Acta Geographica Sinica ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (5): 843-855.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201805005

• Land Use and Ecosystem Services • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Review of landscape ecological risk and an assessment framework based on ecological services: ESRISK

CAO Qiwen1(),ZHANG Xiwen2,3,MA Hongkun2,WU Jiansheng2,3()   

  1. 1. School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    2. Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Urban Planning and Design, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
    3. Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2017-06-28 Online:2018-05-03 Published:2018-05-03
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41330747


During rapid urbanization, high-intensity human activities have imposed significant stress on the structure and services of the ecosystem, resulting in ecological risk. In recent years, rising landscape ecological risk assessments have provided a new perspective for studying the relationship between landscape patterns and the ecological process, which can effectively support ecosystem management. Through a comparison of the concepts of ecological risk, regional ecological risk, and landscape ecological risk, this paper primarily reviews the two main methods for landscape ecological risk assessment: landscape index method and risk "source-sink" method. We also discuss the research progress of landscape ecological risk based on ecological services. In addition, this paper puts forward a framework for landscape ecological risk assessment, ESRISK, based on ecosystem services. In this framework, ecological loss is represented by the degradation level of key ecological services, and risk probability is represented from the perspectives of terrain, artificial stress, ecological restoration, and landscape vulnerability. As for scientific rigor, the ESRISK framework is a comprehensive assessment of landscape ecological risk in the urban and regional development process, in which the landscape is the study object and ecosystem services serve as the medium. In terms of application prospects, the ESRISK framework is applicable to different assessment purposes, study areas, and scales. The framework could also potentially provide a more integrative paradigm for assessment of landscape ecological risk and support the determination of regional adaptive risk mitigation strategy, and the efficient allocation of limited resources. Lastly, we have submitted future research trends from four perspectives: (1) Focusing on long-term ecosystem service loss dynamics and incorporating tradeoffs and synergies among ecosystem services into the assessment framework; (2) strengthening the analysis of uncertainty in assessment results and risk decision scenario simulation; (3) revealing relationships between landscape ecological risk and landscape patterns, as well as multi-scale and nonlinear characteristics; and (4) integrating remote sensing and socioeconomic data to deepen risk assessment into vulnerability research.

Key words: landscape ecological risk, ecological services, landscape pattern, ecological risk probability, ESRISK, research progress and prospects