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    Evolution of transportation in China since reform and opening-up: Patterns and principles
    JIN Fengjun, CHEN Zhuo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1941-1961.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910001
    Abstract2036)   HTML296)    PDF (9943KB)(1827)      

    Since the reform and opening-up in 1978, historic changes have been seen in the transportation geography pattern of China. Understanding its evolutionary characteristics and regularity is significant and meaningful for future transportation construction and territory development. This paper reviewed the process of transportation construction in China and investigated the evolutionary characteristics and spatial effects of transportation geography pattern with the technologies in big data mining and GIS. In addition, the regular rules of transportation geography evolution from the aspects of stages, structures, and orders are systematically analyzed. The investigation showed that China's transportation construction has entered the stage of quality improvement. The construction mode has upgraded from scale-expanding driven by investment to quality-improving driven by innovation. The development direction has changed from "prior development" to "integrated coordinated development". The rapid growth and development of transportation networks have significantly influenced the relationship between time and space. The resulting spatial convergence and superiority pattern are coupled with economic-social distribution, which facilitates the development of the economic-social spatial structure. Consequently, territory development that is traditionally centralized by corridors has changed into the networked mode centered on metropolises and metropolitan areas. In brief, the transportation geography pattern is of evolutionary principles. China has been evolving from the stage of ordered structure to the stage of cascade-order structure. Simultaneously, the economic-social pattern has changed from the axis structure to the hub-and-spoke structure with a preliminary ordered network. As transportation networks grow and expand, China's functional spatial structure and ordered network will be gradually stabilized and balanced.

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    Bole-Taipei Line: The important function and basic conception as a line for regional balanced development
    FANG Chuanglin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 211-225.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002001
    Abstract1944)   HTML36)    PDF (4532KB)(165)      

    Promoting regional coordinated development strategy is one of the most important strategies in the new period of China. Faced with the reality of unbalanced and insufficient regional development in China, it is objectively necessary to construct one or more main axes supporting the coordinated and balanced development of regions to become the identification line representing the pattern of coordinated regional development. The results show that the Bo-Tai line, the northwest-southeast axis connecting Bole of Xinjiang and Taipei of Taiwan, can be built into a national development backbone line and regional balanced development line, just perpendicular to the Hu Line. In 2016, the area of southwest half and northeast half of Bo-Tai Line accounts for 59:41, while the population accounts for 45:55, the economic aggregate accounts for 40:60, the per capita GDP ratio accounts for 44:56, the population density ratio accounts for 38:62, the economic density ratio accounts for 32:68, and the urbanization level ratio accounts for 48:52. The main average indicators gradually tend to present a balanced development pattern. Further analysis shows that Bo-Tai Line is a strategic shoulder pole connecting two core zones of the Belt and Road, and is the peaceful reunification line of China's national tranquility and Taiwan's return. The Bo-Tai Line is also a solid line supported and connected by comprehensive transportation channels and a Pipa type symmetrical line for the development of cities and urban agglomerations. It is the backbone of the two-way opening up and the linkage development line between land and sea. It is also an important dividing line that promotes the coordinated development of the eastern, central and western regions, and addresses the imbalance and inadequacy of regional development. The Bo-Tai Line plays an irreplaceable strategic role in promoting the coordinated and balanced regional development. It is suggested that the construction of Bo-Tai Line should be included in the national development strategy, and the development strategic plan of Bo-Tai Line should be formulated to fully release the multiple potential functions. We should build three strategic support points (the northwest endpoint, the central strategic node and the southeast endpoint), carry out a comprehensive scientific investigation of the Bo-Tai Line, and strengthen the scientific cognition and publicity, and promote China's development in a higher-level, higher-quality, more coordinated, safer and more civilized direction. And we should make the Bo-Tai Line known to China and the world, and let the Bo-Tai Line truly become the backbone of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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    Development and management tasks of the Yellow River Basin: A preliminary understanding and suggestion
    LU Dadao, SUN Dongqi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2431-2436.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912001
    Abstract1739)   HTML246)    PDF (828KB)(1166)      

    The Yellow River Basin and the areas along the Yellow River play an important strategic role in national development. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC, delivered an important speech at the symposium on ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin in Zhengzhou, which is of great strategic significance. This paper gives a preliminary understanding of the comprehensive governance and the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It points out that the task of the comprehensive and profound transformation and development of the Yellow River Basin in the new era is still arduous, and change of concept is required. Continuing to promote the clean and efficient use of energy, promoting industrial development in accordance with local conditions, preventing extensive development and protecting cultivated land resources should be regarded as important measures to strengthen the comprehensive management and guarantee the sustainable development of the Yellow River Basin. It is believed that the "Yellow River Economic Belt" does not exist at the national economic level, and it is not appropriate to identify "the Yellow River Delta" as a national strategy.

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    The Coupled Human and Natural Cube: A conceptual framework for analyzing urbanization and eco-environment interactions
    LIU Haimeng, FANG Chuanglin, LI Yonghong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1489-1507.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908001
    Abstract1501)   HTML263)    PDF (3788KB)(1344)      

    The coupled urbanization and eco-environment system is an important aspect of coupled human and natural systems. However, the time-space compression, long range interactions, and reconstruction of socio-economic structure at the global scale pose great challenges to the traditional analysis frameworks for human-nature systems. We are in urgent need of developing a brand new analysis framework. In this paper, based on the connotation of the coupled urbanization and eco-environment system and its four dimensions — space, time, appearance and organization, we propose a conceptual framework "Coupled Human and Natural Cube (CHNC)" to explain the coupling mechanism between urbanization and eco-environment, which is inspired by the theories including human-earth areal system, telecoupling, planetary urbanization, and perspectives from complexity science. We systematically introduce the concept, connotation, evolution rules and analysis dimensions of the CHNC. It is worth noting that there exist various "coupling lines" in the CHNC, which connects different systems and elements at multiple scales, and forms a nested, interconnected organic bigger system. The rotation of the CHNC represents the spatiotemporal nonlinear fluctuation of the urbanization and eco-environment system in different regions. As the system exchanges energy with the environment continually, the critical phase transition occurs when fluctuation reaches a certain threshold, and leads to emergence behaviors of the system. The CHNC has four dimensions — pericoupling and telecoupling, syncoupling and lagcoupling, apparent coupling and hidden coupling, intra-organization coupling and inter-organization coupling. We mainly focus on the theoretical connotation, research methods and typical cases of telecoupling, lagcoupling, hidden coupling, and inter-organization coupling, and finally put forward a human-nature coupling matrix to integrate multiple dimensions. In summary, the CHNC provides a more comprehensive and systematic research paradigm for understanding the evolution and coupling mechanism of the human-nature system, which expands the analysis dimension of coupled human and natural systems, and provides some scientific supports to formulate regional sustainable development policies for human wellbeing.

