After the release of the Sixth Census Data, more research results have been achieved about the socio-spatial structure in urban China based on the method of factor ecology analysis. However, methodological innovation needs to be promoted. In this paper, combining census data with big data, with the aid of the methods of grid processing and calculation of accessibility of public service facilities, the authors try to interpret the quality of life of urban residents from both the internal and the external environments of residence, and to reveal the relationship between the spatial structure of quality of life and the socio-economic status of urban residents. Taking Changzhou City of Jiangsu province as a case study, first of all, the authors extract the housing data from the Sixth Census, and the data of facilities from the urban POI data of Baidu maps. And then, factor analysis, cluster analysis, accessibility analysis and other methods are used to identify the spatial structure of urban residents' quality of life and reveal some characteristics of urban social space from the viewpoint of socio-spatial dialectic. The results suggest that the spatial structure of the quality of life of residents in Changzhou based on residential environment shows a clear pattern of overlap between the circular structure and the fan-shaped one. In addition, there is a spatial coupling between the spatial structure of urban residents' quality of life and their socioeconomic attributes, that is, residents with different social and economic attributes have some differences in their quality of life. The formation of an interactive relationship between these two aspects is the result of a combination of administrative, market and spatial factors, which may lead to overcrowding in the old city, fire safety problems in living and production buildings, traffic congestion problems caused by tidal commuting, social isolation, unreasonable distribution of public service facilities, and other socio-spatial effects. Its enlightenment for urban planning and management lies in the following aspects including the dispersal of the old city, focusing on fire safety in certain areas, perfecting the transportation links between central and peripheral areas, preventing the emergence of social isolation in the high-tech zones, and improving the public service facilities in rural areas.