1.School of Urban Design, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China 2. Guangzhou Planning & Design Survey Research Institute, Guangzhou 510030, China; 3. School of Architecture and Design, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China 4. Beijing Urban Quadrant Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 100055, China 5. International Finance Institute, Bank of China, Beijing 100818, China
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the relationship between built environment factors within station pedestrian catchment areas and urban rail transit (URT) commuting ridership. In this paper, the rational pedestrian catchment areas was studied from the perspective of potential commuters. Based on a case-study of 44 URT stations in Beijing, big data method was adopted to collect point data of population from 'Yichuxing', an internet application. In addition, relative values of relative riding rate were obtained by combining point data and rail transit one-card pass data during peak time within 10 working days in September 2017. In view of the abnormal distribution of data, a GARCH model was established to analyze the interactions between station relative riding rate and built environment factors within rational pedestrian catchment areas. The study results showed that (1) there is a notable positive correlation between URT relative riding rate and initial station, and negative interaction between station relative riding rate and transfer probability of station; (2) there is a strong positive relationship between relative riding rate and exit numbers of station; (3) there are no explicit relationships between conditions of station relative riding rate and walkable factors such as residential-station footpath turn times and cross numbers within rational catchment areas, whereas positive relationship was observed between station relative riding rate and bus stop density within rational pedestrian catchment areas; (4) significant negative correlation can be found between relative riding rate and land use mixture; (5) there are positive correlations among station relative riding rate and density of road network, congested road proportion in morning peak hours in varying degree; (6) there is an ambiguous and intricate relationship between bike-sharing order quantities and URT relative riding rate; (7) compared to cellular signaling data, "Yichuxing" point data showed higher accuracy and applicability in terms of the analysis of demographic distribution and micro-scale changes.
. 轨道站点合理步行可达范围建成环境与轨道通勤的关系研究——以北京市44个轨道站点为例[J]. 地理学报,
2018, 73(12): 2423-2439.
ZHANG Chun et al
. Relationship between built environment of rational pedestrian catchment areas and URT commuting ridership: Evidence from 44 URT stations in Beijing[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,
2018, 73(12): 2423-2439.
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The travel patterns and travel mode choice of the elderly are analyzed. The elderly are here defined as those who are both 65 or older and retired. A rapid increase in the older population and their proportion in society has tremendous implications for transportation planning and the policy arena. Previous studies on mode choice have been largely focused on working-age people, and existing studies on the travel mode choice of the elderly are limited to descriptive analyses. A systematic analysis is presented of the mode choice of the elderly and how it relates to activity purpose. It is found that neighborhood and trip characteristics, as well as personal and household characteristics, are associated with the mode choice of this group. For example, the elderly are more likely to use transit if they live within five blocks of a bus stop, and they are more likely to share a ride with others when chaining trips, doing errands, or going to a medical appointment and are less likely to use transit when going shopping or doing errands. The elderly prefer walking when going on recreational or personal trips. Those with a higher income are more likely to drive or carpool. The results shed light on the mode choice of the elderly and contribute to the development of a transportation policy framework that considers the elderly. The results suggest that transportation strategies must move beyond private automobiles to prepare adequately for the increasing number of the elderly in society and their mobility needs.
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The percentage of the population being served by a transit system in a metropolitan region is a key system performance measure but depends heavily on the definition of service area. Observing existing service areas can help identify transit system gaps and redundancies. In the public transit industry, buffers at 400 m (0.25 miles) around bus stops and 800 m (0.5 miles) around rail stations are commonly used to identify the area from which most transit users will access the system by foot. This study uses detailed OD survey information to generate service areas that define walking catchment areas around transit services in Montreal, Canada. The 85th percentile walking distance to bus transit service is found to be around 524 m for home-based trip origins, 1,259 m for home-based commuter rail trip origins. Yet these values are found to vary based on our analysis using two statistical models. Walking distances vary based on route and trip qualities (such as type of transit service, transfers and wait time), as well as personal, household, and neighbourhood characteristics. Accordingly, service areas around transit stations should vary based on the service offered and attributes of the people and places served. The generated service areas derived from the generalized statistical model are then used to identify gaps and redundancies at the system and route level using Montreal region as an example. This study can be of benefit to transport engineers and planners trying to maximize transit service coverage in a region while avoiding oversupply of service.
