature has appeared in China. The significant negative temperature-vegetation relationship was distributed in northeast, northwest and southeast parts of the country, while the positive correlation was more concentrated from southwest to northeast. And then, by comparing the normalized regression coefficients for different climate factors, regions with moisture dominants for NDVI were observed in North China and the Tibetan Plateau, and regions with temperature dominants for NDVI were distributed in the East, Central and Southwest China, where the annual mean maximum temperature accounts for the largest areas. In addition, regression coefficients between NDVI dynamics and climate variability indicated that the higher warming rate could result in the weakened vegetation activity through some mechanisms such as enhanced drought, while the moisture variability could mediate the hydrothermal conditions for the variation of vegetation activity. When the increasing rate of photosynthesis exceeded that of respiration, there was a positive correlation between vegetation dynamics and climate variability. However, the continuous and dynamic responding process of vegetation activity to climate change will be determined by spatially heterogeneous conditions in climate change and vegetation cover. Furthermore, the description of climate-induced vegetation activity from its rise to decline in different regions is expected to provide a scientific basis for initiating ecosystem-based adaptation strategies in response to global climate change.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern and evolution of the urban thermal landscape in metropolitan Beijing between 2003 and 2017
    Zhi QIAO, Ningyu HUANG, Xinliang XU, Zongyao SUN, Chen WU, Jun YANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 475-489.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903006
    Abstract689)   HTML114)    PDF (6586KB)(593)      

    Urban heat islands resulting from land use and land cover change have become a major barrier to urbanization and sustainable development of ecological urban environments. Although many studies have focused on the interannual and seasonal characteristics of urban heat islands, there has been no comparative analysis of the urban surface thermal landscape at multiple spatio-temporal scales. This study described the spatio-temporal patterns of the urban surface thermal landscape in different seasons and by time of day (daytime/nighttime) in terms of quantity, shape, and structure using MODIS LST products, and revealed the evolution of the urban surface thermal landscape using mapping techniques and analysis of barycenter trajectories in metropolitan Beijing between 2003 and 2017. The conclusions were as follows: (1) The characteristics of the urban surface thermal landscape vary significantly in different seasons and by time of day. (2) The medium-temperature zone constitutes the largest proportion of the area of metropolitan Beijing, which is the most unstable area during the daytime and the instability of the sub-high-temperature and sub-low-temperature zones increased at night. (3) The stable zone is most important in terms of the change in the land surface thermal landscape, followed by the repeated-changes zone and the zone where the change occurred in the first 5 years. The changes of different temperature zones usually increased or decreased progressively. There was a cooling trend in the mountains. In the north mountain-transition zone, the process of transferring between sub-low temperature and medium temperature was repeated. There was a warming trend in the south. (4) The area of the high-temperature zone increased from 2003 to 2017 and its barycenter was concentrated in the city center; the barycenter of the low-temperature zone moved to the urban fringe. The ecological conservation development zone made the greatest contribution to the surface thermal landscape in metropolitan Beijing. The spatio-temporal distribution and evolution of the urban surface thermal landscape support management decisions aimed at alleviating the effect of the urban heat island.

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    Variation, causes and future estimation of surface soil moisture on the Tibetan Plateau
    Keke FAN, Qiang ZHANG, Peng SUN, Changqing SONG, Xiudi ZHU, Huiqian YU, Zexi SHEN
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (3): 520-533.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201903009
    Abstract678)   HTML92)    PDF (6042KB)(645)      

    Soil moisture is the link between the land surface and the atmosphere, which plays an important role in the hydrological cycle. As the "Third Pole" and "Asian Water Tower", the Tibetan Plateau has an important influence on the climate of the surrounding areas such as the formation and maintenance of the Asian monsoon and it also profoundly affects the availability of Asian water resources. Based on the measured soil moisture data from 100 stations distributed in the three climate zones on the Tibetan Plateau, this paper assesses the ECV, ERA, MERRA and Noah datasets, selects the best evaluated dataset for surface soil moisture, and analyzes the influence of various meteorological factors on spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture changes. Finally, the paper evaluates the changes of surface soil moisture during the next about 100 years and explores possible climate causes. The results show that: (1) The Noah dataset has the best assessment of surface soil moisture in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during the historical period. Among all the regions, Naqu obtains the best assessment of surface soil moisture in each dataset. (2) Among various meteorological factors, precipitation is the most important factor affecting the temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture in most areas, but the temperature and solar radiation have a relatively high impact in the Himalayas, especially on the north slope of the mountains. (3) The surface soil moisture had a significant downward trend from 1948 to 1970. However, it did not fluctuate obviously from 1970 to 1990. From 1990 to 2005, there existed a certain upward trend. Conversely, it has a rapid downward trend since 2005. (4) There is a downward trend for surface soil moisture in different future scenarios. Compared with the RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, the soil moisture declines obviously with a more significant downward trend after 2080 under the RCP8.5 scenerio. (5) In the future, both precipitation and temperature show an upward trend. There was a downward trend for the drought index in the RCP8.5 scenario, whereas, there is no significant change under the RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios. The drought index can explain the change of surface soil moisture in the future to a certain extent.

