The stream-power incision model shows that a bedrock channel longitudinal profile is characterized by a smooth, concave-up shape at the steady state, and its characteristics reflect the influences from external forces, such as tectonics, climate, and rock resistance. However, most of the natural rivers present a transient state characterized by knickpoints on longitudinal profiles, which can also infer the influences from external forces. Widespread knickpoints at high altitudes on river longitudinal profiles along the Zoulang Nan Shan (mountain), which is a part of northern Qilian Mountains, provide a particular case for studies on the factor affecting the disequilibrium profile. The analysis of the knickpoints indicates that the formation of the knickpoint at high altitudes is not influenced by lithology, climate and/or tectonics. By comparing the plaeo-glaicial evidences, we proposed that the high-altitude knickpoint reflects the boundary between residual glacier valleys and fluvial channels. The result suggests that we should pay more attention to the inheritance landform by ancient glaciation when analyzing the knickpoint located at high altitudes. This study would greatly increase the knowledge about the geomorphic evolution on high mountain ranges along orogenic belts.
. 走廊南山河流纵剖面高海拔裂点的成因[J]. 地理学报,
2018, 73(9): 1702-1713.
. The cause of high-altitude knickpoints on river longitudinal profiles along the Zoulang Nan Shan[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,
2018, 73(9): 1702-1713.
Howard AD, Dietrich WE, Seidl MA.Modeling fluvial erosion on regional to continental scales. , 1994, 99: 13971-13986.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1029/94JB00744
The fluvial system is a major concern in modeling landform evolution in response to tectonic deformation. Three stream bed types (bedrock, coarse-bed alluvial, and fine-bed alluvial) differ in factors controlling their occurrence and evolution and in appropriate modeling approaches. Spatial and temporal transitions among bed types occur in response to changes in sediment characteristics and tectonic deformation. Erosion in bedrock channels depends upon the ability to scour or pluck bed material; this detachment capacity is often a power function of drainage area and gradient. Exposure of bedrock in channel beds, due to rapid downcutting or resistant rock, slows the response of headwater catchments to downstream baselevel changes. Sediment routing through alluvial channels must account for supply from slope erosion, transport rates, abrasion, and sorting. In regional landform modeling, implicit rate laws must be developed for sediment production from erosion of sub-grid-scale slopes and small channels.
The generally regular three-dimensional geometry of drainage02networks is the basis for a simple method of terrain analysis02providing clues to bedrock conditions and other factors that determine02topographic forms. On a reach of any stream, a gradient-index value can02be obtained which allows meaningful comparisons of channel slope on02streams of different sizes. The index is believed to reflect stream power02or competence and is simply the product of the channel slope at a point02and channel length measured along the longest stream above the pointwhere the calculation is made. In an adjusted topography, changes in02gradient-index values along a stream generally correspond to differences02in bedrock or introduced load. In any landscape the gradient index of a02stream is related to total relief and stream regimen. Thus, climate,02tectonic events, and geomorphic history must be considered in using02the gradient index. Gradient-index values can be obtained quickly by02simple measurements on topographic maps, or they can be obtained by02more sophisticated photogrammetric measurements that involve simple02computer calculations from x, y, z coordinates.
Flint JJ.Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude, and discharge. , 1974, 10: 969-973.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1029/WR010i005p00969
The downstream change in the average channel gradient derived from order data can be expressed in terms of either area or discharge in the form of a power function. Similarly, the average channel profile based on link slope can be related to link magnitude or discharge in the form of a power equation. Finally, from the downstream hydraulic geometry equation the change in stream gradient can be expressed in terms of discharge or area as a power function. Because these relations are identical in form and in their independent parameters, rates of change in slope obtained by all three approaches should be equivalent. The rates of change in stream gradient derived from the power functions above yield almost identical averages for entire channel networks. The order data give a rate of -0.63, whereas link slope exponents average -0.60. These values are well within the range of variation for published data obtained for the hydraulic geometry equation (averages between -0.49 and 0.95) and may represent a quasi-equilibrium tendency for entire fluvial systems.
