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28 June 2021, Volume 11 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
Special Issue: Theoretical Frontiers and Academic Innovation of Rural Tourism Research in the New Era
Research review on the rural reconstruction influenced by tourism
LU Song, LIU Junmei, RAO Xiaofang, ZHANG Hai
2021, 11 (3):  315-331.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210026
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Rural reconstruction has become an important topic and development trend of the research in rural areas in China and abroad. Besides, rural tourism is regarded as an effective path to advance rural economy, and an important driving force for rural reconstruction. Using CiteSpace knowledge map visualization software, this paper systematically summarized relevant literature on rural restructuring influenced by tourism in China and abroad. This paper demonstrated this issue from three aspects: spatial restructuring, economic restructuring, and social restructuring. The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical support for the integrated development of new urbanization and rural strategy in China. The results show that: (1) Rural spatial reconstruction influenced by tourism can be manifested in three aspects: the change of rural land use, the reconstruction of village and town system, and the reconstruction of the spatial pattern of "ecology, production, and livelihood" in rural areas. (2) Rural economic reconstruction influenced by tourism was mainly shown from two aspects: the change of economic industrial structure and the transformation of residents' livelihood pattern. (3) The improvement of rural governance and the reconstruction of rural culture were the two main aspects in rural social reconstruction research. Moreover, this paper discussed the theoretical basis of rural reconstruction influenced by tourism based on spatial production theory and actor network theory. Finally, the prospect of future research in this field was put forward including tourism motivation, comparison of different types and cases of tourism impetus, and integration of new urbanization and rural revitalization strategies.

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Research on the characteristics and mechanism of rural social restructuring driven by tourism: A Case study of Guzhu Village in Huzhou
LI Tianyu, LU Lin, ZHANG Xiaoyao
2021, 11 (3):  332-348.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210061
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Rural tourism is an important driving force to promote rural restructuring. As the ultimate goal of rural restructuring, rural social restructuring is an important content of rural restructuring research. This study took Guzhu Village, a typical tourist village in Huzhou City, as a case site, and analyzed the characteristics of rural social restructuring from the perspective of rural residents. This study also constructed a theoretical model of rural social restructuring mechanism driven by tourism using grounded theoretical methods. The results show that: (1) The development of rural tourism has changed the original identity of rural residents. Rural residents have changed their identities from farmers and migrant workers to tourism operators, so that their social identities have been changed. (2) The development of rural tourism has brought a large number of migrants into the countryside. The pattern of rural social relations has gradually changed from a "differential pattern" to a "multiple pattern", so that the social relations have been reconstructed. (3) The development of rural tourism has changed the relationship between rural residents and rural environment, and the village has been transformed from a traditional rural community to a tourist service community, so that social space has been reconstructed. (4) The intervention of tourism elements is the most important driving force for restructuring the tourism rural society. The six aspects including rural economic restructuring, rural spatial restructuring, resource environment drive, tourism market drive, policy system drive, and the participation of actors constitute the rural area spatial carrier, material basis, support mechanism, guidance mechanism, promotion/restraint mechanism, and engine mechanism of social restructuring, respectively. The mutual influence and dynamic coupling of each mechanism jointly promote the restructuring of rural society.

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The temporal characteristics of xiangchou in traditional village tourism destinations from perspectives of residents and tourists in southern Jiangsu
CHEN Xiaoyan, HUANG Zhenfang, HU Xiaohai
2021, 11 (3):  349-362.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210031
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“Remembering xiangchou” is important for rural tourism and rural revitalization. From the perspectives of residents and tourists, this study explores the temporal characteristics of xiangchou in traditional villages in southern Jiangsu Province. The results show that :(1) In terms of the subject of xiangchou, compared with the migrant population who temporarily live in the village, residents who have lived in the village for more than three generations have stronger feelings for xiangchou. Tourists who were born during 1950—1959 and 1960—1978 grew up mainly in the countryside and have a higher sense of xiangchou. The longer the tourists lived and worked away from their hometown, the stronger the xiangchou feelings and memories were when they visited traditional villages than those who had not left their hometown or only had been away from their hometown for a short time. (2) In terms of the triggers of xiangchou, the seasons that trigger xiangchou of residents and tourists are mainly autumn and winter; the weathers that trigger xiangchou are raining and snowing; the hours that trigger xiangchou are late at night and evening; festivals that trigger xiangchou are Spring Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival, Tomb-sweeping Day, and hometown special festivals; and holidays that trigger xiangchou are mainly weekends, winter breaks and National Day. (3) In terms of xiangchou memory, xiangchou memories of residents are in childhood the most, followed by adolescent period, and finally adulthood and old age. The frequency of tourists feel xiangchou is higher than that of residents. (4) The recall order of xiangchou carriers are family, home, hometown, and country. On this basis, the authors proposed some suggestions for the development of xiangchou tourism.