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    Glacier changes in the Gangdisê Mountains from 1970 to 2016
    LIU Juan,YAO Xiaojun,LIU Shiyin,GUO Wanqin,XU Junli
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (7): 1333-1344.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201907005
    Abstract1471)   HTML99)    PDF (3564KB)(652)      

    Based on the revised First and Second Chinese Glacier Inventory and Landsat OLI remote sensing images during 2015-2016, we analyzed the spatial-temporal variation characteristics of glaciers in the Gangdisê Mountains during 1970-2016. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the rational use of water resources in this region. The results showed that there were 3953 glaciers with a total area of 1306.45 km 2 and ice volume of ~58.16 km 3 in the Gangdisê Mountains during 2015-2016. The glaciers in sizes of 0.1-5 km 2 and < 0.5 km 2 had the largest area and the greatest number of glaciers in the Gangdisê Mountains, respectively. In the past five decades, the area of glaciers decreased by 854.05 km 2 (-1.09%/a), accounting for 39.53% of the total area of glaciers in the region in 1970. The increase of temperature in the ablation period was the most important cause of glacier retreat. Compared to other mountains in western China, the Gangdisê Mountains was the region with the strongest glacier retreat and had an accelerating tendency in recent years. The decrease of glacier area was mainly concentrated at elevations of 5600-6100 m a.s.l. and there was no change in elevation above 6500 m a.s.l. in the Gangdisê Mountains. Except for the south and southeast orientations, the number and area of glaciers were decreasing in all the orientations. Specifically, the north orientation suffered the largest area loss of glaciers and the northwest orientation witnessed the fastest retreat of glacier area. A significant feature of spatial variation showed that the rate of glacier retreat was faster from west to east in the Gangdisê Mountains. The relative change of glacier rate in the eastern section was high at -1.72%/a, followed by the middle section (-1.67%/a), and that in the western section was only -0.83%/a.

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    Formation mechanism of near-shore erosional topography in the Hengsha passage of the Yangtze Estuary
    HUA Kai,CHENG Heqin,ZHENG Shuwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (7): 1363-1373.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201907007
    Abstract1455)   HTML87)    PDF (4198KB)(500)      

    The intense erosion of a near-shore riverbed is one of the main factors for the slope failure of a bank. During a detailed investigation carried out in August 2017 and May 2018 of underwater topography of the Yangtze Estuary, a large scour pit was recognized near the shore of the Hengsha passage. The morphological and geometrical parameters of the scour pit were measured using the SeaBat7125 multi-beam system. Dual-frequency ADCP was used to collect hydrodynamic data near the scour pit. Further, a historic nautical chart was digitalized to analyze the evolution and formation mechanism of the scour pit. The results indicated that the scour pit is in the shape of an oval, with a length and width of around 430 m and 150 m, respectively; the deepest point is approximately 38 m below the surrounding riverbed. Since the formation of the -20 m isobaths line in 1992, the scour pit area has been expanding continuously, and the average depth has been increasing yearly; in particular, after 2005, the depth increased sharply. From 1984 to 2017, the riverbed around the scour pit underwent the process of erosion-silting-erosion. In the 33 years, the scouring amount is 3.45×10 7 m 3, and the average scouring depth is 4.68 m. The ebb tide from the North Channel flows into the Hengsha passage, forming a circulation flow, thereby eroding the channel near the west bank of the Hengsha island and forming a scour pit. After 2005, the scour pit grew rapidly and expanded southward. This is mainly because the reclamation engineering performed in North Changxing reduced the curvature radius of the bend that resulted in intensified erosion. The reservoir construction engineering performed in Qingcaosha moved the thalweg in the upper and middle sections of the North Channel, and the northward entrance of the Hengsha passage expanded owing to the ebb current, which is also one of the main reasons for rapid erosion. In addition, the construction of reclamation and deep-water channel projects in the vicinity has contributed to the erosion of the channel bed, thereby accelerating the expansion of the scour pit. It can be seen that human engineering activities are the main driving factors for the rapid development of large scour pits in the Changjiang Estuary.

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    Comprehensive evaluation on China's man-land relationship: Theoretical model and empirical study
    YANG Yu,LI Xiaoyun,DONG Wen,HONG Hui,HE Ze,JIN Fengjun,LIU Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1063-1078.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906001
    Abstract1339)   HTML194)    PDF (4667KB)(1327)      

    Relationship is a classic concern of geographical research, which is also a research field where China's human and economic geography has made notable contributions to international geographical research. The connotation of man-land relationship changes constantly during its dynamic evolution process. Therefore, a scientific evaluation on the status of modern man-land relationship in China is the basis for an accurate understanding of it with which paths of coordinating conflicts between man and land can be sought. Based on the territorial system theory of man-land relationship and a review of the new characteristics of modern man-land relationship in China, this study constructs a theoretical framework to make a comprehensive evaluation on man-land relations using the following four indicators: intensity of human activities, carrying capacity of core resources, ecological and environmental constraints, and openness of man-land system. Counties are taken as the basic spatial units in the evaluation. The following results are found: there are apparent differences between eastern and western China in terms of intensity of human activities and the distribution pattern of it follows the layout of core urban agglomerations; the carrying capacities of core resources take on a relatively dispersed spatial distribution; there is a high level of spatial mismatch between land, water, core energy resources, and the intensity of human activities, which intensifies the tension of regional man-land relationship; areas with strong ecological and environmental constrains are concentrated on both sides of the Heihe-Tengchong Line (also known as the Hu Huanyong Line) and in the southwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; overall, the level of openness of China's man-land system is not high, with relatively open areas mainly concentrated in economically developed regions. The evaluation results show that about 86% of the regions in China are faced an unstrained man-land relationship, but noticeable man-land conflicts are found in some areas, particularly in southeastern coastal areas. In the western region of China, man-land relationship is relatively unstrained though the level of man-land system evolution is low.