Whipple KX, Tucker GE.Dynamics of the stream-power river incision model: Implications for height limits of mountain ranges, landscape response timescales, and research needs. , 1999, 104: 17661-17674.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1029/1999JB900120
Duvall AR, KirbyE, Burbank DW.Tectonic and lithologic controls on bedrock channel profiles and processes in coastal California. , 2004, 109: F03002. doi: 10.1029/2003JF000086.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003JF000086/full
 Recent theoretical models suggest that topographic characteristics of bedrock channels are products of interactions among tectonics, substrate resistance, and the climatically modulated erosive ability of the river. The degree to which these factors influence the form of channel profiles is poorly quantified at present. Here we investigate bedrock channels developed across the southern flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains, California. Uniform climate and systematic variations in lithology and rock uplift rate along the range allow comparison of channel morphology between (1) channels eroding rocks of uniform and nonuniform strength and (2) channels experiencing differences in tectonic forcing. We combine field observations, surveys, and analysis of digital data to determine topographic and hydraulic characteristics of bedrock channels. At a constant rock uplift rate, streams flowing from resistant to less resistant bedrock exhibit highly concave profiles and increased gradients along lower reaches relative to channels developed in uniform bedrock. These effects are interpreted as responses to (1) an increase in substrate resistance to channel incision in the upper reaches and (2) transport-limited gradients along lower reaches. Comparisons of channels developed across uniform lithology but experiencing an approximately sevenfold difference in rock uplift rate reveal an approximately twofold increase in gradient and an approximately threefold decrease in width. In this landscape the combined channel adjustments of gradient and width are consistent with a fluvial incision model in which channel incision rate is linearly proportional to mean bed shear stress.
DiBiase RA, Whipple KX, Heimsath AM, et al. Landscape form and millennial erosion rates in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA. , 2010, 289(1/2): 134-144.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0012821X09006451
It has been long hypothesized that topography, as well as climate and rock strength, exert first order controls on erosion rates. Here we use detrital cosmogenic 10Be from 50 basins, ranging in size from 1 to 150 km 2, to measure millennial erosion rates across the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California, where a strong E gradient in relief compared to weak variation in precipitation and lithology allow us to isolate the relationship between topographic form and erosion rate. Our erosion rates range from 35 to 1100 m/Ma, and generally agree with both decadal sediment fluxes and long term exhumation rates inferred from low temperature thermochronometry. Catchment-mean hillslope angle increases with erosion rate until 300 m/Ma, at which point slopes become invariant with erosion rate. Although this sort of relation has been offered as support for non-linear models of soil transport, we use 1-D analytical hillslope profiles derived from existing soil transport laws to show that a model with soil flux linear in slope, but including a slope stability threshold, is indistinguishable from a non-linear law within the scatter of our data. Catchment-mean normalized channel steepness index increases monotonically, though non-linearly, with erosion rate throughout the San Gabriel Mountains, even where catchment-mean hillslope angles have reached a threshold. This non-linearity can be mostly accounted for by a stochastic threshold incision model, though additional factors likely contribute to the observed relationship between channel steepness and erosion rate. These findings substantiate the claim that the normalized channel steepness index is an important topographic metric in active ranges.
Whipple KX.Bedrock rivers and the geomorphology of active orogens. , 2004, 32(1): 151-185.http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev.earth.32.101802.120356
Bedrock rivers set much of the relief structure of active orogens and dictate rates and patterns of denudation. Quantitative understanding of the role of climate-driven denudation in the evolution of unglaciated orogens depends first and foremost on knowledge of fluvial erosion processes and the factors that control incision rate. The results of intense research in the past decade are reviewed here, with the aim of highlighting remaining unknowns and suggesting fruitful avenues for further research. This review considers in turn (a) the occurrence and morphology of bedrock channels and their relation to tectonic setting; (b) the physical processes of fluvial incision into rock; and (c) models of river incision, their implications, and the field and laboratory data needed to test, refine, and extend them.
KirbyE, Whipple KX.Expression of active tectonics in erosional landscapes. , 2012, 44: 54-75.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0191814112001691
Understanding the manner and degree to which topography in active mountain ranges reflects deformation of the Earth's surface remains a first order goal of tectonic geomorphology. A substantial body of research in the past decade demonstrates that incising channel systems play a central role in setting relationships among topographic relief, differential rock uplift rate, and climatically modulated erosional efficiency. This review provides an introduction to the analysis and interpretation of channel profiles in erosional mountain ranges. We show that existing data support theoretical expectations of positive, monotonic relationships between channel steepness index, a measure of channel gradient normalized for downstream increases in drainage area, and erosion rate at equilibrium, and that the transient response to perturbations away from equilibrium engenders specific spatial patterns in channel profiles that can be used to infer aspects of the forcing. These aspects of channel behavior lay the foundation for a series of case studies that we use to illustrate how focused, quantitative analysis of channel morphology can provide insight into the spatial and temporal dynamics of active deformation. Although the complexities of river response to climate, lithology, and uplift patterns mean that multiple interpretations of topographic data alone will always possible, we show that application of stream profile analysis can be a powerful reconnaissance tool with which to interrogate the rates and patterns of deformation in active mountain belts.