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    The hub-network structure of China's equipment manufacturing industry
    ZHU Yanshuo, WANG Zheng, CHENG Wenlu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1525-1533.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908003
    Abstract653)   HTML124)    PDF (1626KB)(802)      

    Based on the interlocking network model and the complex network theory, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution and interaction of cities based on geographical distribution of equipment manufacturing enterprises. The study indicates that cities all over the country present a hub-network structure. Beijing is the national hub city of the network. Cities such as Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Chongqing are regional hub cities. Beijing and Shenzhen have the strongest intercity connection in the network. Most cities in the northwest and southwest have a relatively low connection with other cities in the network. By comparing the sub-networks of different industries, it is found that there are significant differences in network scale, hub city and network density, which proved the polycentricity and diversity of urban space organizational hub-network structure. Finally, complex network theory is used to deliver deliberate attack experiments. The experimental results show that the network connectivity is basically not affected when the hinterland of the hub city is deleted, while the network connectivity declines obviously when the non-hinterland of the hub city is deleted. This indicates that the restriction of spatial distance between hubs and nodes is getting weaker, which is significantly different from the central-hinterland structure.

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    Gravity model coefficient calibration and error estimation: Based on Chinese interprovincial population flow
    ZHAO Ziyu,WEI Ye,YANG Ran,WANG Shijun,ZHU Yu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (2): 203-221.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201902001
    Abstract643)   HTML78)    PDF (4607KB)(1080)      

    Simulations based on spatial interaction models have been widely applied to understand the strength of relationships between geographical elements, but many issues remain unclear and deviations between actual and simulated results have often been seriously underestimated. A high-precision Baidu migration process combined with mass relationships is applied in this study and enables the generation of regression coefficients of gravity model based on programmed large-scale regression simulations. A series of accuracy assessments are then developed for 2015 empirical projection daily regression coefficients that can be applied to Chinese spring interprovincial mobile gravity model variables as well as spatiotemporal research that utilizes regression coefficients within a heterogeneity research model. This approach also enables the error within the gravity model to be assessed in terms of floating population simulations. The results of this analysis lead to a number of clear conclusions, including the fact that parameter calibration complexity for the Chinese population mobility gravity model is reflected in the degree of influence asymmetry within spatial object interaction variables, and that the spatial heterogeneity of the variable regression coefficient increases in two distinct fashions. The first of these increases has to do with the overall influence of specific variables, including the fact that differences between proxies tend to be higher than inflow-outflow characteristics. In contrast, the second set of increases is related to economic levels, industrial scales, the proportion of the tertiary industry, and public service facilities. In this latter case, two-way population flow exerts a more profound influence on results and thus the scope of possible explanations for phenomena is more extensive. The regression coefficient for the existence of positive and negative proxy variables therefore relates to differences in spatial heterogeneity, including at the city level, and also assumes that floating population gravity model regression coefficients ignore spatiotemporal changes in the heterogeneity coefficient. This leads to spatial differences in estimated results and thus convergence trends, but further enables the identification of anisotropic interactions in extension space. The second main conclusion of this research is that the national scale population flow distance attenuation coefficient was 1.970 during the spring of 2015, while at the level of prefectural administrative units and given population outflow, the range encapsulated by this coefficient fell between 0.712 (Zhumadian) and 7.699 (Urumqi). Data also reveal a population inflow coefficient of 0.792 for this year that ranged as high as 8.223 in both Sanya and Urumqi. Population flow simulation results using the gravity model and including Baidu migration measured flow data were also subject to significant error. Third, the results of this analysis reveal a total fitting error of 85.54% in weighted absolute mean; the spatial interaction effect within this is responsible for a maximum error of 86.09% in actual and simulated flows, while relative outflow force and attractiveness encompass 57.73% and 49.34% of model error, respectively. These results show that the spatial interaction effect remains most difficult to model in terms of current factors.