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    Understanding geographic coupling and achieving geographic integration
    SONG Changqing, CHENG Changxiu, YANG Xiaofan, YE Sijing, GAO Peichao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (1): 3-13.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202001001
    Abstract1302)   HTML74)    PDF (3429KB)(481)      

    Coupling, as a classic physical concept, provides a suite of ideas and methods for describing interactions of multi-agents across disciplines. In contrast, the concept of integration is not from a certain discipline, but it is widely used in many natural and socioeconomic sciences fields due to its great generalization capacity. Both concepts are frequently mentioned in Earth science. Geography, as a multi-disciplinary research area between natural and socioeconomic sciences, owns regional, comprehensive, and complex characteristics. The understanding of coupling varies across geographic sciences. This paper presents an advanced understanding from six geographic perspectives based on different disciplines and scenarios, which is helpful to accurately explore patterns, processes, and mechanisms of land surface system. Firstly, this paper clarifies six perspectives on geographic coupling, and presents corresponding research cases, which include geographic spatial coupling, geographic features coupling, geographic interfaces coupling, geospatial scale coupling, geographic relationship coupling and geographic coupling interpretation. Secondly, the paper interprets the concept of integration from a geographic perspective, and introduces a pathway to achieving an integration in Heihe River Basin's research practice. Finally, the paper proposes intrinsic connections between geographic coupling and geographic integration.

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    Feasibility study on land-river combined transport between Dalian and Tiksi
    DAI Changlei,ZHANG Xiaohong,YU Miao,A. N. NIKOLAEV,N. R. MAXIMOV
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1224-1235.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906011
    Abstract1284)   HTML67)    PDF (2562KB)(727)      

    Under the macroscopical background of "Polar Silk Route", the paper puts forward the land and river intermodal transport route from Dalian to Tiksi Port of the Arctic Ocean (hereinafter referred as land and river intermodal transport route). The land and river intermodal transport route is a line available, which vertically connects the two economic belts between the northeast of China and the Siberia of Russia. Through the comprehensive analysis of the latest researches upon river and land intermodal transport route, which are carried out by Heilongjiang University, Melnikov Permafrost Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences and North-Eastern Federal University. Among them, the river transport section is the waterway from Russian Yakutsk City to Lena River of Tiksi Port; the land transport section runs through China and Russia and the central part of Northeast Asia, mainly including the railway and highway transport from Dalian to Yakutsk. And the main cities along the river and land intermodal transport route contain: China Dalian-Harbin-Heihe-Russian Blagoveshchensk (Hailanpao)-Neryungri-Yakutsk-Tiksi Port. Every node of land transport section has mature transportation systems, transit nodes with complete facilities and great economic development prospects. From July to September, Lena River has at least 3 months suitable for shipment and allows ship navigation with a weight of over 3000 tons. In summer, the Sino-Russia Northeast Asia land and river intermodal transport route has advantages of both short transportation distance and time. Along the route, there are abundant mineral resources. When the economy along the route gets improved, the trades between Asia and Europe can be connected and enhanced.

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    The theoretical basis and technical path of cyberspace geography
    GAO Chundong, GUO Qiquan, JIANG Dong, WANG Zhenbo, FANG Chuanglin, HAO Mengmeng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1709-1722.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909001
    Abstract1278)   HTML182)    PDF (3797KB)(996)      

    As a new spatial form of human activities, cyberspace is the common carrier of human and information. Cyberspace security is an important foundation of national security. The scientific description of cyberspace is an important cornerstone of cyber event analysis, cyberspace governance and cyber security guarantee, and also a new field of geographic science research in the information age. In the context of rapid development and fierce competition in global cyberspace, it is urgent to strengthen the intergration of geography and cyberspace security, and to carry out theoretical and methodological innovations based on traditional geosciences, and to create cyberspace geography. Cyberspace geography is the extension of geoscience research content from real space to virtual space. Its theoretical basis has evolved from the traditional theory of man-land relationship to the theory of man-land-network relationship; its research contents include constructing the mapping relationship between cyberspace and real space, redefining the basic concepts of distance and region in cyberspace, constructing the language, model and method system of cyberspace visualization, drawing the cyberspace map and exploring the evolution laws of the structure and behavior of cyberspace; its technical path includes the data collection and fusion of cyberspace elements, the visualization of cyberspace and the intelligent cognition of cyberspace situation and behavior. The intelligent cognition covers the assessment of cyberspace situation, transmission and traceability analysis of network hot events, situation simulation and risk prediction of cyber events, etc. The establishment of cyberspace geography will certainly provide a new perspective for the scientific cognition of cyberspace, the discipline construction of geography and cyberspace security science, as well as the prevention and control of national cyber security and the construction of a community of common future in cyberspace.

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    Changes in land cover and evapotranspiration in the five Central Asian countries from 1992 to 2015
    RUAN Hongwei,YU Jingjie
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (7): 1292-1304.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201907002
    Abstract1251)   HTML82)    PDF (3890KB)(888)      

    In 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the independence of the five Central Asian countries led to profound changes in land cover and evapotranspiration pattern. This study used the five Central Asian countries as target areas. European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative and Global Land Data Assimilation System data were utilised to analyse the spatio-temporal variation of land cover and evapotranspiration from 1992 to 2015 and to further study the cropland evapotranspiration water consumption. This study investigated the continuous change of land cover, specified the characteristics of and differences in land cover and evapotranspiration, strengthened the understanding of land cover and evapotranspiration in the current situation, and provided data references for water and soil resource management and environmental protection. Results show that the changes in land cover in the five countries were characterised by stages, and cropland expansion modified the land cover pattern. From 1992 to 2003, cropland increased rapidly (1.1×10 4 km 2), whereas forest land and grassland decreased. From 2003 to 2015, cropland increased slowly (0.3×10 4 km 2), whereas forest land and grassland increased slightly. Bare land and water bodies continued to decrease, whereas settlements continued to increase; the annual evapotranspiration was 276.8 mm. Evapotranspiration increased rapidly from 1992 to 2003 (11.3 mm/a) and then slowly from 2003 to 2015 (2.4 mm/a). The evapotranspiration of cropland (352.2 mm) and grassland (322.1 mm) was significantly higher than that of forest land (254.7 mm) and bare land (173.2 mm). The evapotranspiration changes in the five Central Asian countries were consistent with the land cover patterns; the evapotranspiration water consumption of the five countries was affected by the cropland area. From 1992 to 2015, the water consumption of cropland evapotranspiration increased by 3.2%, and the contributions of grassland, forest land and bare land continued to decrease. The cropland of Turkmenistan accounted for only 11% of the total evapotranspiration water consumption, whereas that of the other countries accounted for more than 25%.