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Research on the perception of resilience of agricultural heritage community under the influence of tourism development: Taking the traditional vineyards system of Xuanhua, Hebei Province as an example
SONG Yuxin, SUN Yehong, Yuan Zheng, WU Wenjie
2021, 11 (3):  363-374.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210035
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Problems about agriculture, ruralareas, and peasantryare fundamental issues related to national economy and people's livelihoods. Solving those problems is of great significance for rural revitalization. Rural tourism is one of the effective means to implement the rural revitalization strategy in the new era. As an important resource of rural tourism, the dynamic conservation of agricultural heritage is related to the sustainable development of villages, the improvement of farmers livelihoods, and the green and high-quality production of agriculture. Agricultural heritage tourism takes place in rural areas and is closely related to rural tourism. Agricultural communities play an important role in it. In the face of a series of human disturbances caused by tourism activities, the adaptability of the community is crucial. This study took the traditional vineyards of Xuanhua, Hebei as an example. Based on the impact of tourism activities, the residents’ perception method was used to measure the resilience of the community. The aims of this study are to achieve the coordinated development of agricultural heritage sites protection and sustainable tourism, and to provide insights for the development of rural tourism. The following conclusions are proposed: (1) Tourism development has a positive impact on the communities of agricultural heritage sites. (2) During the development of tourism, the impact of the various subsystems of the community resilience of agricultural heritage sites is different.Ranging from high to low in terms of impact,subsystems are society, ecology, culture, economy, and institution. (3) In the process of tourism development, each tourism factor plays a different role. Ranking the significance of their roles from high to low, factors are tourism facility, tourism image, tourism product and tourism scale.

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Spatial response and protection behavior decision in rural settlements of tourism: A case study in Wolong Village of Chaling County
TANG Weibing, FU Lihua, XIE Mei, WANG Kun
2021, 11 (3):  375-385.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210020
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Ecological space is an important functional space of tourism rural settlements, and the change of spatial pattern is a response to the interaction between space and behavior, which also leads to the difference in decision-making of different behavioral subjects. Wolong village in Chaling County was selected as a case study, PRA (Participatory Rural Assessment) and remote sensing data application was combined to conduct from spatial inversion with spatial pattern of rural settlements, and conduct preference and behavioral decision analysis of relevant protection subjects. The result shows that the total amount of ecological space occupied after the development of rural tourism was significantly higher than all of the previous 40 years. The overall relocation of villagers' settlements and the construction of tourism facilities were the main reasons for the expansion of ecological space occupied. With the development of rural tourism, the decision-making preference values of the ecological protection behavior of the actors are generally improved and also shown differences. The development of tourism and the change of residents' life style are the leading factors for the change of ecological protection behavior decisions of different agent, and also reflect with the spatial evolution of settlements. According to the decision-making preferences of different actors, different spatial control measures are proposed. This study will provide some reference for tourism rural planning and give a case practice of combining territorial space use control with ecological protection behavior.