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Problem, research strategy, and findings: Metropolitan planning organizations attempt to shape urban form at the regional and metropolitan scale, including the pattern of suburban centers. How do these efforts change behavior? Our study informs that question by way of a new family of urban form metrics summarizing the polycentric structure of U.S. metropolitan areas. Using a spatial statistical approach, these measures are sensitive to the size, amount, and location of suburban centers. The article then tests the influence of these structures on commute times nationally from 1970 to 2000. Takeaway for practice: The influence of development densities on travel in sprawling regions is more complicated than previously understood or measured. While the level of both neighborhood density and regional density explain average commuting times, density also works relatively. The spatial variation of density, the density of suburban centers relative to the region, and the spatial distribution of high-density nodes each appear to play distinct roles in influencing travel. Research support: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Institute for Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering.
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This empirical study examines the impact of the jobs-housing balance on individual commuting time in Beijing in the period of transformation of the Chinese economy and society. The results of the analysis show that the jobs-housing balance has a statistically significant association with a worker’s commuting time when the factors of transport accessibility, population density and worker’s socioeconomic characteristics are controlled. The higher the jobs-housing balance, the shorter the worker’s commuting time. The finding suggests that the jobs-housing balance still has significant implications for commuting time, although the recent market-oriented reforms in housing are changing the jobs-housing balance in the danwei system that prevailed in the socialist era. As the housing markets are imperfect, with strong government intervention in Beijing, the finding implies that the co-location hypothesis – which believes development management would create ‘barriers’ to a jobs-housing balance and increase commuting time – needs to be rethought before it can be generalized and applied to China’s cities. The results of the analysis also show that the workers living in danwei housing still have shorter commuting time. The finding indicates that the housing marketization is likely to induce a local jobs-housing imbalance and thereby increase commuting time. In this sense, a deterioration in the jobs-housing imbalance and increased commuting time in Beijing may owe much to the adoption of market-based housing supply.
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Transportation and urban planners are increasingly viewing land-use policy as a way to manage travel demand. Yet the evidence on the link between land use and travel behavior is inconclusive. This paper uses travel diary data for southern California residents to examine the link between land-use patterns at the neighborhood level and non-work trip generation for a sample of individuals. The number of non-work automobile trips that an individual makes in a specified period is modeled as a function of sociodemographic variables and land-use characteristics relative to the person's place of residence. Findings suggest the importance of both controlling for residential location choice and using different levels of geographic detail when studying the link between land use and travel behavior.
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The Greater South East England region of the UK constitutes a “global mega-city region”. The UK Government’s 2003 Sustainable Communities strategy proposes major new growth centres in South East England at Ashford, Milton Keynes, Stansted, Cambridge and Thames Gateway. These, along with the upgrade of the West Coast Main Line in 2004 and the completion of the Channel Tunnel Rail Link in 2007, could have major impacts on commuting patterns. To understand the effect of these changes on commute distance and mode choice, the relationships between travel-to-work patterns and socio-economic and land-use characteristics are examined. The analysis suggests that the creation of the new growth centres may result in increased car use but is unlikely to result in longer journeys to work.
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In this study, we employ spatial regression analysis to empirically investigate the impacts of land use, rail service coverage, and rail station accessibility on rail transit ridership in the city of Seoul and the surrounding metropolitan region. Our analyses suggest that a rail transit service coverage boundary of 500m provides the best fit for estimating rail transit ridership levels. With regard to land use, our results confirm that density is positively related to rail transit ridership within a 750m radius of each station. In contrast, land use diversity is not associated with rail transit ridership. We also found that station-level accessibility is as important as land use for explaining rail transit ridership levels. Finally, we conclude that development density and station-level accessibility measures such as the number of station entrances or exits and the number of bus routes at the station are the most important and consistent factors for promoting rail transit ridership.
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