Snyder NP, Whipple KX, Tucker GE, et al.Landscape response to tectonic forcing: Digital elevation model analysis of stream profiles in the Mendocino triple junction region, northern California. , 2000, 112: 1250-1263.https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsabulletin/article/112/8/1250-1263/183652
Despite intensive research into the coupling between tectonics and surface processes, our ability to obtain quantitative information on the rates of tectonic processes from topography remains limited due primarily to a dearth of data with which to test and calibrate process rate laws. Here we develop a simple theory for the impact of spatially variable rock-uplift rate on the concavity of bedrock river profiles. Application of the analysis to the Siwalik Hills of central Nepal demonstrates that systematic differences in the concavity of channels in this region match the predictions of a stream power incision model and depend on the position and direction of the channel relative to gradients in the vertical component of deformation rate across an active fault-bend fold. Furthermore, calibration of model parameters from channel profiles argued to be in steady state with the current climatic and tectonic regime indicates that (1) the ratio of exponents on channel drainage area and slope (m/n) is 0.46, consistent with theoretical predictions; (2) the slope exponent is consistent with incision either linearly proportional to shear stress or unit stream power (n = 0.66 or n = 1, respectively); and (3) the coefficient of erosion is within the range of previously published estimates (mean K = 4.3 10m/yr). Application of these model parameters to other channels in the Siwalik Hills yields estimates of spatially variable erosion rates that mimic expected variations in rock-uplift rate across a fault-bend fold. Thus, the sensitivity of channel gradient to rock- uplift rate in this landscape allows us to derive quantitative estimates of spatial variations in erosion rate directly from topographic data.
Snyder NP, Whipple KX, Tucker GE, et al.Importance of a stochastic distribution of floods and erosion thresholds in the bedrock river incision problem. , 2003, 108. doi: 10.1029/2001JB001655.
WangYizhou, ZhangHuiping, ZhengDewen, et al.How a stationary knickpoint is sustained: New insights into the formation of the deep Yarlung Tsangpo Gorge. , 2017, 285: 28-43.https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169555X16307620
Cyr AJ, Granger DE, OlivettiV, et al.Distinguishing between tectonic and lithologic controls on bedrock channel longitudinal profiles using cosmogenic 10Be erosion rates and channel steepness index. , 2014, 209: 27-38.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169555X13006107
Whittaker AC.How do landscapes record tectonics and climate? , 2012, 4(2): 160-164.http://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/lithosphere/article/4/2/160/145621/How-do-landscapes-record-tectonics-and-climate
The Earth9s surface is shaped by tectonics and climate. This simple statement implies that we should, in principle, be able to use the landscape as an archive of both tectonic rates and of changes to climate regime. To solve this inverse problem, and decipher the geomorphic record effectively, we need a sound understanding of how landscapes respond and erode in response to changes in tectonic or climatic boundary conditions. Rivers have been a major focus of research in this field because they are patently sensitive to tectonic and climatic forcing via their channel gradient and discharge. Theoretical, field, and numerical modeling techniques in the last few years have produced a wealth of insight into the behavior of fluvial landscapes, while the increasing availability of high-resolution topographic models have provided the data sets necessary to address this research challenge across the globe. New work by Miller et al. (2012) in Papua New Guinea highlights the progress we have made in extracting tectonics from topography due to these developments, but also illustrates the problems that still remain. This paper reviews our current knowledge of how fluvial landscapes record tectonics at topographic steady-state and under ransient conditions, assesses why the climate signal has proven so challenging to interpret, and maps out where we need to go in the future.