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    Production of space and developmental logic of New Urban Districts in China
    ZHUANG Liang,YE Chao,MA Wei,ZHAO Biao,HU Senlin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1548-1562.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908005
    Abstract1154)   HTML153)    PDF (2940KB)(990)      

    New Urban Districts (NUDs) are the important spatial carriers of urbanization. Since the reform and opening up in China, NUD has been playing a more and more crucial role in the process of urbanization, and has undergone a surging growth in recent years. NUDs in China are unique because of the most widespread 'building city' movement. Many researches focus on new districts or new towns in the broad sense, but little research has been done in a narrow sense in academia. The development of comprehensive NUDs will be of great significance to the sustainable transformation of China's cities in the future. Based on the critical theory of spatial production, this paper examines the spatiotemporal evolution and internal logic of NUDs. The establishment and development of NUDs is a rapid and trinity dialectical process of spatial production: representations of space is guided by the top-down governmental power; spatial practice is reflected in the hierarchical and regional difference of spatial elements, such as type, pattern, distance and area of NUDs; spaces of representation are the tensions between governmental power and urban development rights, as well as the countermeasure mechanism. In this trinity dialectical process, the extensibility of spatiotemporal sequences ensures the unity and continuity of spatial production or reproduction of NUDs. However, under the governmentoriented model, NUDs are also facing a series of challenges like the management coordination of administrative area and the increasing unbalanced regional development. Thus, it is time to keep a critical thinking and reinterpretation for the development of NUDs in China, which should be a key concern to achieve balanced regional development and new-type urbanization in the new era.

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    Analysis of the geo-relationships between China and its neighboring countries
    CHEN Xiaoqiang, YUAN Lihua, SHEN Shi, LIANG Xiaoyao, WANG Yuanhui, WANG Xiangyu, YE Sijing, CHENG Changxiu, SONG Changqing
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1534-1547.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908004
    Abstract1103)   HTML130)    PDF (3545KB)(758)      

    Geo-relationships, as an important field of research in geography, have attracted much attention from scholars. Quantitative research on geo-relationships based on big data is an important supplement to traditional geo-relationships study. This paper uses GDELT mass media data to express the geo-relationships between China and its neighboring countries as a global relationship of cooperation and conflict, and identifies the stage division of these relationships using ordered cluster analysis. Social network analysis is conducted for each stage of the cooperation and conflict relationship, and community detection is used to further analyze and interpret the networks of cooperation and conflict. Finally, we highlight bilateral relations in various stages and conduct a China-centered equilibrium analysis. Three main results are presented. First, from 1979 to 2017, the cooperation and conflict relationship between China and its neighboring countries demonstrated an obvious three-stage temporal division. China has gradually become the center of the network, and a broad cooperation pattern centered on China and supported by Russia, Japan, and South Korea has formed. Second, the highlighted bilateral relations in each stage, such as China-Vietnam, China-Japan, China-Russia, and DPRK-ROK, show varied development trends and driving factors. Third, with the process of China's peaceful rise, cooperation between the country and its neighbors is becoming more and more balanced, and conflict between them is expanding.

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    Spatial heterogeneity of the effects of mountainous city patternon catering industry location
    TU Jianjun,TANG Siqi,ZHANG Qian,WU Yue,LUO Yunchao
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1163-1177.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906007
    Abstract1007)   HTML111)    PDF (5885KB)(719)      

    Accurately and effectively estimating the effects of urban pattern on industrial location is always an important issue that has received much attention in urban geography. However, current studies have mainly focused on the influence of a single type of urban functional spaces on industrial location using statistical data based on administrative units. And these studies have not conducted in-depth research into the spatial heterogeneity of influences. Against the existing shortcomings, taking the central Chongqing as an example, this research aimed to investigate how different urban functional spaces influenced the catering industry distribution based on kernal density, spatial autocorrelation and geographic weighted regression from point of interest (POI) data. The research reveals the following points: (1) the spatial distribution of restaurants was characterized by a multi-center spatial structure of "one main, two subs and four third-level centers", which directly reflected the urban pattern. (2) Not only the scale of restaurant agglomeration was closely related to urban expansion sequence, but also the direction of restaurant agglomeration was consistent with urban expansion direction. (3) The urban functional spaces had different or even opposite influences on the restaurant distribution in different city groups. The effect of residential space on the restaurant distribution was all positive, which increased from the central to the peripheral groups. The influence of commercial space on restaurant distribution was weakened from the inside to the outside of the barrier of the mountains, but there might be a phenomenon of commercial dependence in the groups where the location was isolated and the business development was immature. Since the restaurants in the peripheral groups was more dependent on the transport accessibility, the effect of urban traffic space on restaurant distribution in the peripheral groups was greater than that in the central groups, which resulted in a phenomenon of traffic dependence. The urban public space in central groups played a greater role in promoting restaurant assembled than that of the peripheral groups on account of high-quality public service in central groups. The influence of urban leisure space on restaurant distribution was related to the number and popularity of scenic spots. (4) Moreover, different urban functional spaces had different influences on the spatial distribution of restaurants, and urban commercial space had the greatest impact due to its high density of urban construction and population density. This study is especially valuable for understanding the function mechanism of urban pattern on industrial location and providing a scientific basis for making rational urban development plan.

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    Geographical thinking on the relationship between beautiful China and land spatial planning
    CHEN Mingxing, LIANG Longwu, WANG Zhenbo, ZHANG Wenzhong, YU Jianhui, LIANG Yi
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2467-2481.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912004
    Abstract987)   HTML88)    PDF (2675KB)(660)      

    Beautiful China is the new goal of ecological civilization construction in the new era of socialism, which can meet the real needs of the people for a better life. National land space planning is a major deployment of the state to coordinate various types of space planning. Beautiful China is the new leading goal of the country's second centenary development. Its connotation is not only "ecological beauty", but also the comprehensive beauty of "economy-politics-culture-society-ecology". The construction of beautiful China needs a differentiated evaluation index system based on the local conditions. Beautiful China is closely related to the land spatial planning. The former provides an important direction for the latter, while the latter provides an important approach and space guarantee for the construction of the former. The establishment of land spatial planning needs to strengthen the further discussion of the regional system of human-environment interaction, point-axis system, the main functional area planning, sustainable development and resource environmental carrying capacity, new urbanization and rural regional multi-body system. This paper puts forward the thinking framework of land spatial planning from the perspective of geography, including scientifically analyzing the natural geographical conditions, economic and social development basis, and the interrelationship between land and space, planing the goal, vision and path of land and space, encouraging the public to participate in and carry out dynamic evaluation, and building an intelligent system platform for land and spatial planning with the goal of beautiful China, which provide ideas for the compilation and implementation of land spatial planning.

