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Acta Geographica Sinica  2014, Vol. 69 Issue (8): 1190-1206
锘� 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪涓浗杩�10骞寸殑杩涘睍
绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪涓浗杩�10骞寸殑杩涘睍
鐧藉嚡1, 鍛ㄥ皻鎰�2, 鍚曟磱娲�1
1. 闄曡タ甯堣寖澶у鏃呮父涓庣幆澧冨闄�, 瑗垮畨 710119
2. 鍖椾含甯堣寖澶у鍦扮悊瀛︿笌閬ユ劅绉戝瀛﹂櫌, 鍖椾含 100875

浣滆�呯畝浠嬶細鐧藉嚡 (1974-), 鐢�, 闄曡タ瑗垮畨浜�, 鍓暀鎺�, 纭曞+鐢熷甯�, 涓浗鍦扮悊瀛︿細浼氬憳 (S110006543M), 涓昏浠庝簨鏂囧寲鍦扮悊鍜屾梾娓歌�呰涓虹爺绌躲�侲-mail: bkshaanxi@163.com

鎽樿

21涓栫邯浠ユ潵,浼撮殢涓浗绀句細鐨勪笉鏂�“鍒嗗寲”涓�“鍙樿縼”,鍏稿瀷绀句細鏂囧寲鐜拌薄涓嶆柇娑岀幇,绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌跺凡鎴愪负瀛︾晫鎵�鎸佺画鍏虫敞鐨勭爺绌堕鍩熴�傚湪鍒濇鎬荤粨鍥藉绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐞嗚婕旇繘鑴夌粶鐨勫熀纭�涓�,鏈爺绌跺垎鏋愪簡杩囧幓10骞翠互鏉ヤ腑鍥界ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒鐨勭儹鐐逛笌鍏虫敞,缁撳悎涓浗鍙戝睍鐜扮姸鎻愬嚭,鏈湡绀句細鏂囧寲鐗硅川鐨勫湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒銆佹潈鍒╀笌璧勬湰瀵圭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栫┖闂村舰鎬佷笌鍦版柟寤烘瀯鐨勫奖鍝嶃�佸煄涔′笌鍖哄煙浜哄彛杩佺Щ鎵�褰㈡垚鐨勬祦鍔ㄧ幇璞′笌瑙勬ā鏁堝簲绛�,鏄湭鏉ョぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗搴旈噸鐐瑰叧娉ㄧ殑鐮旂┒棰嗗煙銆傚悓鏃跺己璋冧簡,绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪涓浗鐨勫彂灞�,闇�瑕佹敞閲嶇煡璇嗚础鐚殑鏅�傛�т笌涓浗鑷韩绀句細鏂囧寲鐗硅川鐨勮京璇佺粺涓�銆�

鍏抽敭璇�: 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛�; 涓浗绀句細鏂囧寲鐗硅川; 鐞嗚鑴夌粶; 閲嶇偣鐮旂┒棰嗗煙; 杈╄瘉鎬濈淮
The progress of social cultural geography in China in recent 10 years
BAI Kai1, ZHOU Shangyi2, LV Yangyang1
1. School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China
2. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
Abstract

Since the new millennium, Chinese society has underwent constant "differentiation" and "change", and typical social and cultural phenomena are emerging unceasingly. Social and cultural geography research has attracted sustained attention from scholars. Based on summary of the evolution of the theory of social cultural geography in foreign context, this paper reviews the concerns and hotspots to which Chinese social cultural geography scholars have been given attention in the past ten years. In addition, combining the current situation of development of China, this research also puts forward some other important research areas that should be concerned, such as social and cultural traits of the indigenous geography, the influence of rights and capital on spatial form of social and cultural and place construction, the phenomenon of mobility and scale effect caused by migration between urban and rural areas. In addition, this paper places emphasis of the dialectical unity between the universality of knowledge and China's own socio-cultural characteristics.

Keyword: social and cultural geography; China's social and cultural traits; theoretical evolution; priority research areas; dialectical thinking

杩�10骞存潵, 浼撮殢涓浗绀句細鐨勪笉鏂�“ 鍒嗗寲” 涓�“ 鍙樿縼” , 鍏稿瀷绀句細鏂囧寲鐜拌薄涓嶆柇娑岀幇, 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌跺凡鎴愪负瀛︾晫鎵�鎸佺画鍏虫敞鐨勭爺绌堕鍩熴�傚浗鍐呭湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒鏉傚織涓婇绻佸嚭鐜扮殑鍚勭被绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌�“ 鏂拌棰�” , 涔熸槑纭簡鍥藉唴绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌跺湪绱ц窡鍥介檯鍓嶆部鐨勫熀纭�涓�, 姝e湪鎴愪负涓�涓厖婊℃椿鍔涗笌钃媰鍙戝睍鐨勭爺绌堕鍩�[1]銆�1978骞翠互鏉�, 涓浗绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌剁殑瀹忚鐜涓庤儗鏅彂鐢熶簡宸ㄥぇ鐨勫彉鍖栥�備腑鍥界ぞ浼氭暣浣撶粨鏋勭敱鍐滀笟绀句細閫愭瀹炵幇浜嗕粠鍐滀笟绀句細鍚戝伐涓氱ぞ浼氱殑杞彉, 浣垮緱1949骞磋嚦1978骞翠箣闂村舰鎴愮殑鍗曚綅绀句細銆佸崟浣嶆墍鏈夊埗缁撴瀯銆佽鍒掔粡娴庝綋鍒跺拰楂樺害闆嗘潈鐨勬斂娌讳綋鍒跺彂鐢熶簡鍏ㄦ柟浣嶇殑瑙f瀯鍜岄瑕�, 閫愪竴琚悗鍗曚綅绀句細銆佸鍏冩墍鏈夊埗缁撴瀯銆佸競鍦虹粡娴庝綋鍒跺拰姘戜富娉曟不鐨勬斂娌讳綋鍒舵墍鍙栦唬[2]銆傜敱姝よ�屼骇鐢熺殑涓浗绀句細杞瀷淇冪敓浜嗙户“ 鍩�— 涔�” 浜屽厓缁撴瀯涔嬪悗鐨勬柊浜屽厓缁撴瀯 (浼犵粺璁″垝浣撳埗鐨勭ぞ浼氭満鍒跺拰甯傚満鍖栫ぞ浼氭満鍒跺叡鐢熺殑绀句細缁撴瀯)[3]銆備即闅忕粡娴庨珮閫熷闀垮拰绀句細鎬ュ墽鍙橀潻, 浠峰�艰蹇电殑澶氬厓涓庡彉鍖�, 鏂扮殑绀句細鏂囧寲闂涔熶笉鏂秾鐜�, 鍏惰儗鍚庣殑铏氬寲鏃剁┖鐜拌薄涓庤劚鍩熸満鍒�[4]鍊煎緱娣辨�濄�傛湰鏂囩殑鍩烘湰鐩殑鍦ㄤ簬, 浠ュ浗澶栫ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐨勭悊璁烘紨杩涜剦缁滀负鍩烘湰鍙傜収, 鎬荤粨鍜屾帰璁ㄨ繃鍘昏繎10骞翠腑鍥界ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒鐨勭儹鐐瑰拰鍏虫敞, 缁撳悎涓浗鐙壒鐨勭幇璞�, 涓烘湭鏉ョ殑绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌舵彁渚涘彲渚涘弬鑰冪殑鎺㈢储棰嗗煙銆�

1 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐞嗚鍙戝睍鑴夌粶

20涓栫邯鍒濆彾, 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︿綔涓轰汉鏂囧湴鐞嗗鐨勯噸瑕佸垎鏀�, 寮�濮嬪湪娆х編鍦扮悊瀛︾殑涓绘祦鐮旂┒涓喘闇插ご瑙�, “ 鍖哄煙鏂囧寲銆佸湴鏂�” 涔熼殢涔嬫垚涓虹ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗, 鐗瑰埆鏄枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐨勬牳蹇冩蹇点�傛棤璁烘槸浼犵粺鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛�, 杩樻槸鏂版枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗, 鍏剁爺绌舵鏋跺潎鍥寸粫鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌剁殑鍩烘湰鍗曚綅— — 鏂囧寲鐗硅川 (cultural traits) 灞曞紑, 鍏蜂綋鍖呮嫭鐢熻鏂囧寲銆佸埗搴︽枃鍖栧拰鎰忚瘑褰㈡�佹枃鍖�3绫�[5]銆備粠浼犵粺鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鍏寸洓, 鍒版柊鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐧捐姳榻愭斁, 涓嶅悓鍘嗗彶鏃舵湡涔熸秾鐜板嚭鍚勫叿浠h〃鎬х殑鐞嗚鍜屾蹇�, 鍏剁悊璁哄彂灞曡剦缁滃彲浠ヤ粠灞傞棿鍏崇郴銆佸昂搴﹁浆鎹㈠拰鍦版柟褰㈡垚鏈哄埗3涓柟闈㈡潵鍔犱互姒傛嫭鍜屾�荤粨銆�

1.1 灞傞棿鍏崇郴

鍦ㄥぇ灏哄害鐨勫湴鍩熷崟鍏冧腑, 鏃╂湡鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐞嗚鏉ユ簮浜庝汉鏂囧湀灞備笌鑷劧鍦堝眰涔嬮棿鍏崇郴鐨勬帰璁�, 涓夌鍏稿瀷鐨勪唬琛ㄦ�х悊璁轰负鐜鍐冲畾璁恒�佹垨鐒惰鍜岄�傚簲璁恒�傛寮忔妸鐜鍐冲畾璁虹郴缁熷簲鐢ㄥ埌鍦扮悊瀛︿腑, 鍒涚珛涓�绉嶅娲剧殑鏄痉鍥藉湴鐞嗗瀹舵媺閲囧皵 (Ratzel), 浠栧湪銆婁汉绫诲湴鐞嗗銆嬩竴涔︿腑鏈烘鍦版惉鐢ㄨ揪灏旀枃鐨勭敓鐗╁瑙傚康鏉ョ爺绌朵汉绫荤ぞ浼�, 璁や负浜烘槸鐜鐨勪骇鐗�, 鍏舵椿鍔ㄣ�佸彂灞曞拰鍒嗗竷涓庣敓鐗╀竴鏍烽兘鍙楃幆澧冪殑闄愬埗, 鐜“ 浠ョ洸鐩殑娈嬮叿鎬х粺娌荤潃浜虹被鐨勫懡杩�” , 鑰屽悇鍦板尯鐨勪汉绫绘椿鍔ㄧ壒寰佸喅瀹氫簬鍚勫浗鍦扮悊鐜鐨勬�ц川[5]銆傝繖绉嶇幆澧冨喅瀹氳鎬濇疆鍦ㄧ浉褰撻暱鐨勬椂鏈熼噷, 鎴愪负娆х編鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐞嗚鍩虹煶銆傛樉鐒�, 杩欑鐞嗚浠ュ鍥犱唬鏇垮唴鍥�, 杩囧垎澶稿ぇ浜嗗湴鐞嗙幆澧冨浜虹被绀句細鍙戝睍鐨勫奖鍝�, 鏄竴绉嶆瀬绔寲鐨�“ 鏂囧寲鐢熸�� (cultural ecology)” 璁恒�傞殢鍚�, 娉曞浗鍦扮悊瀛﹀鐧藉叞澹� (Blache) 鍙嶅鐜鍐冲畾璁虹殑鎬濇兂, 鎻愬嚭浜�“ 鎴栫劧璁� (浜︾О鍙兘璁�)” 鐨勪汉鍦扮浉鍏宠鐐�, 璁や负鑷劧涓轰汉绫荤殑灞呬綇瑙勫畾浜嗙晫闄�, 骞舵彁渚涗簡鍙兘鎬�, 浣嗘槸浜轰滑瀵硅繖浜涙潯浠剁殑鍙嶅簲鍜岄�傚簲鍒欐牴鎹粬浠嚜宸辩殑浼犵粺鍜岀敓娲绘柟寮忚�屼笉鍚屻�傜幆澧冨寘鍚澶氬彲鑳芥��, 鑰岀幆澧冪殑鍒╃敤鍙栧喅浜庝汉鐨勯�夋嫨[6]銆傝櫧鐒跺叾瀛︾敓鐧藉悤绾� (Brunhes) 杩涗竴姝ラ槓閲婁簡鐩稿叧鍘熺悊, 浣嗚繖涓�鐞嗚浠嶆湭鑳芥憜鑴辨妸浜哄湴鍏崇郴鐪嬫垚鏄洜鏋滈摼鐨勬�濇兂鎬湀[7]銆傝�岄�傚簲璁虹殑鎻愬嚭鑰�, 鑻卞浗浜烘枃鍦扮悊瀛﹀缃楀+鍩� (Roxby) 鍒欒涓轰汉鏂囧湴鐞嗗搴斿寘鎷袱鏂归潰锛氣憼 浜虹兢瀵逛粬浠殑鑷劧鐜鐨勯�傚簲; 鈶� 灞呬綇鍦ㄤ竴瀹氬湴鍩熷唴鐨勪汉缇や笌鍏朵粬鍦扮悊鍦板煙涔嬮棿鐨勫叧绯汇�傝繖绉嶉�傚簲鎰忓懗鐫�鑷劧鐜瀵逛汉绫绘椿鍔ㄧ殑闄愬埗, 涔熸剰鍛崇潃浜虹被瀵圭幆澧冪殑鍒╃敤鍜屽埄鐢ㄧ殑鍙兘鎬�[8], 鏄竴绉�“ 鏂囧寲鏁村悎 (cultural integration)” 鐨勮蹇点��

1.2 灏哄害杞崲

鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︽湁涓�涓毦棰�, 鍗虫枃鍖栧尯鐨勫昂搴﹁浆鎹㈤棶棰樸�傚懆灏氭剰褰掓�诲嚭浜�4绉嶄笉鍚屽昂搴︽枃鍖栧尯鐨勬暣鍚堟柟娉�[9]銆傗憼 鍖哄煙灏哄害杞崲, 鍗充粠鍖哄煙灏哄害鏉ョ爺绌舵枃鍖栧尯銆傜編鍥芥枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗榧荤绱㈠皵 (Sauer) 灏�“ 鏅” 鐪嬫垚鏄湴鐞冭〃闈㈢殑鍩烘湰鍗曞厓, 寮曞叆“ 鑷劧鏅” 鍜�“ 鏂囧寲鏅” 鐨勬蹇�, 浠庤�岀敤鏂囧寲鏅鐞嗚鏉ョ爺绌跺尯鍩熷拰浜哄湴鍏崇郴, 褰卞搷娣辫繙銆傚搱鏍兼柉鐗规湕 (Herstrand) 鍦�1953骞村彂琛ㄧ殑銆婁綔涓轰竴绉嶇┖闂磋繃绋嬬殑闈╂柊浼犳挱銆嬩腑鎻愬嚭“ 鍒涙柊娉�” 鐨勬蹇�, 鎶婃枃鍖栨墿鏁h繃绋嬫瘮浣滄捣娴殑杩愬姩, 骞跺紩鍏ユ暟瀛︽柟娉曞畾閲忕爺绌舵枃鍖栨墿鏁�[10]銆傗憽 缁撴瀯鍔熻兘涓讳箟鏂规硶 (structural functionalism)銆傜編鍥戒汉绫诲瀹舵柦鍧氶泤 (Skinner) 鍊熼壌寰峰浗鍦扮悊绉戝瀹跺厠閲屾柉濉斿嫆 (Christaller) 鐨勪腑蹇冨湴鐞嗚, 鎻愬嚭浜嗕腑蹇冭竟缂樼悊璁恒�備粬璁や负, 姣忎釜灏忓尯鍩熼兘鍦ㄥぇ鍖哄煙涓叿鏈夎嚜宸辩殑瑙掕壊鎴栧姛鑳�, 鍏朵腑涓�涓皬鍖哄煙鐨勪腑蹇冨煄闀囦綔涓哄尯鍩熻嚜缁勭粐涓績, 缁熸不鐫�鎵�鏈夌殑灏忓尯鍩�, 瀹冨氨鏄ぇ鍖哄煙鐨勪腑蹇�, 瀹冩墍鍦ㄥ皬鍖哄煙涓庡叾浠栧皬鍖哄煙琚垝褰掍负“ 涓績” 鍜�“ 杈圭紭” [9]銆傗憿 娉芥灄鏂熀 (Zelinsky) 鐨勫昂搴﹁浆鎹㈡硶銆備粬灏�20涓栫邯80骞翠唬鍏磋捣鐨勮秴鏈轰綋鐞嗚 (Super-organism) 杩愮敤浜庝笉鍚屽昂搴︽枃鍖栧尯杞崲鐮旂┒, 浠ョ編鍥戒负渚嬪垎鏋愪簡缇庡浗鍚勪釜鍦版柟鐨勬枃鍖�, 璁や负缇庡浗鏂囧寲鏄竴涓秴鏈轰綋, 鏄竴涓笉渚濊禆浜庝换浣曞皬鍖哄煙鏂囧寲鑰屼骇鐢熺殑澶у尯鍩熸枃鍖�[11]銆傗懀 鍚庣幇浠d富涔夌殑闀舵嫾鍥炬硶銆傚吀鍨嬪鑰呮槸绱㈠姞 (Soja), 浠栧湪鍏惰憲浣溿�婄涓夌┖闂达細鍘诲線娲涙潐鐭朵互鍙婂叾浠栫湡瀹炰笌鎯宠薄鍦版柟鐨勬梾绋嬨�嬩腑, 浠ユ礇鏉夌煻涓轰緥, 璇存槑娲涙潐鐭惰繖涓�“ 澶ф枃鍖栧尯” 鐢辫璁稿澶氱殑“ 灏忔枃鍖栧尯” 缁勬垚, 杩欎簺灏忔枃鍖栧尯濡傚悓纰庣墖闀舵嫾鎴愭礇鏉夌煻鏁翠釜鏂囧寲鐗堝浘銆傚湪杩欎簺纰庣墖涔嬮棿鏃笉瀛樺湪缁撴瀯鐨勫姛鑳借仈绯�, 涔熶笉瀛樺湪涓�绉嶆櫘閬嶉�傜敤鐨勯槓閲婄悊璁恒�傝繖浜涙枃鍖栫鐗囦笉浠呮槸鐗╃悊鐨勭┖闂�, 涔熸槸鎯宠薄鎰忎箟鐨勭簿绁炵┖闂�, 鏄叿鏈夎竟缂樻�с�佸樊寮傛�с�佸紑鏀炬�с�佹壒鍒ゆ�х殑绌洪棿[12]銆�

1.3 鍦版柟褰㈡垚鏈哄埗

鍦版柟鐨勫舰鎴愭満鍒舵湁澶氱鐞嗚, 澶ц嚧鍙互褰掍负浜烘枃涓讳箟鍜岀粨鏋勪富涔変袱绉嶆満鍒躲��1970骞翠唬浠ュ悗, 浠ユ涔夊瓪 (Tuan) 鍜岄浄灏斿か (Relph) 绛夊鑰呬负浠h〃鐨勪汉鏂囦富涔夊湴鐞嗗鑰呴噸鏂板皢“ 鍦版柟” 寮曞叆鍒版枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒涓�, 鐢ㄥ瓨鍦ㄧ幇璞″鐞嗚鏉ヨ癄閲婂湴鏂�, 灏嗗湴鏂瑰拰绌洪棿鍖哄垎寮�鏉�, 寮鸿皟鍦版柟瀵逛簬浜虹殑鎯呮劅鎰忎箟銆俆uan鎻愬嚭鍦版柟鏄敱鏂囧寲闀挎湡浣滅敤浜庤嚜鐒跺湴鐞嗙┖闂磋�屾潵鐨�, 寮鸿皟浜轰笌鍦版柟鎯呮劅涓婄殑鎭嬪湴鎯呰妭[13, 14], 璧栫壒 (Wright) 鍒欐彁鍑烘暚鍦版儏缁�, 鐢ㄤ簬琛ㄧず浜哄鑷劧鐣屽拰鍦扮悊绌洪棿浜х敓鐨勬繁鍒囨暚閲嶄箣鎯�[10]銆傛涔夊瓪璁や负浜烘棦闇�瑕佺┖闂�, 涔熼渶瑕佸湴鏂�, 绌洪棿“ 琚涓虹己涔忔剰涔夌殑棰嗗煙— — 鏄�‘ 鐢熸椿浜嬪疄’ , 璺熸椂闂翠竴鏍�, 鏋勬垚浜虹被鐢熸椿鐨勫熀鏈潗鏍�, 褰撲汉灏嗘剰涔夋姇娉ㄤ簬绌洪棿, 鐒跺悗浠ユ煇绉嶆柟寮� (濡傚懡鍚�) 闄勫姞鍏朵笂, 绌洪棿灏辨垚浜嗗湴鏂�” 銆備汉褰掑睘浜庢煇涓�鍦版柟, 浼氬舰鎴愪竴绉嶅綊灞炴劅鎴�“ 鍦版柟鎰�” , 浜х敓鍦版柟渚濇亱 (place attachment)[15]銆傝�屽湪鐜板疄涓�, 杩欑鎰熻鎴栨剰涔夊湪绌洪棿涓線寰�鏄竴绉�“ 闅愬柣” (metaphor)銆傞浄灏斿か鍦ㄨ憲浣溿�婂湴鏂逛笌鏃犲湴鏂规�с�� (Place and Placelessness) 閲�, 鍚屾牱涓诲紶瀵瑰湴鏂圭殑瀹為檯璁よ瘑瀵逛簬浜虹被瀛樺湪鑰岃█闈炲父閲嶈銆備粬灏嗗湴鏂瑰綋鎴愭棩甯哥粡楠屼笌鐢熸椿涓栫晫涓殑鍦扮悊鐜拌薄鏉ユ帰璁�, 鎸囧嚭鍦版柟鏄幇瀹炵粡鍘嗙殑鐢熸椿涓栫晫, 瀛樺湪纭畾鎬у拰涓嶇‘瀹氭��, 寮鸿皟“ 鍦ㄥ湴缁忓巻” [16]銆傛澶�, 浠栬繕鎸囧嚭鍦ㄥ悗宸ヤ笟鏃朵唬涓�, 鏌愪簺鍩庡競宸茬粡涓уけ浜嗗叾鍦版柟鎬� (placeness), 杩欑鍦版柟鎬т抚澶变富瑕佹槸鍦版柟鍘熺湡鎬х殑娴侀��, 骞剁О涔嬩负“ 鍦版柟鎬ф秷寮�” (placenessless)銆�

鐩告瘮浜烘枃涓讳箟鐨勫湴鏂瑰舰鎴愭満鍒惰�岃█, 缁撴瀯涓讳箟鐨勮蹇靛己璋冪殑鏄湴鐞嗕簨鐗╃殑鍐呴儴缁撴瀯鍜屾暣浣撴��, 鍙嶅鍗曠函璁よ瘑澶栭儴鐜拌薄鍜屽眬閮ㄧ爺绌躲�傚洜姝�, 鍦ㄥ湴鏂瑰舰鎴愭満鍒朵笂, 浠庣粨鏋勪富涔夊垎鏋�, 涓�涓湴鏂圭殑鍦版柟鎬х敱鍏跺湪鏁翠釜鍖哄煙绯荤粺涓殑浣嶇疆鍐冲畾, 鑰屼笌瀛愮郴缁熶腑鐨勪汉缇ゅ鍦版柟鐨勬儏鎰熻鍚屽拰涓讳綋鎰忚瘑娌℃湁鍏崇郴, 鍦版柟涓庡湴鏂圭殑宸埆涓嶄粎鏄尯浣嶃�佽嚜鐒舵潯浠剁殑宸埆, 杩樻槸鍏ㄧ悆鏀挎不缁忔祹鐨勬暣浣撴牸灞�鎵�閫犲氨鐨�[17, 18]銆傚搱缁� (Harvey) 鍦ㄣ�婂笇鏈涚殑绌洪棿銆嬩腑灏卞己璋�, 鐜颁唬鎬ф敼鍙樹簡鏃堕棿鍜岀┖闂寸殑琛ㄧ幇褰㈠紡, 鏃堕棿鍜岀┖闂撮珮搴�“ 鍘嬬缉” (compression), 鍑虹幇“ 绌洪棿寮傚寲” (alienation of space)銆備粬浠ユ壒鍒ょ殑瑙嗚鎸囧嚭, 杩柉灏间箰鍥�侀儕澶栧皝闂皬鍖虹瓑鏄竴绉�“ 鍙樿川鐨勪箤鎵橀偊” (degenerate utopias)[19]銆�

2 鐮旂┒瑙嗚鐨勯樁娈靛寲婕旇繘

1978骞翠互鍓�, 鑷劧鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌跺崰鎹腑鍥界殑涓诲鍦颁綅, 浜烘枃鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐮旂┒浠呴檺浜庣粡娴庡湴鐞嗗鍜屽啘涓氬湴鐞嗗[20, 21]銆傝嚦浜庢枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗銆佺ぞ浼氬湴鐞嗗銆佹斂娌诲湴鐞嗗浠ュ強鍏朵粬鐨勪汉鏂囧湴鐞嗗鍒嗘敮閮藉睘浜庡鏈鍖�[20]銆�20涓栫邯80骞翠唬, 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌惰閫愭寮曞叆鍥藉唴銆傜爺绌跺垵鏈�, 浠ラ檲姝gゥ銆佺帇鎭╂秾涓轰唬琛ㄧ殑瀛﹁�呬粙缁嶅浗澶栨枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙殑鐮旂┒鐜扮姸, 缈昏瘧鏂囧寲鍦扮悊鐨勭爺绌舵垚鏋�, 骞堕�愭灏嗗浗澶栨枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙殑鐞嗚鍙婃柟娉曞簲鐢ㄥ埌鎴戝浗鐨勬枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙爺绌朵箣涓�[22]銆傝繖浜涜憲浣滅殑绔犺妭鍩烘湰鍛堢幇浜嗙ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗, 鐗瑰埆鏄枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐨勫熀鏈爺绌舵鏋�, 鍗虫枃鍖栨櫙瑙傘�佹枃鍖栫敓鎬併�佹枃鍖栨墿鏁c�佹枃鍖栨暣鍚堛�佹枃鍖栧尯銆傚湪杩欎簺鏃╂湡鐨勮憲浣滈噷闈�, 灏界澶у鍊熼壌娆х編绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐞嗚鍜屾柟娉�, 浣嗘棤鐤戞帹骞夸簡鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪鎴戝浗鐨勫疄璺靛簲鐢�[23]銆�

2000骞翠互鍚�, 浼撮殢鍥介檯鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌剁殑“ 鎵瑰垽” 杞悜鍜�“ 鏂囧寲” 杞悜[24], 鍥藉唴绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐮旂┒鎴愭灉涔熶笉鏂秾鐜�, 涔嬪悗鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒瑙嗚鍙互琚垝鍒嗕负涓変釜闃舵銆�

(1) 2000-2005骞�, 娉ㄩ噸“ 鍦�” 鐨勭爺绌�, 浼犵粺鐮旂┒璁鐨勬洿鏂颁笌鍙戝睍銆傛闃舵渚濇棫寤剁画20涓栫邯鍥藉唴瀛﹁�呭鏂囧寲鍖恒�佹枃鍖栨櫙瑙傘�佹枃鍖栫敓鎬併�佹枃鍖栨墿鏁e拰鏂囧寲鏁村悎5澶т富棰樼殑鐮旂┒銆備絾鍦ㄥ浗澶栧厛杩涚悊蹇电殑褰卞搷涓嬪紑濮嬫湁鎵�鍒涙柊銆傛枃鍖栧尯鐮旂┒鏂归潰, 浠庢棭鏈熷鍏ㄥ浗鑼冨洿鐨勭爺绌�, 閫愭笎缁嗚嚧鍖�, 杩囨浮鍒扮渷銆佸幙鍙婃洿灏忓湴鍩�, 鍐呭鏇翠负鍏呭疄鍏蜂綋[5]銆傛枃鍖栨櫙瑙傜爺绌舵柟闈�, 鏂囧鍦扮悊瀛�[25]銆侀煶涔愬湴鐞嗗[26]銆佷功娉曞湴鐞嗗[27], 缇庢湳鍦扮悊瀛�[28]绛夎壓鏈櫙瑙傜爺绌堕�愭笎娑岀幇, 骞朵粠绌洪棿鍒嗗竷鐨勮搴﹁繘琛岀爺绌�[29, 30]銆傛澶�, 瀹楁暀鏂囧寲鏅鐨勭爺绌跺紑濮嬪叿浣撳寲, 骞朵笌鏃呮父鍙戝睍缁撳悎璧锋潵銆傛枃鍖栫敓鎬佺爺绌舵柟闈�, 鍦ㄦ棭鏈熺爺绌剁殑鍩虹涓�, 寮曞叆鏂扮殑鐞嗚鏋舵瀯銆傛枃鍖栨墿鏁g爺绌舵柟闈�, 浠庢棭鏈熶粙缁嶅浗澶栨枃鍖栨墿鏁g爺绌舵垚鏋滃悜鐮旂┒鏈湡鏂囧寲浼犳挱鐨勭墿璐ㄥ熀纭�鍙婃墿鏁f満鍒惰浆鍙�, 骞跺紑濮嬫洿鍔犳敞閲嶅鎵╂暎瀹炶瘉鐨勭爺绌�[31, 32, 33]銆傛枃鍖栨暣鍚堜粠澶у昂搴︾殑鏂囧寲鏁村悎鍚戝皬灏哄害杞彉, 鏇村姞娉ㄩ噸寰鐨勫疄渚�, 骞剁粨鍚堟湰鍥藉浗鎯�, 寮�濮嬪叧娉ㄥ煄甯傚寲杩涚▼涓煄涔℃枃鍖栨暣鍚堢殑鐮旂┒[34, 35, 36]銆�

(2) 2006-2009骞�, 鍏虫敞“ 浜�” 鐨勫奖鍝�, 鏂扮爺绌惰棰樼殑寮曞叆銆傛闃舵鐮旂┒鑰呯殑瑙嗚寮�濮嬭浆鍙樸�傛枃鍖栨櫙瑙傜殑鐮旂┒鑼冨洿杩涗竴姝ョ缉灏�, 鏇村姞鍏蜂綋鍖�, 瀵规枃鍖栨櫙瑙傜殑鐮旂┒涓嶄粎浠呭眬闄愪簬瀵规櫙瑙傜殑鎻忚堪, 寮�濮嬩粠“ 涓綋鍜岀兢浣�” 鐨勮搴﹀幓鑰冨療浜哄鏅鐨勬劅鐭ュ拰璁ょ煡, 妗堜緥鍦扮殑閫夊彇涔熶粠鍩庡競杞悜鍐滄潙銆備竴浜涘鑰呭紑濮嬪皾璇曚粠濂虫�у湴鐞嗗鐨勮瑙掑幓鐮旂┒鍩庡競濂虫�с�佷埂鏉戝コ鎬у強灏戞暟姘戞棌濡囧コ鐨勭ぞ浼氳鑹插拰绀句細鏂囧寲褰卞搷銆傚煄甯傛枃鍖栥�佺ぞ浼氭枃鍖栫┖闂存紨鏇垮紑濮嬭繘鍏ョ爺绌惰�呯殑瑙嗛噹銆傚灏规檽棰栥�佽枦寰峰崌绛変汉浠ユ繁鍦冲競钄″眿鍥淬�佹笖姘戞潙涓轰緥瀵瑰煄涓潙“ 闈炴瑙勯儴闂�” 褰㈡垚鍙戝睍鏈哄埗鍙婂煄涓潙鏀归�犵殑鐮旂┒[37, 38]銆傛潕蹇楀垰銆佽枦寰峰崌绛変汉瀵瑰箍宸炲皬鍖楄矾榛戜汉鑱氬眳鍖虹ぞ浼氱┖闂寸殑鍒嗘瀽鍙婁互姝ゅ湴涓轰緥瀵瑰叏鐞冨寲涓嬭法鍥界Щ姘戠ぞ浼氱┖闂寸殑鍦版柟鍝嶅簲鐨勭爺绌�[39, 40]銆備絾杩欎釜鏃舵湡鎬讳綋涓婄己灏戝绌洪棿鍜屽湴鏂瑰湪涓浗鎮犱箙鍘嗗彶涓彂鎸ョ殑浣滅敤鍙婂叾瀵逛腑鍥芥枃鍖栨櫙瑙傚奖鍝嶇殑鐮旂┒, 鑰屽鍦扮紭鏀挎不銆佸尯鍩熷湴鏂逛富涔夊強鍦版柟璁ゅ悓, 灏戞暟姘戞棌浠ュ強姹夋棌鐨勭鏃忓垝鍒嗙瓑鏂归潰鐨勭爺绌朵篃涓嶅瑙�[23]銆�

(3) 2010-2013骞�, 鍏虫敞“ 鎰忎箟” 鐨勫欢浼�, 娣卞叆璇犻噴“ 浜哄湴鍏崇郴” 鑳屽悗鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧奖鍝嶃�傛闃舵, 瀛﹁�呬滑寮�濮嬪叧娉ㄨ捣鏂囧寲鏅鐨勭ぞ浼氬拰鏉冨姏鍏崇郴灞傞潰鍙婃櫙瑙傝儗鍚庤暣鍚殑鎰忎箟鍜屼环鍊�, 鍏虫敞鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾幇璞¤儗鍚庣殑绌洪棿銆佽鍚岀瓑宸紓, 鏂版垚鏋滀笉鏂秾鐜般�傛枃鍖栨櫙瑙傜爺绌跺璞℃洿鍔犱赴瀵屽鏍�, 鍦ㄥ鐗╄川鏅鐮旂┒鐨勫悓鏃�, 澧炲姞浜嗗鍥惧儚 (褰卞儚绛夊濯掍綋)銆佽瑷�銆佸湴鍚嶃�侀ギ椋熺瓑闈炵墿璐ㄦ櫙瑙傜殑鐮旂┒, 鐮旂┒鐨勮仛鐒︾偣涓嶅啀鏄櫙瑙傛湰韬�, 鑰屾槸鑱氱劍浜庢櫙瑙傝儗鍚庤暣鍚殑鎰忎箟涓庝环鍊�, 鐮旂┒鐨勮瑙掍笉鍐嶅眬闄愪簬鍦扮悊瀛﹁瑙�, 鑰屽皾璇曚粠绀句細瀛︺�佸績鐞嗗鍙婁汉绫诲鐨勫閲嶈瑙掑幓鐮旂┒銆傚湪鏂囧寲鍖虹殑鐮旂┒鏂归潰, 瀛﹁�呬滑鑷村姏浜庢洿涓哄鏉傜殑鍖哄煙鏂囧寲鍒嗘瀽, 鍔犳繁浜嗗涓嶅悓鐪佷唤鐨勬枃鍖栧樊寮傚拰鍖哄煙鏂囧寲鏁村悎鐨勭悊瑙�[23]銆傚绌洪棿鐮旂┒鐨勮瑙掍粠鐗╄川銆佺簿绁炪�佸埗搴︽枃鍖栫殑绌洪棿鍒嗗竷鍙婃紨鍖栬繃绋嬪悜绌洪棿鎰忎箟涓庤薄寰佹�ц浆鍙�, 寮�濮嬫寲鎺樼┖闂磋儗鍚庢墍钑村惈鐨勬剰涔夈�傚鏈辩珣绛変汉閫氳繃瀵硅タ鏂瑰鑰呭叧浜庣┖闂存剰涔変笌璞″緛鎬у疄闄呮渚嬬殑浠嬬粛[41], 瀵圭┖闂存剰涔変笌璞″緛鎬х殑姒傚康鍙婂唴瀹瑰仛浜嗘湁鐩婄殑鎺㈣, 瀵瑰浗鍐呯┖闂存剰涔変笌璞″緛鎬х殑鐮旂┒鍏锋湁鍚ず浣滅敤, 鍚屾牱涔熶负鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌舵彁渚涗簡涓�涓柊鐨勮瑙掋�傚湪鍏ㄧ悆鍖栫殑鑳屾櫙涓�, 灏戞暟姘戞棌鍜屽鐣岀殑浜ゆ祦瓒婃潵瓒婂, 鏃忕兢鐨勮鍚岄棶棰樸�佸皯鏁版皯鏃忚韩浠藉缓鏋勯棶棰樺紑濮嬪彈鍒扮爺绌惰�呯殑鍏虫敞[42, 43], 姝ゅ, 鎯宠薄鍦扮悊鐨勭爺绌朵篃寮�濮嬭繘鍏ョ爺绌惰�呯殑瑙嗛噹, 鎴愪负寰灏哄害鍦版柟寤烘瀯鐮旂┒涓殑涓�涓噸瑕佽瘽棰�, 浣嗙浉鍏崇爺绌舵垚鏋滆緝灏�[44]銆傚綊鎬昏�岃█, 杩�10骞存枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒瑙嗚鐨勬紨鍖�, 涓嶅啀灞�闄愪簬浼犵粺5澶т富棰樼殑鐮旂┒, 鑰屾槸鍙楁柊鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀拰“ 鎵瑰垽” 绀句細鍦扮悊瀛︽�濇兂鐨勫奖鍝�, 寮�濮嬪�熼壌鐩稿叧鏂规硶鍜岀悊璁烘潵鐮旂┒鏈湡鏂囧寲鐜拌薄, 骞跺皾璇曚笌鍥介檯瀵硅瘽銆�

3 鍦版柟绀句細鏂囧寲鐗规�у彂鎺樼殑鍚勪釜棰嗗煙
3.1 鏅涓庢櫙瑙傛剰涔夌殑鐮旂┒— — 鍦版柟鎰忎箟鐨勫彂鎺�

鏂囧寲鏅鏄ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒鐨勫熀鏈蹇典笌涓婚涔嬩竴[45, 5]銆傜鏂牸缃楀か (Cosgrove) 鐨勭爺绌跺彂鐜�, 鏂囪壓澶嶅叴鏃舵湡浜烘枃涓讳箟瀛﹁�呭瑙嗚纭畾鎬х殑鎺㈢储鏄櫙瑙傛蹇电殑鏈�鏃╂函婧�[46]銆�1925骞�, 缇庡浗鍦扮悊瀛﹀绱㈠皵 (Sauer) 鍙戣〃鐨勩�婃櫙瑙傚舰鎬佸銆嬩竴鏂�, 瀵圭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗褰卞搷棰囨繁銆備粬涓诲紶鐢ㄥ疄闄呰瀵熷湴闈㈡櫙瑙傛潵鐮旂┒鍦扮悊鐗瑰緛, 寮�濮嬪叧娉ㄨ嚜鐒剁幆澧冨彉鍖栦腑鐨勪汉涓哄洜绱�, “ 鏂囧寲鏅鐢辫嚜鐒舵櫙瑙傞�氳繃鏂囧寲缇や綋鐨勪綔鐢ㄥ舰鎴愩�傛枃鍖栨槸鍔ㄥ洜, 鑷劧鍖哄煙鏄獟浠�, 鏂囧寲鏅鏄粨鏋�” [47]銆傛鍚�, 鐢辩储灏斿拰浠栫殑瀛︾敓寤虹珛鐨勪集鍏嬪埄瀛︽淳鎴愪负鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑閲嶈娴佹淳銆傝�屼即闅忕潃绀句細绉戝鐮旂┒涓殑鏂囧寲杞悜鍜岀┖闂磋浆鍚�, 鏂版枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒鏇村姞娉ㄩ噸绌洪棿鎬т笌绌洪棿鐨勬枃鍖栨��[48], 鍏虫敞鏅琛ㄨ薄鑳屽悗鐨勬繁灞傛剰涔変笌缁撴瀯闂銆傛櫙瑙備笌鏅鎰忎箟鐨勮В璇诲疄璐ㄤ篃鏄竴涓湴鏂瑰湴鏂规�с�佸湴鏂规剰涔夌殑灞曠幇鍜屾繁鍏ユ寲鎺�, 鍦ㄦ梾娓哥爺绌朵腑鐨勬梾娓稿湴褰㈣薄瀹氫綅銆佹皯鏃忓湴鐞嗗鍙婂畻鏁欏湴鐞嗗鐨勫簲鐢ㄤ腑鍧囨湁浣撶幇銆�

3.1.1 鏃呮父鍦板舰璞″畾浣� 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︿腑, 鏃呮父鍦板舰璞″畾浣嶇殑瀹炶川灏辨槸鍦版柟鎰忎箟鐨勫睍鐜板拰瑙h, 鏄涓�涓梾娓稿湴鍦版柟鎬х殑楂樺害鍑濈粌銆傚湴鏂规�ф槸涓�涓湴鏂规墍鍏锋湁鐨勭壒娈婃��, 鏄湴鏂逛箣闂寸殑鏍规湰鍖哄垎[49], 鏄尯鍩熷彂灞曠殑鏂囧寲鍔�[50]鎴栨枃鍖栬蒋瀹炲姏[51]銆傚湴鏂圭殑鏂囧寲璧勬湰鎴愪负鍦版柟鍚稿紩璧勬湰娴佸姩鐨勯噸瑕佸奖鍝嶅洜绱�[52]銆傚湴鏂硅惀閿�鐨勮繃绋嬪疄闄呬笂灏辨槸鍦版柟鏂囧寲璧勬湰鎸栨帢鍜屾枃鍖栫鍙风敓浜х殑杩囩▼[53, 54]銆備换浣曚竴涓湴鏂瑰湪寤烘瀯鑷韩褰㈣薄鐨勮繃绋嬩腑, 閮戒細浠庡綋鍦版枃鍖栦紶缁熷嚭鍙�, 閫氳繃娣卞叆鎸栨帢鍦版柟鏂囧寲璧勬簮, 浠ョ‘绔嬭嚜韬渶浣崇殑褰㈣薄瀹氫綅銆傛梾娓哥洰鐨勫湴闇�瑕佸叧娉ㄥ湴鏂规�у浣曟繁娣卞祵濂椾簬鏃呮父鍚稿紩鐨勮惀閫犲強鏃呮父鍦版枃鍖栧舰璞$殑鐢熶骇[55], 鍗抽�氳繃鎸栨帢鍦版柟鎬у畾浣嶆梾娓稿湴褰㈣薄, 鐢熶骇鍏锋湁鍚稿紩鍔涚殑鏂囧寲绗﹀彿鏉ュ惛寮曟父瀹�[56]銆傛澶�, 鍞愭枃璺冧篃鎻愬嚭, 鍦版柟鎬х殑瑙嗚鍙互寰堝ソ鍦板簲鐢ㄤ簬鏃呮父寮�鍙戜笌瑙勫垝涓�, 濡傚疄琛屽樊寮傛�у畾浣�, 閬垮厤鏃呮父浜у搧鐨勯浄鍚屽拰鎭舵�х珵浜�; 鍦ㄦ梾娓镐富棰樺強鍔熻兘瀹氫綅涓婅�冭檻鍒板眳姘戠殑鍦版柟璁ゅ悓; 鏃呮父寤鸿椤圭洰鍜屾椿鍔ㄩ」鐩瓥鍒掍腑璇勪及鏃呮父椤圭洰瀵瑰湴鏂规�х殑褰卞搷; 鏃呮父褰㈣薄绛栧垝涓�冭檻鍒版梾娓歌�呭鏃呮父鍦扮殑鏂囧寲璁ゅ悓绛�[57]銆�

杩戝勾鏉�, 鍩庡競鏃呮父褰㈣薄璁捐涓�鐩存槸鎴戝浗鏃呮父鍦板舰璞¤璁$爺绌剁殑鏍稿績, 褰㈣薄瀹氫綅鏄梾娓稿湴褰㈣薄璁捐鐨勫墠鎻�, 涓哄舰璞¤璁℃寚鍑烘柟鍚戙�傝澶氬鑰呭鍩庡競鏃呮父褰㈣薄杩涜浜嗕釜妗堢爺 绌�[58, 59, 60, 61, 62]銆傝繖浜涚爺绌朵腑, 鍩烘湰閮芥槸渚濇嵁鏃呮父鍦扮殑鑷劧鍦扮悊鍩虹銆佹枃鍖栫壒璐ㄣ�佸巻鍙蹭紶缁熴�佺粡娴庡彂灞曟按骞崇瓑鏉ョ‘绔嬫梾娓稿湴褰㈣薄, 鍗充緷鐓�“ 浜岃剦 (鍦拌剦銆佹枃鑴�)” 鐞嗚鎴�“ 鍥涜剦 (鍦拌剦銆佹枃鑴夈�佸晢鑴夈�佷汉鑴�)” 鐞嗚鏉ヨ繘琛屽畾浣�[63]銆傚彲浠ョ湅鍑�, 鏃犺鏄瑙夌殑銆佸叿璞$殑鏅瀹炰綋瑕佺礌, 杩樻槸鎰熺煡鐨勩�佹娊璞$殑浜烘枃绯荤粺瑕佺礌, 閮芥槸鏃呮父鍦板舰璞℃瀯鎴愯绱犵殑“ 鍦版柟鎬�“ [64], 鑰屽湴鏂规�ф鏄梾娓稿湴褰㈣薄鐨勬繁灞傚拰纭垏鎰忎箟銆�

3.1.2 姘戞棌鍦扮悊瀛� 涓浗鏄竴涓姘戞棌鍥藉, 鎮犱箙鐨勫巻鍙插拰涓板瘜鐨勬皯鏃忔枃鍖栦负姘戞棌鍦扮悊鐨勭爺绌舵彁渚涗簡骞块様鍦熷¥銆傜劧鑰�, 浣滀负绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑涓�涓噸瑕佸垎鏀�, 姘戞棌鏂囧寲鍦扮悊鍦ㄦ垜鍥界殑鐮旂┒浠嶆湭褰㈡垚浣撶郴, 杈冧负钖勫急[65]銆傛皯鏃忔枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗叧娉ㄧ殑鏄皯鏃忔枃鍖栧拰鍦扮悊鐜鐨勫叧绯�, 鐙壒鐨勫湴鐞嗗湴璨屽閫犱簡灏戞暟姘戞棌鍦板尯鐙湁鐨勬櫙瑙傜壒璐�, 杩欎簺鏅涓嶄粎浠ヨ〃璞″舰寮忎紶閫掔潃姘戞棌鐨勭鍙�, 杩樺湪娣卞眰娆′笂鎻ず鍜岃暣鍚簡鍦版柟鎰忎箟銆傝�岄殢鐫�姘戞棌璺ㄦ枃鍖栦氦娴佺殑澧炲, 灏ゅ叾鏄皯鏃忔梾娓哥殑寮�鍙�, 姘戞棌鏂囧寲鏅涔熷湪寤烘瀯涓庨噸鏋勪腑寰楀埌閲嶆柊瑙h銆�

鐗瑰畾鐨勮嚜鐒剁幆澧冨彲浠ュ瓡鑲蹭笌涔嬬浉搴旂殑姘戞棌鏂囧寲, 鍙嶄箣姘戞棌鏂囧寲鍙堝鑷劧鐜浜х敓鏀归�犱綔鐢ㄣ�傝嚜鐒跺湴鐞嗙幆澧冨拰姘戞棌鏂囧寲涔嬮棿鐨勫叧绯绘帰璁ㄦ槸姘戞棌鍦扮悊鐮旂┒鐨勫熀鏈柟闈�, 濡傚厓闃冲搱灏兼棌鐨勪紶缁熸皯鏃忔枃鍖栦笌姊敯鏂囧寲鏅[66]銆佽吹宸炲杸鏂壒鐜涓庢皯鏃忔枃鍖�[67]銆佹花姘存櫙瑙傚閫犱笌姘戞棌鏂囧寲鐗硅壊[68]绛夈�傝嚜鐒剁幆澧冨奖鍝嶇潃浜轰滑鐢熸椿鐨勬柟鏂归潰闈�, 涓嶄粎鍖呭惈鐗╄川鏂归潰鐨勬皯灞呫�佹湇楗般�侀ギ椋熶範淇楃瓑, 杩樻綔绉婚粯鍖栧湴褰卞搷浜嗗綋鍦扮殑姘戞棌蹇冪悊銆佽涓哄浜�, 閫犲氨浜嗕竴涓皯鏃忕殑鐗硅壊鏂囧寲銆傝�屽浜庝竴瀹氱幆澧冧腑鐨勪汉浠篃鍑�熻仾鏄庢墠鏅哄垱閫犲嚭鐙叿鐗硅壊鐨勬枃鍖栨櫙瑙�, 杩欎簺鏂囧寲鏅鏄皯鏃忚韩浠界殑閲嶈鏍囪瘑, 涔熸槸鍑濊仛姘戞棌璁ゅ悓銆佸欢缁皯鏃忔枃鍖栫殑鍏抽敭鎵�鍦ㄣ��

鐜颁唬鍖栬澧冧笅, 灏戞暟姘戞棌鏂囧寲甯稿父澶勪簬寮卞娍鍦颁綅, 鏃呮父鐨勫彂灞曚娇寰楀皯鏁版皯鏃忔枃鍖栨垚涓哄惛寮曞鏉ユ父瀹㈢殑閲嶈鍥犵礌, 涔熷洜涓烘梾娓稿紑鍙�, 缁欐皯鏃忓湴鍖虹殑鏂囧寲甯︽潵涓嶅悓绋嬪害鐨勬敼鍙�, 濡備紶缁熸枃鍖栫殑淇濈暀涓庡鍏淬�佷紶缁熻妭搴嗙殑淇濇寔涓庡啀鍖呰绛�, 姘戞棌鏃忕兢鏂囧寲璁ゅ悓鍜岃嚜韬韩浠借鍚屼篃鍦ㄧ浉褰撶▼搴︿笂鍙楀埌褰卞搷鍜屾敼鍙樸�備附姹熷彜鍩庢梾娓哥殑寮�鍙戜娇寰楁繏涓存秷澶辩殑绾宠タ涓滃反鏂囧寲寰椾互閲嶅叴, 涓滃反鏂囧寲鍦ㄦ梾娓稿満鏅腑琚嚫鏄�, 鎴愪簡绾宠タ鏂囧寲鐨勯噸瑕佸彂瑷�浜�, 涓滃反鏂囧瓧銆佷笢宸翠箰鑸炪�佷笢宸寸キ绁�銆佷笢宸村伐鑹洪兘閲嶆柊鐧讳笂鏃呮父鑸炲彴, 鍙互璇存梾娓镐负涓滃反鏂囧寲鎻愪緵浜嗕竴绉嶇畝鍗曟槗琛岀殑鐢熷瓨鏂瑰紡[69], 鑰屾皯鏃忔梾娓哥殑鐑疆涔熷敜璧蜂簡绾宠タ浜哄鏈棌缇ゆ枃鍖栫殑鐑埍鍜屽啀璁ゅ悓[70]銆傛潨鑺冲绛夊璐靛窞涓栧眳姘戞棌浠′浆鏃忕殑瑙傚療鐮旂┒鍙戠幇, 鍦ㄦ皯鏃忔枃鍖栦负鏃呮父鍚稿紩鍔涚殑鑳屾櫙涓�, 鍦版柟绮捐嫳涓轰簡鎵撻��“ 浠′浆涔嬫簮” , 閲嶆瀯浜�“ 涔濆ぉ澶╀富” 鐨勮韩浠藉強绁浠紡鍜屽満鎵�, 杩欑涓昏鎬у缓鏋勪娇鍦版柟鎰忎箟鍙戠敓浜嗘敼鍙�, 鑷劧鏅“ 灏忓鐭崇瑡” 鍙樹负鏃忕兢涓績鏅, 浣嗘槸杩欎竴閲嶆瀯鐨勫湴鏂规枃鍖栨櫙瑙傚嵈娌℃湁寰楀埌褰撳湴鏃忕兢鐨勮鍚�[43]銆備簯鍗楀偅鏃忓洯绀惧尯鐨勫晢涓氬寲杩愪綔浣挎臣姘磋妭鎴愪负姣忓ぉ涓�娆$殑婕斿嚭娲诲姩, 娉兼按鑺傜殑鑺傚簡鎰忎箟宸插叏鐒舵敼鍙�, 浣嗘槸婧愪簬缁忔祹鍒╃泭, 绀惧尯灞呮皯瀵硅繖鏍风殑涓�绉�“ 灞曟紨” 褰㈠紡浠嶉潪甯歌鍚�[71]銆傛樉鐒�, 鍦版柟鏄鏍枫�佸姩鎬佸彂灞曠殑, 鏃呮父鐨勫彂灞曚负姘戞棌绀惧尯鏃忕兢鏂囧寲甯︽潵浜�“ 鍐嶅湴鏂瑰寲” 涓�“ 鍘诲湴鏂瑰寲” 浜ょ粐鐨勫眬闈�[72, 73], 涓�浜涙枃鍖栨櫙瑙傚湪寤烘瀯涓庨噸鏋勪腑寰椾互淇濈暀鍜屽鑻�, 涔熷繀鐒朵細鏈変竴浜涘湪璺ㄦ枃鍖栦氦铻嶄腑“ 鍘诲湴鏂瑰寲” , 鍛堢幇鏂扮殑鍦版柟鎰忎箟銆�

3.1.3 瀹楁暀鍦扮悊瀛� 瀹楁暀浣滀负绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌剁殑閲嶈鍐呭, 涓�鐩翠互鏉ラ兘鍙楀埌鐮旂┒鑰呯殑骞挎硾鍏虫敞銆傜敱浜庡叾鐗规畩鎬ц川鍙婃斂娌诲奖鍝嶅姏, 瀹楁暀鐢氳嚦鎴愪负绀句細鍦扮悊鐮旂┒涓瘮绉嶆棌鍜屾皯鏃忔洿閲嶈鐨勭爺绌惰瘽棰�[74]銆傛棭鏈熺爺绌朵腑, 浼犵粺鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀己璋冨畻鏁欏湪鏂囧寲鏅褰㈡垚杩囩▼涓殑瓒呰嚜鐒跺姏閲�[75], 瀵圭墿璐ㄥ畻鏁欐櫙瑙傜殑鐮旂┒杈冧负鏅亶銆�20涓栫邯90骞翠唬浠ュ悗, 闅忕潃鏂版枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐨勫叴璧�, 浠ユ睙鑾夎帀 (Kong) 涓轰唬琛ㄧ殑瀛﹁�呭浼犵粺鐮旂┒棰嗗煙浣滀簡鎷撳睍, 鎻愬嚭浜嗘柊鐨勭爺绌舵鏋�[76], 骞跺熀浜庡叏鐞冨寲鐨勮瑙掓⒊鐞嗕簡杩�10骞磋タ鏂瑰畻鏁欏湴鐞嗗鐨勭爺绌跺彉闈╀笌杞悜[77]銆傚湪鏂版枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐨勫甫鍔ㄤ笅, 瑗挎柟瀹楁暀鍦扮悊瀛﹁�呭瀹楁暀鏅鐨勭爺绌�, 涓嶆槸灏嗗叾浣滀负涓�绉嶄簨鐗╂垨鏄〃璞�, 鑰屾槸鏇村姞娉ㄩ噸鍏剁┖闂撮殣鍠� (spatial metaphor), 鍗冲皢瀹楁暀鏅鐪嬫垚涓�绉嶈薄寰佷富涔夋垨鎰忚瘑褰㈡�佺殑杩囩▼, 閲嶈鍏�“ 鍦版柟鎬�” 鍙婃湰璐ㄦ剰涔夈�佹枃鍖栬暣娑电殑鎺㈣[78, 79, 80, 81]銆�

鐩告瘮涔嬩笅, 鍥藉唴鐨勫畻鏁欏湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒鍒欒緝涓烘粸鍚庛�傚湪杩�10骞寸殑鐮旂┒涓�, 鎻忚堪鎬у畻鏁欏湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒浠嶅崰鎹浉褰撻儴鍒嗐�傜爺绌舵秹鍙婂尯鍩熷畻鏁欑殑鍦板煙鐗瑰緛[82]銆佸畻鏁欑ぞ鍖虹殑鍘嗗彶鍙樿縼[83]銆佸畻鏁欐枃鍖栦笌鑷劧鐜鍏崇郴[84, 85]绛夋柟闈�, 鎵�杩愮敤鐨勮В閲婂拰鎺ㄧ悊鏂规硶鏋佷负鏈夐檺, 骞舵湭鏈夋繁鍏ョ殑鐞嗚鎬荤粨, 鍗崇爺绌惰�呭苟鏈烦鍑轰紶缁熷畻鏁欏湴鐞嗙爺绌剁殑妗嗘灦鍐呭銆傞殢鐫�鏃呮父涓氱殑鍙戝睍, 瀹楁暀鏅浣滀负閲嶈鐨勬梾娓歌祫婧愯繘琛屽紑鍙�, 瀵瑰叾鐨勭爺绌朵篃鐩稿簲鍑虹幇, 涓嶅皯鐮旂┒璁鸿堪浜嗗畻鏁欎笌瀹楁暀鏂囧寲鏅涔嬮棿鐨勭浉浜掍綔鐢ㄤ笌褰卞搷, 鎸囧嚭搴旇鎸栨帢鏅鐨勫畻鏁欐枃鍖栧唴娑�, 涓烘梾娓镐笟鎵�鐢�[29, 30]銆備絾鏄�, 鍦ㄥ疄闄呭彂灞曚腑, 瀹楁暀鏅鍜屽満鎵�鍗存湭鑳藉湪鏃呮父鎵�寮曡嚧鐨�“ 鍟嗗搧鍖栥�佷笘淇楀寲” 涓垢鍏�, 搴勪弗鐨勪經鏁欏湥鍦板彉鎴愪簡绻佸崕鐑椆鐨勫競淇楅泦闀�, 瀹楁暀浠紡宸茬粡鑴辩鍘熸湁鐨勬皼鍥�, 鎴愪负鏃呮父浜у搧鑰岃繘琛屽睍婕�[86]銆傛樉鐒�, 瀹楁暀鏅鐨勭鍦f剰涔夊凡鍦ㄤ笘淇椾腑寮傚寲鍜岄噸鏋�, 濡備綍搴斿鏃呮父涓氱殑涓栦織鍖栧啿鍑诲強鍦版柟鎬х殑鍐嶇敓浜ч兘宸叉垚涓烘柊鐨勭爺绌惰棰樺拰鎸戞垬銆�

鍦ㄥ叏鐞冩枃鍖栬浆鍚戝拰绌洪棿杞悜鐨勫奖鍝嶄笅, 杩戝勾鏉ュ浗鍐呭瀹楁暀鏅鐨勫垎鏋愪篃鏄庢樉鍑虹幇鏂版枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙殑杞悜, 娉ㄩ噸鏅璞″緛鎰忎箟鍙婃枃鍖栨剰涔夌殑鎻ず銆傛枃鍖栧缓鏋勭殑鐞嗘兂鏅鍙楀埌鍚勫湴鑷劧鏉′欢涓庣幆澧冪殑鍒剁害, 杩欎簺寤烘瀯鐨勫畻鏁欐櫙瑙備篃涓嶅彲閬垮厤鍦拌〃鐜板嚭鏄捐憲鐨勫湴鍩熷樊寮傚拰鏂囧寲宸紓, 濡備腑鍥界殑瀵哄簷鍥灄鍋忛噸“ 鍥村悎” 銆�“ 闅愬尶” , 渚濇亱浜庤嚜鐒�, 涓庝腑鍥藉啘鑰曟枃鏄庣殑鍙戣揪鏈変笉鍙垎鍓茬殑鑱旂郴[87]; 鑰屼紛鏂叞姘戞棌鍦ㄨタ浜氬共鐑殑姘斿�欐潯浠朵笅, 姘淬�佹爲銆侀槾褰辨槸鍏剁壒鍒亸濂界殑鏅绗﹀彿, 涓嶅悓鐨勬枃鍖栭�氳繃瀹楁暀鍜岀璇濇潵琛ㄨ揪鑷繁鐨勬櫙瑙傜悊鎯�, 鍚屾椂, 鍙堜緷鎹繖浜涚悊鎯�, 閫氳繃鍦扮悊鍥炲綊鍦ㄧ幇瀹炰腑浣垮叾鐗╁寲[88]銆傞殢鐫�鍘嗗彶鐨勬洿鏇垮彂灞�, 浜哄彛澧為暱澶ф疆銆佸湴鐞嗗彉杩佷笌绉绘皯銆佸畻鏁欑殑澶嶅叴绛夊悇绉嶅洜绱犻兘浼氬奖鍝嶅畻鏁欐櫙瑙�, 浣夸箣鍙戠敓鏀瑰彉[75]銆備互鏁欏爞銆佹竻鐪熷銆佷經鏁欏闄㈢瓑涓轰唬琛ㄧ殑瀹楁暀娲诲姩鐨勯噸瑕佸湴鍩熸爣蹇�, 瀹冧滑鐨勫垎甯冧笌鍙樿縼寰�寰�閫忛湶浜嗘煇绉嶅畻鏁欏湴鍩熶紶鎾殑閲嶈淇℃伅銆傚叾涓�, 浠ユ暀鍫備负渚嬬殑鐮旂┒杈冧负澶氳[89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94]銆傚畻鏁欐椿鍔ㄥ満鎵�鐨勭┖闂村垎甯冨強鎵╂暎鎻ず浜嗕竴瀹氬巻鍙叉椂鏈熷畻鏁欑殑浼犳挱杞ㄨ抗鍜岃寰�, 瀵瑰綋鏃跺煄甯傝鍒掑拰璁捐涔熶骇鐢熼噸瑕佸奖鍝嶃�傛澶�, 杩樻湁涓�浜涘鑰呭凡缁忓紑濮嬩粠瀹忚灏哄害鐮旂┒瑙嗚鍚戝井瑙傚昂搴﹁浆鍙�, 濡傜櫧鍑粠鑷垜涓讳綋鐨勮搴﹀嚭鍙�, 瀵瑰畻鏁欐椿鍔ㄧ┖闂寸殑瀛樺湪涓讳箟鎰忔兜杩涜浜嗕富浣撴剰鍚戞�цВ璇�, 鎸囧嚭瀹楁暀娲诲姩鍦烘墍鍜屼华寮忓湪涓�瀹氱▼搴︿笂鍛堢幇鍑�“ 绌洪棿鍒板湴鏂�” , 浠�“ 鍦版柟” 鐨勭墿璐ㄥ畻鏁欑┖闂寸粨鏋勫埌“ 鏃犲湴鏂�” 鐨勭簿绁炲畻鏁欑┖闂寸粨鏋勭殑杞崲[95]銆傚彲瑙�, 瀹楁暀鏅瀵逛簬瀹楁暀鏂囧寲鍜屼釜浜鸿韩浠借鍚屼篃鎰忎箟閲嶅ぇ銆�

3.2 绌洪棿鐢熶骇涓庡啀鐢熶骇鐨勭爺绌�— — 鍦版柟鎬х殑婕斿彉涓庨噸鏋�

绌洪棿鏄汉鏂囧湴鐞嗗鐨勬牳蹇冩蹇典箣涓�[96], 鍖呭惈鐢熶骇鐢熸椿绌洪棿銆佺ぞ浼氱┖闂淬�佹枃鍖栫┖闂翠笁涓眰娆�[97]銆傜┖闂存棦鏄汉绫荤ぞ浼氳繍浣滅殑鍏堝喅鏉′欢, 鍙堟槸褰㈡垚浜庝汉绫昏涓虹殑绀句細浜у搧, 骞堕殢鐫�鍘嗗彶鐨勬紨鍙樿�岄噸鏂拌В鏋勫拰杞寲[98]銆傚湪鍦扮悊鐮旂┒涓�, 瀵逛簬绌洪棿鐨勭悊瑙g粷涓嶅眬闄愪簬褰㈡�佹垨鍑犱綍灞傞潰, 鏇村鍦伴渶瑕佷粠缁忔祹銆佺ぞ浼氥�佽嚜鐒跺拰鐢熺墿瀛︽剰涔変笂鍘诲姹傝В閲�[99]銆備即闅忕潃绀句細瀛︿腑鐨�“ 绌洪棿杞悜” [100], 瑗挎柟浜烘枃鍦扮悊瀛︾殑“ 鏂囧寲杞悜” [41]鍙婂湴鐞嗗涓殑“ 绀句細杞悜” [101], 绌洪棿涓嶅啀鏄竴绉嶇畝鍗曠殑鍑犱綍褰㈡��, 鑰屾垚涓轰竴绉嶅彲渚涘垎鏋愪笌瑙h鐨勬枃鏈�[41], 涓�涓浜庝笉鏂彂灞曠殑杩囩▼[102]銆傚垪鏂愪紡灏� (Lefebvre) 閫氳繃瀵圭┖闂撮棶棰樼殑鍝插鍙嶆�濇彁鍑虹┖闂� (鍐�) 鐢熶骇鐞嗚[98], 鎴愪负绌洪棿鐮旂┒鐨勯噸瑕佸弬鐓с�傚湪绌洪棿鐢熶骇涓庡啀鐢熶骇鐨勮繃绋嬩腑, 涓嶅悓绌洪棿鏂囧寲涔嬮棿鐨勫啿绐併�佺┖闂翠腑鏂囧寲琛ㄥ緛鏉冨埄鐨勫啿绐佸強璧勬湰绌洪棿鍐嶇敓浜т腑鐨勯樁灞傚啿绐佹棩鐩婃樉鍖�, 涔熶娇寰楃┖闂存墍钑村惈鐨勫湴鏂硅薄寰佷笌鎰忎箟缁忓巻鐫�涓嶆柇鐨勫缓鏋勩�佽В鏋勪笌閲嶆瀯銆�

3.2.1 绌洪棿鐨勬枃鍖栧啿绐佺爺绌� 鏂囧寲鍐茬獊鏄湪鏂囧寲浼犳挱涓庢枃鍖栦紶閫掕繃绋嬩腑, 鐢变袱绉嶆垨浠ヤ笂涓嶅悓瑙勮寖鏂囧寲鐨勬帴瑙︺�佺鎾炶�屼骇鐢熺殑鏂囧寲瀵规姉鐜拌薄[103]銆傚湴鐞嗗瀵逛簬鏂囧寲鐨勭爺绌朵笉鍐嶅彧鏄皢鏂囧寲浣滀负绌洪棿琛屼负鐨勫璞�, 鑰屾槸娣卞叆鏂囧寲鏈韩, 鎺㈣鏂囧寲瀵逛簬绌洪棿鐨勫缓鏋勪笌褰㈠浣滅敤, 骞朵笖鍜屽叾浠栫幆澧冭绱犲叡鍚屼績浣挎娊璞$殑绌洪棿杞崲涓哄叿浣撱�佸紓璐ㄣ�佸彉鍖栫殑鍦版柟[104]銆傞壌浜庢枃鍖栫殑鍏蜂綋鎬с�佸紓璐ㄦ�у拰鍙樺寲鎬�, 鍦ㄧ┖闂翠腑璁よ瘑鏂囧寲鎴栦互鏂囧寲鏉ヨ浆鍖栫┖闂存椂, 鐮旂┒涓嶅悓鐨勬枃鍖栧彲鑳戒互涓嶅悓鏂瑰紡璁よ瘑绌洪棿鏄竴涓�煎緱鎬濊�冪殑闂銆傚綋鍓嶇┖闂寸殑鏂囧寲鍐茬獊鐨勭爺绌惰瑙掍富瑕侀泦涓簬澶栨潵瀹楁暀鏂囧寲涓庢湰鍦熸枃鍖栦箣闂寸殑鍐茬獊[90, 91], 灏戞暟姘戞棌浼犵粺鏂囧寲涓庣幇浠f梾娓稿彂灞曚箣闂寸殑鍐茬獊[105, 43], 鍩庡競浼犵粺娑堣垂鏂囧寲涓庡鏉ユ秷璐规枃鍖栦箣闂寸殑鍐茬獊[106], 鍑哄浗鏃呭眳鐨勮法鏂囧寲鍐茬獊[107]绛夋柟闈€�傜┖闂寸殑鏂囧寲鍐茬獊鏄湪鎵�闅惧厤鐨�, 鎶戞垨璇存枃鍖栧啿绐佹槸鎶借薄绌洪棿杞寲涓哄叿浣撳湴鏂�, 鍧囪川鎬х┖闂翠笌寮傝川鎬у湴鏂瑰崥寮堢殑蹇呯粡杩囩▼銆�

3.2.2 鏂囧寲琛ㄥ緛鏉冨姏鐨勫啿绐� 鍒楁枑浼忓皵鍦ㄣ�婄┖闂寸殑鐢熶骇銆�(The Production of Space) 涓彁鍑轰簡浠ョ敓浜у疄璺典负鍩虹鐨勭┖闂翠笁缁磋京璇佹硶, 鍗崇┖闂村疄璺点�佺┖闂磋〃寰佸拰琛ㄥ緛绌洪棿鐨勪笁浣嶄竴浣�[98]銆傚洜姝�, 琛ㄥ緛鎴愪负鐞嗚В鍜岀晫瀹氱┖闂寸殑閲嶈姒傚康銆傞湇灏� (Hall) 璁や负琛ㄥ緛灏辨槸灏嗕汉浠唴蹇冪湡瀹炶〃杈惧嚭鏉ョ殑澶栧湪浜嬬墿[108], 骞跺己璋冧簡琛ㄥ緛鐨勬枃鍖栧疄璺垫�у拰鎰忎箟寤烘瀯鎬�[109]銆備汉绫讳互绮剧绗﹀彿涓轰粙璐�, 閫氳繃绮剧鐢熶骇瀹炶返, 瀵圭┖闂磋繘琛屽啀鍙欎簨銆佸啀鎯宠薄銆佸啀闅愬柣銆佸啀濉戦��, 璧嬩簣绌洪棿浠ユ剰涔夌殑鏂囧寲鍐呮兜, 杩涜�屽垱閫犵敓鎴愬嚭绗﹀彿鍖栫殑鏂囧寲琛ㄥ緛绌洪棿[108]銆傚洜姝�, 鏂囧寲鏅鎵�鍏锋湁鐨勭┖闂村昂搴︿互鍙婃櫙瑙傛墍鎵胯浇鐨勫湴鏂规剰涔�, 涓嶄粎浣撶幇鍑洪�忚繃鏅瑙傚療鍦版柟鐨勭ぞ浼氭斂娌昏繃绋�[110], 鑰屼笖涔熷厖婊′簡瀵规潈鍔涖�佽瘽璇殑鏀挎不鍒嗘瀽[41]銆傚湪鏂囧寲琛ㄥ緛鐨勮繃绋嬩腑, 鍐茬獊鐨勪骇鐢熸簮浜庝笁涓眰闈㈢殑鍏崇郴锛氣憼 鏉冨姏鐨勬嫢鏈夎��, 濡傚晢瀹�[111, 112]鎴栨槸鍥藉鎴栧湴鏂规斂搴滄嫢鏈夊喅瀹氭�х殑鏅琛ㄥ緛鏉冨姏[113]; 鈶� 鏉冨姏鐨勬祦鍔ㄨ繃绋�, 濡傛枃鍖栬〃寰佽繃绋嬬殑鑷笂鑰屼笅涓庤嚜涓嬭�屼笂涔嬮棿鐨勭煕鐩�[114]; 鈶� 鏉冨姏鐨勪笅鏀�, 鍗宠祴浜堝綋鍦颁汉鏇村鐨勬潈鍔�[115]銆�

3.2.3 璧勬湰绌洪棿鍐嶇敓浜т腑鐨勯樁灞傚啿绐� 绌洪棿涓嶆槸涓�涓腑鎬х殑鐗╄川棰嗗煙, 绌洪棿鐨勭敓浜у繀鐒舵秹鍙婂埌澶嶆潅鐨勭ぞ浼氱粡娴庝笌鏀挎不杩囩▼, 浜岃�呮槸鏋勬垚璧勬湰绌洪棿鍜岀ぞ浼氶樁灞傜殑鍏呭垎鏉′欢, 淇冧娇绌洪棿浠庝簨鐗╃殑鐢熶骇杞悜绌洪棿鏈韩鐨勭敓浜�[98]銆傝祫鏈┖闂寸敓浜у疄璐ㄤ笂鏄褰㈡垚璧勬湰杩愬姩銆侀樁灞傛祦鍔ㄥ拰鍒跺害璋冩帶3绉嶇┖闂寸敓浜ф満鍒躲�傝祫鏈繍鍔ㄤ綔涓虹ぞ浼氱┖闂寸殑鐗瑰緛涔嬩竴, 鍏朵富瑕佽〃鐜颁负璧勬湰涓讳箟鐨勫煄甯傚寲, 瀹炶川灏辨槸璧勬湰鐨勫煄甯傚寲[116], 鑰屽煄甯傚寲鐨勫叏閮ㄥ唴瀹逛篃鍙互褰掔粨涓鸿祫鏈Н绱笌闃剁骇鏂椾簤涔嬮棿鐨勭煕鐩句綔鐢�[117]銆傚洜姝�, 璧勬湰鐨勫煄甯傚寲鍙互鐞嗚В涓虹ぞ浼氶樁绾у拰鐗规畩鍒╃泭闆嗗洟閫氳繃鎺у埗鍦熷湴鍜屽缓绛戠墿绛夌┖闂寸殑涓昏鐗瑰緛鏉ュ閫犲拰褰卞搷鍩庡競绌洪棿褰㈡�佸拰缁勭粐鐨勮繃绋�[118]銆備竴鏂归潰, 绌洪棿鍐嶇敓浜ф槸瀹炵幇璧勬湰绉疮鐨勯�斿緞, 浣嗗彟涓�鏂归潰, 璧勬湰绉疮涔熷鍩庡競绌洪棿濉戦�犱骇鐢熶簡涓�瀹氱殑浣滅敤鍔涗笌鍙嶄綔鐢ㄥ姏, 骞朵笖浼氬奖鍝嶅煄甯傛洿鏂扮殑杩囩▼[119]銆傛澶�, 鍦ㄦ寔缁殑鍦板煙鍖栧拰鍩庡競鍖栫殑杩涚▼涓�, “ 涓ぎ-鍦版柟” 鍒嗘潈銆佽竟鐣屽紑鍙戝尯浠ュ強鍥藉鍩庨晣浣撶郴[120]閮借祴浜堜簡鍩庡競绌洪棿鏂扮殑绀句細鍏崇郴[121], 骞朵娇涔嬫垚涓轰竴绉嶆媺鍔ㄧ粡娴庡彂灞曠殑鎵嬫, 杩欎簺鎵嬫鐨勫疄鏂戒綋鐜颁簡鏀垮簻鐨勪紒涓氬寲鍊惧悜[122, 123]浠ュ強鍖哄煙鐨勫悎浣滄不鐞�[124]鍚屾椂, 涔熶綋鐜颁簡璧勬湰绌洪棿鐢熶骇涓殑闃剁骇鍏崇郴鍜岀ぞ浼氱粨鏋勭殑宸ㄥぇ鏀瑰彉[125, 126]銆�

3.3 鍏朵粬棰嗗煙鐨勭爺绌�

闅忕潃鍏ㄧ悆鍖栫殑杩涚▼, 绀句細绌洪棿姝d笉鏂摝瑙c�佺牬纰�[127]銆傜ぞ浼氱┖闂村湪鍙樿縼鍜屽彂灞曡繃绋嬩腑鎵�浣撶幇鍑虹殑娴佸姩鎬�, 鍏跺疄璐ㄦ槸绀句細瀹炰綋鍐呮煇涓�缇や綋鎴栦釜浜烘敼鍙樻墍灞炵ぞ浼氱兢浣撴垨鍦颁綅鍒嗛厤鐨勮兘鍔�[128]銆傚叾涓潕蹇楀垰绛夐�氳繃瀵瑰箍宸炲皬鍖楄矾榛戜汉鑱氬眳鍖虹殑绀句細绌洪棿鍒嗘瀽寰楀嚭榛戜汉灞呮皯鍏锋湁楂樻祦鍔ㄦ�у拰澶氭牱鎬х壒寰�[39]銆傚啹鍋ャ�佺帇姘告捣浠ヤ腑鍏虫潙楂樻牎鍛ㄨ竟灞呮皯鍖轰负妗堜緥鍦�, 鐮旂┒寰楀嚭璇ュ尯鍩熷眳姘戠殑鏁翠綋娴佸姩鎬ц緝寮�, 涓斾互姘村钩娴佸姩涓轰富, 鍨傜洿娴佸姩鐩稿杈冨皯[128]銆傚惔鎮﹁姵鍜屽緪绾㈢健浠ョ浜屽眳鎵�鏃呮父涓哄垏鍏ョ偣, 鏋勫缓浜嗕互娑堣垂瀵煎悜鐨勬祦鍔ㄦ�ф鏋�[129]銆傛潕鍥藉钩绛夊拰鏉庡畞鍒嗗埆鎺㈣浜嗙渷鍖虹粡娴庡闀夸笌娴佸姩鎬�, 鍔冲姩鍔涚殑娴佸姩闂[130, 131]銆�

娑堣垂绌洪棿鐨勫湴鐞嗙爺绌跺湪杩戞湡涔熸棩娓愭秾鐜�, 涓昏浣撶幇鍦ㄦ秷璐瑰湴鐞� (鍟嗕笟鍦扮悊) 鍜屾枃鍖栧湴鐞嗛鍩�[132]銆傛秷璐圭┖闂寸殑鐮旂┒浠庡钩婊戠殑銆佹娊璞$殑銆佹棤宸埆绌洪棿璁よ瘑, 杞悜鏇村姞鍏虫敞绌洪棿鐨勭嫭鐗规�т互鍙婃洿鍔犵簿缁嗐�佹繁鍏ョ殑鐮旂┒[133]銆傚鏋楄�夸互骞垮窞甯備负渚�, 鐮旂┒浜嗘秷璐圭┖闂寸殑婕斿寲鍙婂叾绗﹀彿琛ㄥ緛, 骞朵互涓讳綋鎬х殑娑堣垂绌洪棿涓哄垏鍏ョ偣, 瀵瑰箍宸為厭鍚х殑鍦版柟鎬у拰绌洪棿鎬ц繘琛屼簡瀹炶瘉鍒嗘瀽[134, 135]銆傜敵宄婚湠绛夐�氳繃瀵圭綉缁滃疄浣撹鍖虹殑鐮旂┒, 寰楀嚭绗﹀彿鏄秷璐圭┖闂寸壒鑹插閫犵殑閲嶈閫斿緞, 浣嗘秷璐圭┖闂寸殑鎵╂暎骞堕潪绠�鍗曠殑绗﹀彿澶嶅埗杩囩▼[136]銆傝阿鏅撳绛変互骞垮窞甯傚お鍙ゆ眹鏂规墍鏂囧寲涔﹀簵涓轰緥, 浠庢秷璐硅�呯殑鎰熺煡鍜岃鍚岃瑙掓帰绌朵簡鏂囧寲琛ㄥ緛鍜屽彉杩佽繃绋嬩腑鏂囧寲娑堣垂绌洪棿鐨勫缓鏋勪笌鐢熶骇[137]銆傛澶�, 鍩轰簬缁忔祹瑙嗚鐨勬秷璐圭┖闂寸爺绌跺垯涓昏闆嗕腑鍦ㄥ涓浗鍩庡競娑堣垂绌洪棿鍒嗗竷[138]銆佸煄甯傚眳姘戞秷璐圭┖闂寸殑鎵╁睍[139]浠ュ強鍙揪鎬у娑堣垂绌洪棿鐨勫奖鍝�[140]绛夋柟闈€��

4 鏈潵绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌跺簲鍏虫敞鐨勯鍩�

瀹¤1978骞存敼闈╁紑鏀句互鏉ヤ腑鍥界殑鍏ㄦ柟浣嶅彂灞�, 鐜颁唬鎬х殑杩芥眰宸茬粡鎴愪负涓�绉嶄笉鍙樆鎸$殑鍔涢噺, 鎶婁汉浠姏绂诲師鏈夌殑绀句細绉╁簭杞ㄩ亾銆傜壒鍒槸21涓栫邯浠ユ潵, 鍦ㄥ叏鐞冨寲娴疆鐨勫腑鍗蜂笅, 涓浗骞磋交涓�浠f洿鍔犺拷姹�“ 鑷垜” , 杩涜�屽湪绀句細鏂囧寲璁ゅ悓涓婂彂鐢熷法澶ф敼鍙�; 涓崕浜烘皯鍏卞拰鍥芥垚绔嬪垵鏈熻繍琛岀殑涓粙绀句細缁撴瀯妯″紡鍗曚綅鍒惰В浣�, 浣挎皯浼楀皢鏇村鍒╃泭璇夋眰鎸囧悜鍥藉鍜屽綋鍦版斂搴�; 澶ч噺娴佸姩浜哄彛寰樺緤浜�“ 涓滈儴涓庤タ閮�” 銆�“ 鍙戣揪涓庤惤鍚�” 銆�“ 鍩庡競涓庝埂鏉�” 涔嬮棿, 浣夸腑鍥藉煄闀囧寲浜屾杩涚▼澶囧彈鐓庣啲; 鍩庡競鎷ュ牭涓庝埂鏉戠┖蹇冪殑鐭涚浘鏃ョ泭鍔犲墽绛夌瓑銆傚浣曞墺绂荤幇璞¤�屽彂鐜版繁灞傜殑浜掑姩鍏崇郴, 杩涜�屾�荤粨鐞嗚鑰屽簲鐢ㄤ笌瀹炶返, 鎴戜滑璁や负鏈潵鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙爺绌跺簲閲嶇偣鍏虫敞浠ヤ笅鍑犱釜鐮旂┒棰嗗煙锛�

4.1 涓浗鏈湡绀句細鏂囧寲鐗硅川鐨勫湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒

涓浗鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙爺绌堕渶瑕佸彂灞曠鍚堜腑鍥介渶姹傜殑鐮旂┒鎬濊矾鍜屾柟娉�[23]銆傝櫧鐒堕儴鍒嗕腑鍥藉湴鐞嗗鑰呭湪鏈湡鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌剁悊璁烘柟闈㈠凡缁忓仛鍑轰簡鍗撹秺鐨勬帰绱�, 濡傛煷褰﹀▉绛変粠“ 鍗曚綅鍒�” 瑙掑害瀵逛腑鍥藉煄甯傚強绀惧尯鍙戝睍涓睍鐜扮殑鍚勭被闂鐨勫垎鏋�[141, 142, 143], 浣嗙湡姝e叿鏈�“ 涓浗鐗硅壊” 鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗙爺绌惰繕鏄庢樉鍋忓皯銆傚洜姝�, 绗旇�呰涓�, 鏈変笁涓柟闈㈤渶瑕佺粰浜堣冻澶熺殑鍏虫敞锛氣憼 “ 瀹�” 鐨勫湴鐞嗗鐗瑰緛涓庡奖鍝嶇爺绌躲�備腑鍥藉搴壙鎺ヤ簡杈冭タ鏂圭ぞ浼氳�岃█鏇村鐨勫姛鑳�, 鍦ㄤ腑鍥�, 涓汉闅愯棌浜庡涓�, 涓汉鐨勮韩浠戒互瀹跺涵鏉ヤ唬鏇�, 瀹舵垚涓轰釜浜鸿韩浠藉鍦ㄥ寲鐨勪竴绉嶇鍙�[144], 浠ヨ嚦浜庤憲鍚嶇ぞ浼氬瀹惰垂瀛濋�氬厛鐢熷涓浗绀句細鐨勭爺绌�, 涔熸槸浠ュ鍜屽鏃忎綔涓鸿捣鐐�[145]銆傝鏂归潰鐨勭爺绌�, 搴斾粠鍏崇郴鍜屽姛鑳借瑙掗噸鐐瑰叧娉ㄥ搴殑绀句細鏂囧寲绌洪棿鐨勫舰鎴愪笌杩愯鏈哄埗, 浠ュ強瀹跺涵鍦ㄦ洿澶т箖鑷虫洿灏忓昂搴︾ぞ浼氭枃鍖栫┖闂翠腑鐨勫悇绉嶄綔鐢ㄤ笌褰卞搷銆傗憽 “ 鍚庡崟浣嶅埗” 鐨勫湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒銆傝櫧鐒�1978骞翠互鍚�, 鍥藉鍦ㄧ粡娴庢敼闈╃殑鎺ㄥ姩涓�, 閫愭鍑忓急浜�“ 鍗曚綅鍒�” 鍦ㄤ腑鍥界ぞ浼氭枃鍖栬繍琛屼腑鐨勪腑浠嬩綔鐢�, 浣嗕笉鍙惁璁�, 骞挎硾瀛樺湪鐨�“ 浜嬩笟鍗曚綅” 銆�“ 鍥芥湁鍨勬柇鍨嬩紒涓�” 銆�“ 鏀垮簻鏈烘瀯” 浠嶇劧鍙戞尌鐫�“ 灏忛儴闂ㄣ�佸ぇ绀句細” 鐨勬煇浜涘姛鑳�, 鑰岃繖浜涗紒涓氬線寰�鍦ㄦ潈鍒┿�佺粡娴庝箖鑷虫暀鑲查鍩熼兘鎷ユ湁涓�瀹氱殑鐗规潈鍜屼紭鍔�, 濡備綍骞宠 涓庤浆鍖�, 浠ヨ揪鍠勬不鐨勫拰璋�, 鍦扮悊瀛﹁�呭簲璇ヤ篃鑳藉鍙戞尌鍏剁患鍚堢爺绌剁殑浼樺娍銆傗憿 璺ㄥ浗浼佷笟涓浗鍖栦笌鏈湡浼佷笟鍥介檯鍖栫殑鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌躲�傝法鍥戒紒涓氱殑寮曞叆涓轰腑鍥芥敼闈╁紑鏀句笌鍙戝睍鎻愪緵浜嗗垵濮嬬殑璧勬湰涓庡姩鍔�, 鑰岃棰嗗煙浠ュ線闀挎湡琚鐞嗗鑰呮墍鍏虫敞, 鐩稿叧鐮旂┒鎴愭灉涔熷凡缁忎负鏈湡鍖栦紒涓氭垚闀夸笌鍙戝睍鎻愪緵浜嗘簮婧愪笉鏂殑鏀寔, 鍏剁爺绌舵垚鏋滆鍥介檯绠$悊瀛︾爺绌堕鍩熷箍娉涜鍙�, 浣嗗浗鍐呭湴鐞嗗鐣屼粎缁忔祹鍦扮悊瀛﹀鍏惰繘琛屾寔缁爺绌�[146, 147]銆傝法鍥戒紒涓氭垚鍔熻惤鍦扮殑淇濋殰鏄叾澶氬厓绀句細鏂囧寲鐨勮瀺鍚�[148, 149], 璇ョ爺绌跺璞℃棦鑳戒綋鐜板鍏冪ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧叧绯荤殑澶嶆潅鎬�, 鍙堣兘鍛堢幇鍑轰笉鍚岀┖闂村昂搴︾殑浜ゅ弶涓庢洿鏇�, 鍏剁悊璁哄垱鏂颁笌瀹炶返搴旂敤淇变匠, 鍊煎緱鍔犱互鍏虫敞銆�

4.2 鏉冨埄涓庤祫鏈绀句細鏂囧寲绌洪棿褰㈡�佷笌鍦版柟寤烘瀯鐨勫奖鍝�

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2014骞�, 涓浗绀句細绉戝闄㈠啘鏉戝彂灞曠爺绌舵墍绛夊崟浣嶈仈鍚堝彂甯冦�婁腑鍥藉啘鏉戠粡娴庡舰鍔垮垎鏋愪笌棰勬祴銆嬭〃鏄�, 2014骞村啘姘戝伐鎬婚噺浼氳秴杩�2.7浜夸汉; 鍚屾椂, 鎷涘伐闅惧拰缁撴瀯鎬у姵鍔ㄥ姏渚涚粰鐭涚浘浠嶅皢鏄捐憲瀛樺湪銆傝繘鍩庤惤鎴枫�佸瓙濂虫暀鑲层�佹埧灞嬬浣忋�佺ぞ浼氫繚闅溿�佺湅鐥呬拱鑽�︹�﹀浜庣害2.4浜胯繘鍩庡啘姘戝伐鑰岃█, 杩欎簺鐪嬩技鍐嶅钩甯镐笉杩囩殑鐢熸椿, 瀹炵幇璧锋潵鍗寸潃瀹炰笉鏄撱�傚ぇ閲忔祦鍔ㄤ汉鍙d緷闄勪簬鍖椾含銆佷笂娴枫�佸箍宸炵瓑瓒呭ぇ鍨嬪煄甯傘��2014骞�1鏈�16鏃ヨ嚦2鏈�1鏃�, 鍏辫4907涓囦汉浠庡寳涓婂箍娣�4鍩庡競娴佸姩鍒板叏鍥藉悇鍦�[152]銆傚姝ゅぇ瑙勬ā鐨勪汉鍙f祦鍔�, 鍦ㄤ笘鐣岃寖鍥村唴涔熷疄灞炵綍瑙併�傛濡傝璐濆皵缁忔祹瀛﹀寰椾富鏂拏鏍奸噷鑼ㄦ墍瑷�锛�21涓栫邯褰卞搷浜虹被杩涚▼鏈変袱浠跺ぇ浜�, 涓�鏄互缇庡浗涓洪鐨勬柊鎶�鏈潻鍛�; 涓�鏄腑鍥界殑鍩庡競鍖�[152]銆傚ぇ閲忔祦鍔ㄤ汉鍙d笌绉绘皯缇や綋寰樺緤鍦ㄤ笢閮ㄤ笌瑗块儴銆佸煄甯備笌涔℃潙涔嬮棿, 涓嶄粎閫犳垚浜嗗ぇ閲忓啘涓氫汉鍙g殑娴佸け, 涔熶娇鍐滄潙鐨�“ 绌哄績鍖�” 鐜拌薄涓嶆柇鍔犲墽[153, 154]銆備紶缁熷煄甯傚湴鐞嗗銆佺粡娴庡湴鐞嗗鍙婁埂鏉戝湴鐞嗗鐮旂┒棰嗗煙, 瀵硅鐜拌薄鐨勭爺绌堕噸瑙嗗埢鐢讳笌鎻忚堪鍏剁┖闂村垎甯冩牸灞�銆佹祦鍔ㄨ繃绋嬪強缁忔祹鍘熷洜璇卞彂鐨勬祦鍔ㄥ師鍥犵殑鍒嗘瀽[155, 156, 157], 鑰屽叾鑳屽悗璇卞彂鐨勫師鍥犲叿浣撴槸浠�涔�?鍙堜細閫犳垚浜哄彛杩佺Щ鐩殑鍦般�佹潵婧愬湴鍙婃祦鍔ㄧぞ浼氱┖闂寸殑鍝簺鍙樺寲?涓烘, 搴旈噸鐐瑰叧娉ㄤ互涓嬪唴瀹癸細鈶� 绉绘皯缇や綋娴佸姩鎬х殑绀句細鏂囧寲绌洪棿鐢熶骇涓庡啀鐢熶骇鐮旂┒, 鍒嗘瀽杩佺Щ浜哄彛娴佸姩绌洪棿銆佸仠椹诲湴鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栫粨鏋勭粍鎴愩�佸嚌鑱氫笌娑堣В鐨勮繍琛屾満鍒朵笌褰卞搷鏈虹悊銆傗憽 浼犵粺鑺傚簡鍋囨棩鏈熼棿, 鍦版柟鎰忚薄鍙婂湴鏂规劅鏄浣曞奖鍝嶅煄涔′笌鍖哄煙浜哄彛杩佺Щ鐨勩�傗憿 涓浗浜哄嚭澧冩梾娓告墍褰㈡垚鐨勫井绀句細鏂囧寲绌洪棿鏄浣曞祵鍏ュ紓璐ㄦ枃鍖栫ぞ浼氱┖闂寸殑, 鍏跺尮閰嶅叧绯绘槸浠�涔�, 瀵圭洰鐨勫湴绀句細鏂囧寲绌洪棿鍙樺紓浼氫細閫犳垚浣曠褰卞搷銆�

5 缁撹

绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪涓浗鐨勫彂灞曢渶瑕佹敞閲嶇煡璇嗚础鐚殑鏅�傛��, 浣嗘洿搴旀敞閲嶄腑鍥借嚜韬殑绀句細鏂囧寲鐗硅川銆傚姹熻帀鑾夋墍瑷�, 涓浗鐨勭ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鑰呴渶瑕佸彂灞曠鍚堜腑鍥介渶姹傜殑鐮旂┒鎬濊矾鍜屾柟娉�, 鍦ㄦ帹杩�“ 鍥介檯鍖栫殑銆佸寘瀹圭殑” 鐮旂┒鎬濊矾鍜屾柟娉曞彂灞曡繃绋嬩腑, 绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪涓浗鐨勭爺绌堕渶瑕佽�冭檻涓浗鎵�闈复鐨勪竴绯诲垪閲嶅ぇ闂, 缁欏嚭鏈夌敤鐨勭瓟妗�, 骞跺鍑烘柊鐨勭悊璁鸿鐐�[23]銆傜瑪鑰呰涓�, 璇ヨ繃绋嬩腑闇�瑕佸叧娉ㄤ腑鍥借嚜韬彂灞曞瑙傝寰嬩笌涓讳綋閫夋嫨鐨勮京璇佺粺涓�, 闇�瑕佹敞閲嶅湴鐞嗗鐞嗚鏅亶鍘熺悊涓庝腑鍥藉叿浣撳疄璺电殑杈╄瘉缁熶竴, 闇�瑕佸叧娉�“ 浜哄湴鍏崇郴” 涓�鑸繘绋嬩笌鐗规畩浣滅敤鏉′欢鐨勮京璇佺粺涓�, 鏇村簲浣撶幇鍑轰腑鍥芥椂浠d富棰樺彉鍖栦笌鑷韩鍙戝睍闇�瑕佺殑杈╄瘉缁熶竴銆傚悓鏃�, 闄や簡涓婃枃涓墍鎻愬嚭鐨勫嚑涓噸鐐瑰叧娉ㄩ鍩熷, 涓浗鐨勭幆澧冩薄鏌撻棶棰樸��“ 鏈瘜鍏堣��” 鐨勭幇璞°�佽法鍥界ぞ浼氭枃鍖栦氦娴佷笌鍖哄煙浜夌绛夐兘搴旇绉瀬绾冲叆绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐮旂┒棰嗗煙, 浠ュ洖搴旂幇瀹為渶姹�, 骞跺皾璇曟�荤粨鍑烘柊鐨勭爺绌剁粨璁轰笌瑙勫緥, 鍏呭疄骞舵墿灞曠ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鏁翠綋鐨勬秹鐚庢繁搴︿笌骞垮害銆�

娣卞叆鍒嗘瀽绀句細鏂囧寲鍦扮悊瀛﹀湪瑗挎柟鐨勫彂灞曞巻绋嬩笉闅惧彂鐜�, 鍏剁爺绌跺熀鏈兘鑱氱劍浜庡“ 绉戞妧涓庢枃鍖�” 銆�“ 浼犵粺涓庣幇浠�” 銆�“ 鐞嗘�т笌鎰熸��” 銆�“ 骞崇瓑涓庨湼鏉�” 銆�“ 涓栦織涓庣鍦�” 绛夌ぞ浼氭枃鍖栨紨鍙樿繃绋嬩腑鏅亶瀛樺湪鐨勪簩鍏冨绔嬩笌鐭涚浘銆傝繖浜涘绔嬩笌鐭涚浘鐩墠鏄惁鏅亶瀛樺湪浜庝腑鍥界ぞ浼氫腑鍛�?绛旀鏄偗瀹氱殑銆傚叾鍘熷洜鍦ㄤ簬, 20涓栫邯浠ユ潵鐨勪腑鍥芥槸绯荤粺鍖栦簡鐨勪汉绫讳笘鐣岀殑鍩烘湰鐭涚浘鏈�闆嗕腑銆佹渶灏栭攼銆佹渶澶嶆潅鐨勫湴鍖轰箣涓�, 鏃犺鍓嶅崐鏈熺殑姘戞棌瑙f斁杩愬姩, 杩樻槸鍚庡崐鏈熺殑鐜颁唬鍖栧缓璁�, 鍏跺鏉傛�ч兘鏄彶鏃犲墠渚嬬殑[158]銆傚灏嗕笂杩扮煕鐩句笌闂鏀剧疆浜庣ぞ浼氭枃鍖栧湴鐞嗗鐨勭爺绌惰寖鐣�, 鍥炲綊鍦扮悊瀛︾殑鐮旂┒鏈簮, 鎴戜滑浠嶉渶鎬濊��“ 绀句細涓庤嚜鐒�” 銆�“ 绌洪棿涓庡湴鏂�” 銆�“ 鍖哄煙涓庡叏鐞�” 銆�“ 缁撴瀯涓庤兘鍔�” 銆�“ 绫诲悓涓庡樊寮�” 銆�“ 鎯宠薄涓庣幇瀹�” 绛変紶缁熺殑鍦扮悊瀛︾爺绌跺懡棰樸�備笂杩板绔嬩笌鐭涚浘鐨勬湁鏁堣В鍐�, 鏉ヨ嚜鍦扮悊瀛﹁�呭鎱庣殑“ 鍙嶆��” 涓�“ 閬撳痉” 鐨勫钩琛°��

鑷磋阿锛氬懆灏氭剰鏁欐巿涓庢湵绔戞暀鎺堝鏂囩珷鐨勫垎鏋愭鏋剁殑寤鸿銆傛挵鏂囪繃绋嬩腑, 鍖椾含甯堣寖澶у鐨勬埓淇婇獘鍗氬+涓庡崕鍗楀笀鑼冨ぇ瀛﹂挶淇婂笇鍗氬+鎻愪緵浜嗙浉鍏崇殑鍙傞槄璧勬枡, 鐮旂┒鐢熸潨娑涖�佽敽鍥戒紵鍜屽紶缈犲鍒濇鎼滈泦浜嗙浉鍏虫枃鐚��

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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