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The process and mechanism of urban and rural factor flow in rural tourism development
NING Zhizhong, ZHANG Qi, HE Qiongfeng, SHI Manjiang
2021, 11 (3):  386-397.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210058
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Rural tourism is an effective measure to promote the interaction between urban and rural markets. Clarifying the flow process and mechanism of urban and rural factors is an important issue for linking rural tourism with rural revitalization strategy and promoting the integrated development of urban and rural areas. Following the research idea of "process-feature-mechanism," this paper sorts out the types of urban and rural factor flow in rural tourism development, summarizes the factor flow process and features, and elaborates the factor flow mechanism. The research shows that the factor flow of rural tourism not only includes basic factors such as people, capital, and materials, but also includes core factors such as ecology and culture, and innovative factors such as technology and information. At the development stages of conceptualization, initiation, design, construction, operation, and transformation of rural tourism, the types of factor flow between urban and rural areas have been diversified. Factor flow has gradually transformed from one-way flow to two-way flow. Ecology and culture are two key factor types. The return value of the core factors of rural tourism is the original driver promoting the flow of urban and rural factors. The factor flow mechanism of rural tourism development includes demand driven, value motivation, market promotion, and policy activism. Rural tourism promotes the interaction between urban and rural factors and the growth of the value, type, and quantity of rural factors, thereby promoting rural revitalization and urban-rural integrated development.

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Operation characteristics and practical significance of "Leading Tourists to Villages"
XU Chunxiao, ZHANG Jingjing
2021, 11 (3):  398-412.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210050
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"Leading Tourists to Villages" is an effective mode for Hunan Province to promote rural development by coordinating various forces. At the special stage of effectively connecting poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, it is of great importance to systematically summarize its establishment process, connotation, operation characteristics and to highlight its significance. The operation of "Leading Tourists to Villages" has contributed to the overall growth of the number of tourists in the villages, but there are significant differences among villages. The total number and the increase of tourists in villages showed five levels. The "star villages" phenomenon appeared in the form of clusters, showing the passenger flow characteristics of "bright spots of growth" and "cross distribution of negative growth." The market opportunities formed by "Leading Tourists to Villages" showed three levels with the characteristics of "market opportunity agglomeration block" and "market opportunity agglomeration belt", which demonstrated the effect of tourism routes construction. The differences in the operation effect of "Leading Tourists to Villages" between villages were related to their own cultural characteristics, A-level tourist attractions, and traffic access conditions. The findings show that synergizing multilateral force is an effective way to promote rural development. "Two-pronged approach" is effective for assisting rural economy market operation. Constructing high quality rural tourism routes serves as a solid foundation. Cultivating the profiting ability of those unique villages is a powerful force. "Two-dimensional echelon advancement" from breadth and depth is an important strategy for sustainable development. The model of "Leading Tourists to Villages" provides the following insights: We should emphasize the coordination between government and market, focus on the "market cultivation" of villagers' management consciousness and skills, especially encourage households models and leaders, and pay attention to the enhancement of "endogenous motivation". "Leading Tourists to Villages" can provide insights for the development of rural tourism.

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A study on the consumerization process and mechanism of rural space: A case of Huangpu Village in Guangzhou
XUE Chenlu, JIN Cheng
2021, 11 (3):  413-426.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210029
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The flow of urban and rural factors promotes the transformation and development of rural areas, and the spread of consumer culture has an important impact on the "post-productivism" transformation of rural areas. The rural tourism development results in emergence of urban consumption space in rural areas. This study summarizes the spatial changes of Huangpu Village from the perspective of consumerization, analyzes the consumerization process of Huangpu Village according to the time sequence and applies the mutual shaping framework of institutional structures, capital flow, social action, and space to analyze the mechanism of spatial consumerization. The results show that: (1) The connotation of consumerization of rural space includes two aspects. One is the "boundary" of concept and material space formed by the difference of consumption concept between urban and rural residents, and the other is the focus on the abstract value of rural space during the development results in the "boundary" between symbolic space and daily life space. Since 2000, the spatial consumerization of Huangpu Village has undergone stages from "institutional guidance stage" to "capital inflow stage", then to "social action stage." The economic structure has become more diversified. The concept of urban consumption has been introduced to the countryside resulting in the increase of urban consumption space. The rural space itself has been symbolized and become urban consumer goods. (2) Institutional structures played a leading role in the process of rural space consumerization. Incoming industrial capital accelerated the change of rural space. Capital flows delocalized the space. Social actions shaped the rural space through local resistance. In the process of consumerization, the boundary of the space formed, strengthened, and adjusted, restricting and influencing the institution structures, capital flows, and social actions. The interaction of the four elements promoted the consumerization of rural space.