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    Geographical association between dietary tastes and chronic diseases in China:An exploratory study using crowdsourcing data mining techniques
    LI Hanqi, JIA Peng, FEI Teng
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1637-1649.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908011
    Abstract956)   HTML144)    PDF (4086KB)(870)      

    Chronic diseases are the main cause for death in the world. Among all risk factors concerning chronic diseases, those related to an unhealthy diet are most important. Although much research was done on dietary behavior, there are only few quantitative studies on the relationship between dietary taste and chronic diseases. In this article, a taste dataset of the major categories of Chinese cuisine is established based on crowdsourced data from Chinese recipe websites. For a quantitative analysis of people's taste in different regions, additionally the locations of restaurants by category (using their respective points of interest) are integrated. Using the software Geodetector, these regional taste preferences are then correlated with the three chronic diseases, hemorrhagic stroke, pancreatic cancer, and upper respiratory tract infection. For all the three diseases, the results indicate very salty, moderate sweet and very spicy food as the primary risk factors. Also, the degree of sweetness is not linear with the risk of pancreatic cancer. These results are statistically significant. In this study, a quantitative method on discovering potential health risk factors based on mining of crowdsourced data is proposed for the first time. This method can be applied before disease-related experiments to filter potential factors, and it is helpful for the public health department to make quick corresponding intervention policies.

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    Dynamic simulation of urbanization and eco-environment coupling: A review on theory, methods and applications
    CUI Xuegang,FANG Chuanglin,LIU Haimeng,LIU Xiaofei,LI Yonghong
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1079-1096.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906002
    Abstract926)   HTML115)    PDF (1530KB)(997)      

    At present, urbanization and eco-environment coupling has become a research hotspot. Owing to the complexity of the coupling mechanism, as well as the limitation of mathematical statistics methods, the process simulation of urbanization and eco-environment coupling needs to be strengthened. Based on the systems science and cross-scale coupling theory, we can define the coupled urbanization and eco-environment system as a nonlinear open system with multiple feedbacks. Based on the above analysis, the progress of dynamic simulation for urbanization and eco-environment coupling is reviewed. (1) As dynamic simulation has become a trend, the relevant analysis of theory and mechanism is being improved. (2) Dynamic simulation technologies have shown a trend of diversified, refined, intelligent and integrated pattern. (3) The simulation application mainly focuses on three aspects, including multiple-case regions, multiple elements, local coupling and telecoupling, and regional synergy. In addition, we found some shortcomings. (1) The development and integration of basic theories are insufficient. (2) The method integration and data sharing is lagging. (3) The coupling relational chains and dynamic characteristics of the main control elements are not fully revealed. Besides, telecoupling simulation is not quantified and systematically integrated, and could not be effectively applied to spatial synergy. In future, we should promote the intersection of research networks, technology integration and data sharing, and then uncover the evolution process of coupling relational chains and the main control elements in urban agglomerations. Finally, we should build decision-making support systems for regional sustainable urbanization.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics of precipitation from 1960 to 2015 in the Three Rivers' Headstream Region, Qinghai, China
    LIU Xiaoqiong, WU Zezhou, LIU Yansui, ZHAO Xinzheng, RUI Yang, ZHANG Jian
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1803-1820.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909008
    Abstract915)   HTML85)    PDF (6065KB)(578)      

    The Three Rivers' Headstream Region in Qinghai Province is the area with the most fragile ecosystem in China, its annual changes of the precipitation in the growing season are the key to the security of the water resources and the sustainable development of the ecosystem in the local area and the lower Lantsang River, Yellow River and Yangtze River. This paper studied the spatial-temporal characteristics of the precipitation in the Three Rivers' Headwater Region during the last 56 years by using the linear regression, Mann-Kendall test, heuristic segmentation algorithm, R/S, and EEMD et al. The results show that there is an obvious difference in the spatial-temporal characteristics of the precipitation with the variation of area and reason. The results are as follows: The precipitation series of study area showed a weak trend of getting-humid, and it increased significantly since the 21st century, the climate tendency rates of precipitation in the three sub-headwaters region are not the same; The annual and seasonal precipitation decreased from southeast to northwest, the summer precipitation of the Lantsang River Headwater Region and the autumn precipitation of the Yellow River Headwater Region decreased weakly, the areas where precipitation reduced weakly spotted in spacial distribution, the order of seasonal precipitation climate tendency rates of the Lantsang River and the Yellow River Headwater Region are spring, winter, autumn and summer precipitation, while the Yangtze River Headwater Region are spring, summer, winter and autumn precipitation(which are all positive); The decadal variation and the climate tendency rates of precipitation are more obvious; The multiple correlation coefficient between the climatic tendency rates of precipitation in spring, summer and longitude, latitude, altitude are significantly higher than that in winter; There was a wet turning signal in the middle and late 1990s, but the catastrophe point of the precipitation time series occurred around 2002; Inter-annual and low-value Inter-decadal prominent period are the main factors which caused the precipitation variation; With the exception of summer precipitation in the Lantsang River Headwater Region, the other seasonal and the annual precipitation changes showed a trend of different getting-humid; By comparison, the precipitation change in the Yangtze River Headwater Region is more representative than the other two regions in climate change of the Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, it is necessary to continue the research with more characterizing methods to further improve the detection accuracy of the variation process of the characteristics of climate series.

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    Development of aeolian geomorphology in China in the past 70 years
    DONG Zhibao, LYU Ping
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (3): 509-528.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202003006
    Abstract911)   HTML10)    PDF (1256KB)(39)      

    Wind is the second largest fluid shaping the earth's landscape besides water. The aeolian landform formed by wind is widely distributed in the global arid regions, and more than 40% of the land area is affected by the aeolian process in the world. Owing to a close relationship with the human's living environment, aeolian geomorphology has received continuous attention from the international academia since the end of the 19th century. Although aeolian landforms are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of China, the relevant study started in the late 1950s. This paper summarizes the development of aeolian geomorphology during the past 70 years in China, which has experienced three stages: the initial stage before reform and opening-up; the development stage between the reform and opening-up to the end of the 20th century; and international stage since the beginning of the 21st century, even partially beyond the international standard nowadays. There are many influential achievements in China, including dunes movement, regional comprehensive study on aeolian landforms, formation and evolution process of unique aeolian landforms, Gobi, the secondary flow around dunes and the exploration of extraterrestrial planets. Aeolian research in China has the potential to lead the international aeolian research in the future, but the aeolian geomorphologists must have following strategic thinking on meta-synthesis, the guidance of the earth system science, the global view and development of the outer space era.

