Acta Geographica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (3): 740-752.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202103017

• Environment and Ecosystem Services • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Characteristics and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 in the typical urban and rural areas of the Fenwei Plain

CAI Ruiting1(), XIAO Shun1(), DONG Zhibao1, CAO Junji2, ZHANG Ningning2, LIU Suixin2, SHEN Zhenxing3, XU Hongmei3, TAO Yan4, LI Xingmin5, WANG Xin1, WANG Yumeng1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
    2. Institute of Earth Environment, CAS, Xi'an 710061, China
    3. School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
    4. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
    5. Meteorological Institute of Shaanxi Province, Xi'an 710014, China
  • Received:2020-01-03 Revised:2020-12-20 Online:2021-03-25 Published:2021-05-25
  • Contact: XIAO Shun E-mail:1215933628@qq.com;sxiao@snnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771220);Free Exploration Project of the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(GK201803054)

Abstract:

In order to investigate the pollution characteristics and human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in heavy polluted weather in the typical urban and rural areas of the Fenwei Plain, PM2.5 samples were collected from Xi'an and Longxian in the winter of 2018-2019. The mass concentrations of 15 PAHs characterized by carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and teratogenicity in the samples were determined using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The source of PAHs was analyzed by the diagnostic ratio and principal component method and the possible relation between PAHs mass concentrations and meteorological parameters was elaborated. In addition, human health risk caused by PAHs in PM2.5 was assessed through the equivalent carcinogenic concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The results showed that the average mass concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 in heavy polluted weather in Xi'an and Longxian were 243.78 μg/m3 and 609.39 μg/m3, respectively, and 4-6 rings of PAHs had the highest proportion of the total. Moreover, PAHs concentrations had a significant negative correlation with atmospheric temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed, but irrelevant with relative humidity. Combustion source and automobile exhaust emissions were the main factors contributing to the high concentration of PAHs in Xi'an, while coal and biomass burning were the main factors contributing most to PAHs of Longxian. Health risk assessment results revealed that the carcinogenic risk caused by breathing during heavy polluted weather was higher in Longxian than that in Xi'an and the cancer risk for females was higher than that for males, and the cancer risk for adults was higher than that for children. In addition, the ILCR value of adults in both urban and rural areas exceeded the risk threshold recommended by EPA and had potential carcinogenic risks, while there was no obvious carcinogenic risk for children.

Key words: pollution characteristics, health risk, the Fenwei Plain, PM2.5, PAHs, heavy polluted weather, pollution characteristics, health risk, the Fenwei Plain