Acta Geographica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 76 ›› Issue (2): 487-502.doi: 10.11821/dlxb202102017

• Industrial and Regional Development • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Adaptive evolution mechanism of rural human-land system in farming-and-pastoral areas of northern China

LI Wenlong1,2(), KUANG Wenhui2, LYU Jun1, ZHAO Zhonghua3()   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environmental Economics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Economic Data Analysis and Mining, Hohhot 010070, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. Tourism School, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2020-02-15 Revised:2020-12-22 Online:2021-02-25 Published:2021-04-25
  • Contact: ZHAO Zhonghua E-mail:nmgliwenlong@126.com;ecnuzhao@163.com
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China(18AZD021);National Social Science Foundation of China(17CGL024);Major Project of the Ministry of Education of China(19JZD014)

Abstract:

The theory on the cyclic adaptaion between society and ecosystem sheds new light on the evolution and internal structure of human-land system. This paper introduces the risk index (RI) and adaptation capacity index (ACI) to evaluate the rural human-land system, and sets up an evaluation index system for the adaptability of rural human-land system, under the effects of climate change and policy implementation. On this basis, the stages, features, control factors, and evolution mechanism were examined for the adaptability of rural human-land system in Darhan Mumingan United Banner from 1952 to 2017. The main results are as follows: (1) The evolution of the rural human-land system can be divided into three stages, namely, the reorganization and rapid development stage from 1952 to 2002 (population: +260%; cultivated land area: +13%; livestock: +134%; degradated grassland area: +16.33%), the rapid to stable development stage from 2003 to 2010 (population: +2.8%; cultivated land area: -2.3%; livestock: -13.6%; degradated grassland area: -10.7%), and the stable to release stage from 2011 to 2017 (population: -2.6%; cultivated land area: -0.2%; livestock: -10.6%; degradated grassland area: -3.8%). (2) With the elapse of time, the ACI of the rural human-land system went through a slow rise (-0.016-0.031), a slow decline (0.031-0.003), and a rapid rise (0.003-0.088). In terms of space, the adaptability is high in the middle, moderate in the north, and low in the south. (3) The adaptability evolution of the rural human-land system was mainly controlled by the per-capita effective irrigation area (22.31%) and the per-capita number of livestocks (23.47%) from 1990 to 2000, the desertification area of land (25.06%) and the land use intensity (21.27%) from 2000 to 2005, and the per-capita income of farmers and herdsmen (20.08%) and the per-capita number of livestocks (18.52%) from 2010 to 2007. (4) Under the effects of climate change and policy implementation, the cyclic adaptaion of the rural human-land system was propelled by the interactions between two kinds of subjects: farmers and herdsmen, and rural communities. The interaction affects the adaptive behavior of the two kinds of subjects, which in turn drives the cyclic evolution of the system. As a result, the system structure and functions developed alternatively between coordinated and uncoordinated states. Small-scale adaptive behaviors of farmers and herdsmen have a profound impact on the evolution of rural human-land system.

Key words: rural human-land system, adaptability, evolutionary mechanism, agricultural-and-pastoral areas