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    Study on adaptive governance of social-ecological system: Progress and prospect
    SONG Shuang, WANG Shuai, FU Bojie, CHEN Haibin, LIU Yanxu, ZHAO Wenwu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (11): 2401-2410.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201911015
    Abstract883)   HTML72)    PDF (1883KB)(589)      

    Social-Ecological System (SES) is composed of social subsystem, ecological subsystem and the interaction between them; its structure, functions, and characteristics are different from those of social subsystem or ecological subsystem alone. Relying on adaptive social mechanisms of power-sharing and decision making, the adaptive governance of SES aims to guarantee human well-being in a sustainable manner under dynamic conditions. Adaptive governance theory is influenced by "common pool resources management", "resilience" and "governance", and lays a foundation for the construction of transformative governance and collaborative governance. This theory has three main objectives: (1) understanding and coping with the multi-stability, nonlinearity, uncertainty, integrity and complexity of SES; (2) establishing non-confrontational social structure, power-sharing structure and decision-making structure, and match with social subsystem and ecological subsystem; (3) achieving sustainable management of ecosystem services through an integrated approach. Therefore, in the face of the "Anthropocene" of human-behaviour-dominant surface processes, achieving adaptive governance helps to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of SES. Given the rapid changes in China's environment and the increasingly complicated interactions between China and countries all over the world, it will be helpful for future studies to pay close attention to the following fields: (1) understand the multi-interaction processes of a coupled system, and enhance its adaptability; (2) emphasize the significance of a holistic approach of studying SES; (3) improve the ability to understand and predict system dynamics in the context of environmental change.

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    Spatial spillover effect and driving forces of carbon emission intensity at city level in China
    WANG Shaojian,HUANG Yongyuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1131-1148.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906005
    Abstract879)   HTML108)    PDF (4780KB)(686)      

    Since the Paris Climate Change Conference in 2015, reducing carbon emission and lowering carbon intensity has become a global consensus to deal with climate change. Due to different economic development stages, carbon intensity is regarded as a better index to measure regional energy-related carbon emissions. Although previous scholars have made great efforts to explore the spatiotemporal patterns and key driving factors of carbon intensity in China, the results lack the perspective from city level because of limited availability of statistical data of city-level carbon emission. In this study, based on carbon intensity of 283 cities in China from 1992-2013, we used the kernel density estimation, spatial autocorrelation, spatial Markov-chain and quantile regression panel model to empirically reveal its spatial spillover effects and explore the critical impact factors of carbon intensity at the city level. Our result indicates that although the total carbon emission increased during the study period, carbon intensity saw a gradual decline and regional differences were shrinking. Secondly, the city-level carbon intensity presented a strong spatial spillover effect and diverse regional backgrounds exerted heterogeneous effects on regions. Thirdly, quantile panel data analysis result showed that for low-intensity cities, on the one hand, FDI and transport sector were main contributing factors, and economic growth, technical progress and high population density negatively affected carbon intensity. On the other hand, industrial activity, extensive growth of investment and urban sprawl were key promoting factors for high-intensity cities, and population density was beneficial to emission reduction task. Furthermore, technological advance has not exerted negative influence on carbon intensity in high-intensity cities. At last, we suggested that Chinese government should take different carbon intensity levels into full consideration before policy making.

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    The evolution process and regulation of China's regional development pattern
    FAN Jie, WANG Yafei, LIANG Bo
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (12): 2437-2454.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201912002
    Abstract851)   HTML128)    PDF (5095KB)(905)      

    China's per capita GDP has reached 64520 yuan (about 10,000 US dollars). The development process of countries around the world and the inverted U-shaped curve of regional development gaps indicate that the evolution of China's regional development pattern will step into an inflection point segment and that the development gap between regions has witnessed a switch from continuing widening to narrowing. In this paper, we discuss the evolution process of China's regional development pattern over the 40 years since 1978 before the inflection point: (1) The gap in per capita GDP between the upstream areas (the top 9 most developed provinces) and the downstream (the last 8 underdeveloped provinces) increased from 407 yuan in 1978 to 53817 yuan in 2018. (2) Under the pull of export-oriented economy and non-state-owned economy, the mean center of urbanization and economic development rotates in a clockwise direction. Southeast China has become an area with accelerated economic agglomeration. (3) China's regional development pattern has presented a diamond structure with the four core regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing as the apex and the connection of adjacent regions as the boundary. The GDP in these regions accounts for about 75% of the national total. In 2020, China's regional development pattern will enter an inflection point of evolution. The form is characterized by the narrowing of the regional economic gap, which is essentially a transition from non-high-quality regional development to high-quality regional development. The high-quality development of the region is a process of growth in which the ecological and social benefits will be basically synchronized in the process of sustained economic growth, and a regional high-quality development model that is differentiated by geographical functions is presented. In the next 30 years, the regulation and optimization of China's regional development pattern should focus on three types of regions: key urbanization regions, relatively underdeveloped regions, and key areas for security, as well as inter-regional interactions according to the dual objectives of promoting regional balanced (coordinated) development and high-quality development. Establishing a space governance system with the major function zoning-strategy-planning-system as the mainstay will become the basic guarantee for regulating and optimizing the regional development pattern.

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    Spatial variation of the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention
    GU Hengyu, MENG Xin, SHEN Tiyan, CUI Nana
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2020, 75 (2): 240-254.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb202002003
    Abstract840)   HTML19)    PDF (2982KB)(170)      

    It is demonstrated that the determinants of China's urban floating population's settlement intention are different among geographic units, which seems to be ignored by previous researches. Based on the data from the 2015 national migrant population dynamic monitoring survey (CMDS) and related statistics, this article uses the Semiparametric Geographically Weighted Regression (SGWR) model and k-means cluster method to examine the spatial variation of the factors influencing floating population's settlement intention in 282 prefecture- and provincial- level cites of China. Results provide the following conclusions. (1) The settlement intention of urban floating population is mainly influenced by the floating population characteristics instead of the destination characteristics. (2) Social and economic factors are closely related to the floating population's settlement intention. Meanwhile, the demographic, family and mobility factors exert a significant impact on such an intention. To be specific, there exists an inhibitory effect on floating population's settlement intention in factors such as income, marriage, and cross provincial mobility. However, housing expenditure, participation rate, number of children and other factors can effectively contribute to such intention. (3) Zonal spatial differentiation patterns of the influencing factors' coefficients are illustrated by the SGWR model, which can be further divided into four categories ("E-W", "N-S", "NE-SW" and "SE-NW"): The positive influences of ethnic and family factors are decreasing from the northern to southern regions, while the influence of employment ratio in the secondary industry is declining from the northwest to the southeast regions, and the impacts of factors such as the number of children and per capita GDP are diminishing from the northeast to the southwest regions. In eastern developed areas, the settlement intention of floating population with higher income is comparatively lower, while migrants with higher housing expenditure in southern China have a stronger intention to settle down. (4) Four influencing zones are detected by the k-means method: Floating population's settlement intention in North China, Central China and East China is significantly affected by multiple factors; In the northwest region and part of the southwest region, migrants' settlement intention is mainly influenced by demographic and social factors; The northeast region and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia's floating population's willingness to stay is mainly related to economic and family factors; Apart from housing expenditure, coefficients of other factors are relatively small in southern China and part of the central, eastern and southwestern regions. Additionally, this paper puts forward some suggestions on the service and management of the floating population in China.