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    Characteristics and formation mechanism of China's provincial urbanization spatial correlation based on population flow
    Shuaibin LIU, Shan YANG, Zhao WANG
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (4): 648-663.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904003
    Abstract633)   HTML124)    PDF (3645KB)(694)      

    Spatial correlation is the link of regional interaction and influence; the urbanization spatial correlation is spatial relationship of urbanization based on population flow, which influences and continuously adjusts the regional economic and social development pattern in China. By analyzing the change of the spatial correlation intensity and the spatial correlation network of provincial urbanization in China during 1990-2015, this paper reveals the spatial correlation characteristics, formation process and influencing factors of China's provincial urbanization since China's reform and opening up. The results show that: (1) 7 types of spatial correlation intensity are identified in the evolution of provincial urbanization of China, among which the dominant type has the highest degree of coincidence with the whole country, and determines the evolution process of the spatial correlation intensity of urbanization in China. The non-dominant types of urbanization spatial correlation intensity evolution feature 2005 as the critical year, and their growth was slow or even negative before the year; then together with the dominant type, they have promoted a continuous increase in the urbanization spatial correlation intensity across the country. (2) Urbanization spatial correlation network structure characteristics are analyzed from national, regional and provincial scales. The structure of the spatial correlation network of urbanization is becoming more and more complicated, and the correlation paths have shifted from centralized to scattered. The differences in the correlation density between regional subgroups with different attributes have begun to shrink, and the high-level nodes have spread from the eastern to the central and western regions. (3) Further, the panel-vector auto-regression and panel quantile regression are used to test the interaction mechanism between urbanization spatial correlation intensity and correlation network centrality, which explains the effect of residents' income level and regional industrial structure on urbanization spatial correlation characteristics. The specialization of urbanization spatial correlation not only deepens the research on urbanization theory and methodology, but also provides a theoretical basis for the development of population urbanization and the adjustment of industrial space in China.

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    Process and driving factors of rural restructuring in typical villages
    TU Shuangshuang,LONG Hualou,ZHANG Yingnan,ZHOU Xingying
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (2): 323-339.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201902009
    Abstract629)   HTML59)    PDF (2627KB)(1008)      

    Rural restructuring is an important means of implementing and pushing forward the strategy of rural vitalization. A complete process of rural restructuring usually consists of different stages, including initial period, development period, stabilizing period and stable period. Based on the established theoretical framework of analyzing the process of rural restructuring, by introducing the concepts of rural development index, the intensity of rural restructuring and the contribution rate of rural restructuring, the quantitative research and comparative analysis of the driving factors of rural restructuring process at village scale were carried out in the typical villages in metropolitan suburbs and plain farming areas. The results show that: (1) Since the 1990s, along with the transformation of industrial structure from traditional agriculture to industrial mining and tourism service industry, the socio-economic forms and territorial spatial structure of Huangshandian Village have undergone drastic restructuring, and the process of rural restructuring has experienced the initial stage and the development stage successively, and in a stabilizing stage now. The industrial development of Yangqiao Village has experienced the stages of traditional agricultural leading and concurrent farming production. Since 2000, it has taken on a sign of socio-economic restructuring. Recently, the living space has been reconstructed under the promotion of local governments, but the economic form has not changed significantly. At present, the village is still at a low level of development as a whole. (2) The rapid rural restructuring in Huangshandian Village is the results of combined action of exogenous and endogenous factors. The exogenous factors include market requirement pull, government macro-policy guidance, and so on. The endogenous factors include resources and environment, location conditions, behavioral agent, economic foundation, cultural trait, and so on. The restructuring process of Yangqiao Village is mainly dominated by socio-economic development course including urbanization, industrialization and technological progress as well as some exogenous policies such as "building new countryside" and "increasing vs. decreasing balance" land-use policy. The root cause for its relatively slow restructuring speed is lacking of endogenous development impetus.

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    Spatial spillover effect and driving forces of carbon emission intensity at city level in China
    WANG Shaojian,HUANG Yongyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1131-1148.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906005
    Abstract628)   HTML97)    PDF (4780KB)(563)      

    Since the Paris Climate Change Conference in 2015, reducing carbon emission and lowering carbon intensity has become a global consensus to deal with climate change. Due to different economic development stages, carbon intensity is regarded as a better index to measure regional energy-related carbon emissions. Although previous scholars have made great efforts to explore the spatiotemporal patterns and key driving factors of carbon intensity in China, the results lack the perspective from city level because of limited availability of statistical data of city-level carbon emission. In this study, based on carbon intensity of 283 cities in China from 1992-2013, we used the kernel density estimation, spatial autocorrelation, spatial Markov-chain and quantile regression panel model to empirically reveal its spatial spillover effects and explore the critical impact factors of carbon intensity at the city level. Our result indicates that although the total carbon emission increased during the study period, carbon intensity saw a gradual decline and regional differences were shrinking. Secondly, the city-level carbon intensity presented a strong spatial spillover effect and diverse regional backgrounds exerted heterogeneous effects on regions. Thirdly, quantile panel data analysis result showed that for low-intensity cities, on the one hand, FDI and transport sector were main contributing factors, and economic growth, technical progress and high population density negatively affected carbon intensity. On the other hand, industrial activity, extensive growth of investment and urban sprawl were key promoting factors for high-intensity cities, and population density was beneficial to emission reduction task. Furthermore, technological advance has not exerted negative influence on carbon intensity in high-intensity cities. At last, we suggested that Chinese government should take different carbon intensity levels into full consideration before policy making.

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