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The evolution and dynamic mechanism of industry choices among city-suburb integrated villages
SHENG Yanchao, LI Qian, XU Shan, WANG Juan
2021, 11 (3):  427-440.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210036
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Driven by the dual driving forces of rural tourism the rural revitalization, emerging industries in city-suburb integrated villages have gradually transcended traditional industries and become leading industries that replaced traditional industries. The evolution of this industrial development followed certain pattern and can be divided into phases. Structure, Behavior and Performance (SCP) framework was used as the analysis framework in this study. According to SCP, the industrial evolution of the city-suburb integrated villages can be divided into 4 stages: leading by agriculture only stage, leading by agriculture and tourism stage, multi-coordinated industrial development stage, and multi-integrated industrial innovation stage. The development of these 4 stages was a complicated process influenced by endogenous forces including the self-development willingness of the residents, the participation of competent rural people, and the drive of enterprises. The development was also affected by the exogenous factors such as the development of tourism industry, rapid urbanization, and the consumption upgrading of the residents. The case of Xunlonghe Village supported this analytical framework and can be used as a reference for the revitalization of city-suburb integrated villages.

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The spatial distribution and influencing factors of the national forest villages in China
ZHENG Qunming, TIAN Tian, Yang Xiaoya
2021, 11 (3):  441-454.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210053
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Forest is a kind of tourism landscape resources with ecological aesthetic value, and forest village is an important type of countryside. It is of great significance to scientifically understand the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of national forest village for the construction of rural ecological civilization, the sustainable development of rural tourism and the implementation of rural revitalization goals.The first batch of 3947 national forest villages in China were taken as the research objects in this study. The spatial distribution characteristics of national forest village were analyzed by mathematical statistics and ArcGIS spatial analysis technology. The influencing factors were examined by using Geodetector. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The spatial distribution of national forest villages was a typical agglomeration type and the overall distribution was unbalanced with “Hu Line” as the obvious boundary, showing the distribution characteristics of "dense in the east while sparse in the west." (2) The spatial distribution of national forest villages also displayed as "multi-core agglomeration and contiguous distribution," forming three high-density contiguous areas with the widest radiation range: the Taihang Mountains in the border area of Henan, Shanxi, and Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui intersecting area, and Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Fujian intersecting area. (3) Landform, river, Endowment of forest resources, population scale, economic development level, and transportation location were the main influencing factors of the national forest villages spatial distribution. Influenced by natural environmental factors and socioeconomic factors, national forest villages were mainly distributed in plain and hilly areas, areas with dense river networks, areas with high forest coverage rate, and more developed areas with dense population and advanced transportation.

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Research on the spatial distribution of rural tourist attractions in Jiangsu Province and its influencing factors
SHEN Shikun, SHI Chunyun, ZHANG Dayuan, ZHANG Yanyu, JIANG Qiao
2021, 11 (3):  455-467.  doi: 10.12342/zgstly.20210047
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In the post epidemic era, peripheral tourism, self-driving tourism, and self-help tourism have become the new normal of tourism development, which provides an important opportunity for the development of rural tourism. Choosing 657 star-rated rural tourist attractions in Jiangsu Province as the research samples, this paper aims to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics and its influencing factors of rural tourist attractions by using various spatial analysis methods, such as nearest neighbor index, kernel density estimation, buffer analysis, and geographic detector model. The results show that the rural tourist attractions in Jiangsu Province are distributed in a state of concentration. It is distributed in the form of single-core in the north, and in the shape of ring in the middle and south. The rural tourist attractions are mostly distributed near the roads and water, around the city, and closed to scenic spots. Various factors interact with each other and influence the spatial distribution of rural tourist attractions, among which economic factors are fundamental to the distribution of the rural tourist attractions, followed by the natural and social factors. Pairwise interaction analysis suggests that any combination between influencing factors has greater effects than that of any single factor. Interactive effect between the rate of the first industry and average slope is the strongest. The results are expected to contribute to the layout optimization and the sustainable development of regional rural tourism industry.

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