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    Population and economic risk exposure in coastal regionof China under sea level rise
    GAO Chao,WANG Li,CHEN Cai,LUO Gang,SUN Yanwei
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1590-1604.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908008
    Abstract833)   HTML110)    PDF (5463KB)(576)      

    Based on the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset, the relevant Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was imported into ArcGIS and spatial analysis tools were used to extract possible flooding ranges due to sea level rise in 11 provinces and cities of coastal China. Combined with population, economic, and land use data, a sea level rise risk exposure assessment model is constructed and the population and economic risk exposure from sea level rise in coastal region of China are assessed. Three primary conclusions are drawn from the evaluation: (1) The impact of sea level rise on the coast areas is mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and northern Jiangsu coastal plains, as well as the Pearl River Delta and Bohai Rim, and other coastal plain areas. The most seriously affected land use types are arable land, which accounts for 65% of affected areas, followed by construction land; (2) Based on population and economic statistics from 2015 and 10 to 1000 years return periods, sea level rise increases risks to populations and the aggregated economy. In terms of sea level rise risk exposure, Guangzhou is most exposed and other areas with high exposure are concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta, northern Jiangsu coastal plains, the Pearl River Delta and Bohai Rim Region; (3) Based on population and economic statistics estimated using five shared social economic paths (SSPs), and variations in return periods from 10 to 1000 years, the gross population and the aggregated economies for 2025 and 2100 tended to increase in different paths. The conventional development path (SSP5) resulted in the largest affected population and aggregated economy while the local or inconsistent development path (SSP3) and unbalanced development path (SSP4) resulted in lower impacts than those of the other three paths. Changes in the return period from 10 to 1000 years can shift the risk exposure. Comparing the exposure risk to the population and economies, we found that the exposure degree in 2100 will be lower than that in 2025.

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    The hub-network structure of China's equipment manufacturing industry
    ZHU Yanshuo, WANG Zheng, CHENG Wenlu
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1525-1533.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908003
    Abstract812)   HTML134)    PDF (1626KB)(924)      

    Based on the interlocking network model and the complex network theory, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution and interaction of cities based on geographical distribution of equipment manufacturing enterprises. The study indicates that cities all over the country present a hub-network structure. Beijing is the national hub city of the network. Cities such as Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Chongqing are regional hub cities. Beijing and Shenzhen have the strongest intercity connection in the network. Most cities in the northwest and southwest have a relatively low connection with other cities in the network. By comparing the sub-networks of different industries, it is found that there are significant differences in network scale, hub city and network density, which proved the polycentricity and diversity of urban space organizational hub-network structure. Finally, complex network theory is used to deliver deliberate attack experiments. The experimental results show that the network connectivity is basically not affected when the hinterland of the hub city is deleted, while the network connectivity declines obviously when the non-hinterland of the hub city is deleted. This indicates that the restriction of spatial distance between hubs and nodes is getting weaker, which is significantly different from the central-hinterland structure.

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    Evolution of accessibility spatial pattern of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in 1976-2016
    GAO Xingchuan,CAO Xiaoshu,LI Tao,LV Minjuan
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (6): 1190-1204.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201906009
    Abstract799)   HTML96)    PDF (6182KB)(637)      

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a unique geography-ecology-population-traffic region on the earth. The characteristics and regularities of the transport network development are an important breakthrough for the coordinated development of man-land relationship, which is of great significance to the research in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Accordingly, this paper analyzes the evolution of transport network in this region between 1976 and 2016, and explores its accessibility using a temporal distance calculation model based on network analysis by taking provincial capitals, prefecture-level cities and counties as transport nodes. Results suggest that, first, transport network is more complex and the regional connectivity is gradually enhanced in the plateau, preliminarily forming a grid-like transport network; second, the average minimum accessibility time between anchor cities and between counties has been vastly reduced to 11.89 hours and 18.84 hours, manifesting a gradually growing spatial pattern from east to west and remarkable effects of time-space convergence; third, anchor cities are the poles of regional development, with average accessibility time to around cities reduced to 16.49 hours, indicating that anchor cities tied with others have been improved; fourth, the traffic circles of anchor cities and counties are evolving consistently, accessibility time from various places in the study area to their nearest cities or counties are decreasing, presenting a contiguous pattern of short-time traffic circle with 4-hour access to central cities and 2-hour access to counties along important arterial roads, thus improving external transport connection of towns. And traffic corridors are gradually formed in the Huangshui River Valley, and the Middle Region of "One River and Two Streams" in Tibet.

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    Spatial differentiation and mechanisms of typical rural areas in the suburbs of a metropolis: A case study of Beicun Village, Baiyun District, Guangzhou
    YANG Ren
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (8): 1622-1636.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201908010
    Abstract759)   HTML90)    PDF (3496KB)(763)      

    The reforms of global production modes and social systems have accelerated the process of urbanization, and the urban-rural flow speeds up spatial differentiation in the rural suburbs. Based on spatial production theory and game theory, this paper analyzes the spatial differentiation and its influence mechanism in Beicun in the suburbs of Guangzhou. The results are as follows: (1) Since the 1980s, Beicun has experienced three stages: agricultural development, industrial development, and service industry development. The industry has changed from single to diversified, and the transformation from agricultural decentralization to rural community has been realized. (2) In the transformation of rural economic development, the land use type and structure of Beicun tended to be diversified, and the spatial relationship of various types of land use was complicated, emerging in new characteristics of land for mixed commercial and residential use, and mixed industrial and commercial use, gradually forming a circle-type spatial layout structure model of "public service facilities-traditional and modern residential areas-commercial areas-agricultural and industrial areas". (3)The diversification of the rural material space was mainly due to the intervention of new industries and the transformation of leading industries. Both endogenous land-transferring mechanisms and exogenous urban capital promoted the industrialization process, and market power promoted the transformation of manufacturing industry into a service industry. (4) The industrialization process promoted the functional replacement of historical buildings by village organizations; changed the social relationship of the village to the blood clan and made it more geographically oriented; and produced an occupational relationship between migrant workers and urban low-income groups. (5) The multi-differentiation of suburban rural space followed the game logic of capital and land interests. The rural community played a key mediation role in the competition for space and in the game interests among local villagers, farmers, cooperative economy, industrial operators, and service owners.

