Acta Geographica Sinica ›› 2019, Vol. 74 ›› Issue (4): 814-830.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201904014

• Geopolitics and Cultural Tourism Geography • Previous Articles     Next Articles

The spatial effects of haze on tourism flows of Chinese cities: Empirical research based on the spatial panel econometric model

Dong XU1,2(), Zhenfang HUANG1,2(), Rui HUANG1,3   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    2. Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
    3. Nanjing Institute of Tourism & Hospitality, Nanjing 211100, China;
  • Received:2017-10-16 Revised:2019-03-11 Online:2019-04-25 Published:2019-04-23
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41671137, No.41771154

Abstract:

Taking 342 cities in China as an example, this paper explores the spatial correlation between haze (PM2.5) and tourism flows, as well as analyzes the impact of haze on tourism flows and the spatial spillover effects from 1998 to 2016 by using bivariate LISA (Local Indications of Spatial Association) Model and Spatial Panel Dubin Model. The results show that the spatial distribution patterns of haze (PM2.5) pollution and tourism growth in China are both high in the eastern region and low in the western region, showing some regularity related to the factors, such as terrain and urban development on both sides of Hu Huanyong population line. Haze and tourism flows (including domestic tourism flows and inbound tourism flows) show both significant spatial agglomeration and spatial dependence during the study period, indicating that haze pollution has great spatial effect on tourism flows. The area where haze curbs tourism flows is expanding. The increase in the number of HL (High-Low) -type cities, the expansion of LH (Low-High) -type agglomeration area and the hollow phenomenon of LH-type agglomeration that appear in north and central China all show that tourists tend to travel to the cities with low haze pollution. The inverted U-shape curve relationship between haze pollution and tourism flows illustrates that the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis is suitable for tourism growth in the cities of China. The negative impact of haze on inbound tourism flows is significant. Both haze pollution and tourism flows have positive spatial spillover effects. Combining haze management with other measures, such as economic development, tourism development, ecological protection, traffic construction, we can create a beautiful environment for tourism development and achieve a healthy, coordinated and sustainable high-quality development of international and domestic tourism.

Key words: haze, PM2.5, tourism flow, spatial association, spatial effect, China