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    Influence of natural factors on vegetation NDVI using geographical detection in Sichuan Province
    PENG Wenfu, ZHANG Dongmei, LUO Yanmei, TAO Shuai, XU Xinliang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (9): 1758-1776.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201909005
    Abstract740)   HTML107)    PDF (2869KB)(727)      

    Many studies have shown the importance of using remote sensing to establish a vegetation index for land surface processes and global change research, it is of great significance to understand the driving factors of vegetation change, but the causes for vegetation change and the impact of geographical factors on vegetation change remain elusive. In this study, we examined the geographical factors and spatial patterns of vegetation change and the interactive effects of the geographical factors on vegetation change, and identified the most suitable characteristics of the main geographical factors that promote vegetation growth using the Geographical Detector Model, a new method of spatial counting to detect spatial variability and identify the driving factors. Our results showed that the vegetation cover was in good condition, the coverage area was of medium height, and there was more than 94% of high height vegetation. The spatiotemporal change in vegetation cover was significant from 2000-2015; the transformation of the normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) was manifested as the transformation of NDVI > 0.4, and the cover area of medium and high height vegetation had a significant decreasing and increasing trend, respectively. The vegetation cover was better in the western and northern Sichuan plateau, while it was poor in the central urban areas of the Sichuan Basin and the Panxi area. Soil type, elevation, and the average annual temperature change could well explain the variability in vegetation condition. The influence of geographical factors on NDVI was interactive; the synergistic effect of the geographical factors on NDVI showed mutual and non-linear enhancement, and the interaction of the two factors enhanced the influence of a single factor on NDVI. This study reveals the most suitable characteristics and the main factors that promote vegetation growth, which is helpful to better understand the influence of natural factors and the driving mechanisms of vegetation NDVI change.

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    The geographical pattern of China's tourism development since the reform and opening-up in 1978
    ZHANG Chengming, WENG Shixiu, BAO Jigang
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (10): 1980-2000.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201910003
    Abstract732)   HTML68)    PDF (7739KB)(448)      

    China's tourism development has made significant progress since the reform and opening-up policy officially launched in 1978. Now it is high time to conduct research on how and why the geographical pattern of China's tourism development has evolved in the previous four decades on national and regional scales. Employing grounded viable data sets (namely the inbound tourism data from 1979 to 2017 and the domestic tourism data from 1991 to 2017) and multiple vibrant data analysis approaches (including the Gini coefficient, the primacy index analysis, the hot spot analysis and the Pearson correlation analysis), this paper can draw three findings. (1) China's tourism can present a distribution pattern of "high in the eastern and southern parts, but low in the western and northern parts." Meanwhile, China's inbound tourism development has long been polarized, Guangdong is the "core" of inbound tourism, Beijing and Shanghai belong to the second tier, while Gansu, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Tibet and Ningxia lag behind. Meanwhile, the domestic tourism development has transferred from polarization to equilibrium distribution. (2) Different stages of China's tourism development exhibit various features and characteristics. Specifically, at the so-called initial modern tourism stage, inbound tourism was subject to extreme polarization, with Guangdong province taking a fatal and strategic role. Whereas, at the domestic tourism cultivating stage, the domestic tourism development in this nation was polarized spatially, though the landscape of the inbound tourism was hardly transformed (Guangdong the first, Beijing the second and Shanghai the third). When it came to the rapid development stage, Beijing was gradually surpassed by Shanghai in the realm of inbound tourism. In contrast, domestic tourism development was reasonably balanced. By the new normal stage, the landscape of the inbound tourism improved, and the first tier provinces began to take an increasing share in terms of domestic tourist reception capacity. Moreover, China's outbound tourism increased steadily at this stage, with Beijing and Shanghai playing leading roles in the citizens' overseas spending. (3) This research has identified multiple factors underlying the inbound and domestic tourism development in China, including policies, management systems, tourism demand, tourism attractions, economic level, consumption level, industrial development, investment status, traffic conditions, accommodation services, intermediary services and degree of openness.

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    Evaluation of the GPM-based IMERG and GSMaP precipitation estimates over the Sichuan region
    ZENG Suikang,YONG Bin
    Acta Geographica Sinica    2019, 74 (7): 1305-1318.   doi: 10.11821/dlxb201907003
    Abstract728)   HTML39)    PDF (8606KB)(449)      

    The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) are two high precisely multi-satellite precipitation estimates in the GPM era. In order to evaluate the applicability of both IMERG and GSMaP series products (IMERG_Uncal and IMERG_Cal, GSMaP_MVK and GSMaP_Gauge) over the Sichuan region in China, six statistical indices are used to systematically analyze the error characteristics of these products, benchmarked by a set of ground-based dataset from China Meterological Administration (CMA). Results show that: (1) All products show the dramatic regional difference over Sichuan at both daily and hourly scales. The GSMaP series products overestimate precipitation and the most overestimations occur over the high altitude areas located in the Western Sichuan. GSMaP_Gauge shows relatively higher correlation coefficient and lower relative bias and root mean square error due to the employment of gauge-based adjustments. On the contrary, IMERG_Uncal shows underestimation over the mountainous areas, while the relatively slight overestimation appears in the basin area with lower elevation at both daily and hourly time scales, suggesting that gauge-calibrated dataset IMERG_Cal has effectively improved the relative bias in the mountainous areas but not in the flat basin area. (2) By synthesizing the three classified statistical indices, IMERG series products exhibit better potentials in detecting precipitation events. Although GSMaP_Gauge shows a higher hit rate of precipitation, it has more false alarm ratios of precipitation. All products show better hit rate and lower false alarm rate over basin area and southern Sichuan. Furthermore, it is found that the ground-based dataset has some errors in those areas without meteorological stations, which leads to the apparent uncertainty in assessing the accuracy of satellite precipitation products over the Northwest Sichuan Plateau. (3) IMERG_Cal performs better in capturing the rainfall amounts and events compared with other products, especially for the lowest and highest rainfall intensity ranges, demonstrating its application potential for monitoring the extreme weather events. Overall, both IMERG and GSMaP estimates have relatively high uncertainties over the mountainous areas than ones over the flat basin areas. Additionally, the gauge-calibrated products obviously outperform the uncalibrated datasets. On the basis of the findings, future efforts focus on reducing and correcting the errors and biases of satellite precipitation estimates by considering both spatio-temporal characteristics and the topographical information.

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