Wallace RE.Degradation of the Hebgen Lake fault scaps of 1959. , 1980, 8: 225-229.https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/geology/article/8/5/225-229/195652
Scarps changed noticeably in 19yr although they still appeared remarkably fresh in 1978. They have degraded much more rapidly than have those produced in 1915 and 1954 in Nevada, but a quasi-stable slope of more than 40o characterizes the Hebgen Lake scarps as compared to an upper limit of 37o on the Nevada scarps. -Author
MacGregor KR, Anderson RS, Anderson SP, et al. Numerical simulations of glacial-valley longitudinal profile evolution. , 2000, 28(11): 1031-1034.https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/geology/article/28/11/1031-1034/190991
Anderson RS, MolnarP, Kellser MA.Features of glacial valley profiles simply explained. , 2006, 111: F01004. doi: 10.1029/2005JF000344.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2005JF000344/pdf
 Glacial occupation of alpine valleys results in a distinct signature in the long-valley profile, including steepening of the profile in the headwaters, flattening at lower elevations, and a step in the profile at the convergence of headwater tributaries. We present analytic results for glacial erosion patterns by making the following assumptions: (1) the initial profile is linear, (2) the width of the valley is uniform, (3) the annual mass balance varies linearly with elevation, (4) the glacier at any time is quasi-steady, (5) the erosion rate is proportional to ice discharge per unit valley width, and (6) glacial erosion rates far exceed fluvial erosion rates. A steady glacier under these conditions would erode a parabolic divot in the longitudinal valley profile, with its maximum depth coinciding with the down-valley position of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The calculated flattening of the valley floor down valley of the ELA and the steepening of it up valley captures the essence of the glacial signature. When a reasonable probability distribution of ELAs is allowed, the predicted erosion peaks at 30 40% of the down-valley distance to the glacial limit, and the pattern merges smoothly with the steeper fluvial profile downstream of the glacial limit. Profiles of mass balance that are capped at a maximum value produce shorter glaciers and a slight asymmetry in the expected erosion pattern. Only when we mimic the tributaries of glacial headwaters by specifying a valley width distribution do we obtain the upper step observed in many valley profiles.
Brocklehurst SH, Whipple KX.Response of glacial landscapes to spatial variations in rock uplift rate. , 2007, 112: F02035. doi: 10.1029/2006JF000667.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006JF000667/full
 The response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift, driven by tectonic convergence, is an important, often neglected, aspect of proposed interactions between plate tectonic processes and climate change. Rivers typically respond to more rapid rock uplift in part through increasing channel gradients. In contrast, the 090008glacial buzzsaw090009 hypothesis suggests that glaciers can erode as quickly as the fastest rock uplift rates (609000910 mm/yr) without any increase in mean elevations. However, it has not been established how this is achieved. We examined moving window maps, swath and longitudinal profiles, hillslope relief, and hypsometry for glacierized and formerly glacierized basins in areas of spatially variable rock uplift rate in the Southern Alps, New Zealand, and around Nanga Parbat, Pakistan, to determine whether glaciers have a specific response to rapid rock uplift. The response of these glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift (609000910 mm/yr) comprises (1) modest steepening of the longitudinal profiles in smaller glaciated basins, (2) maintenance of shallow downvalley slopes in larger glaciated basins (>09080430 km2, Southern Alps; >090804100 km2, Nanga Parbat), (3) development of tall headwalls, and (4) steepening of the basin as a whole, dominated by hillslope lengthening. Around Nanga Parbat, headwalls several kilometers high constitute >50% of the basin relief. At rapid rock uplift rates, although glaciers can incise the valley floor swiftly, they cannot prevent headwalls from reaching exceptional heights. The associated increase in mean distance between cirque heads (i.e., a decrease in drainage density) causes regional mean elevation to rise with increasing rock uplift rate. However, this is much less than the changes in elevation expected in unglaciated ranges.
BrardinoniF, Hassan MA.Glacially-induced organization of channel-reach morphology in mountain streams. , 2007, 112: F03013. doi: 10.1029/ 2006JF000741.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006JF000741/full
 We examine the spatial distribution of channel-reach morphologies in formerly glaciated mountain drainage basins of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Using field- and geographic information systems-derived data, we show that the local channel slope and the degree of colluvial-alluvial coupling imposed by the glacial valley morphology dictate the spatial organization of channel types. In particular, the complex, glacially induced channel long profile produces characteristic sequences of channel reaches that depart from the downstream succession (colluvial/boulder-cascade/step-pool/rapids/riffle-pool) distinctive of simple unglaciated mountain streams. Typically, the presence of one hanging valley in the river long profile produces and separates two full successions of channel types: a headmost one characterized by an ephemeral/seasonal hydrologic regime and a downstream one, where water runoff is perennial. We document that channel types are well separated in plots of slope versus shear stress, area versus shear stress, and slope versus relative roughness. In agreement with these outcomes, multivariate discriminant analyses coupled with principal component analysis of 98 study reaches yield a highly successful channel-type classification when slope, shear stress, and relative roughness are considered. Success rates, depending on whether or not boulder-cascade reaches are pooled together with step-pools, are 88% and 75%, respectively. Previous work in unglaciated settings has suggested that mountain channels have distinct bed morphology states that vary primarily with slope; our study reveals that even in formerly glaciated valleys, where slope is largely inherited from glacial times, these distinct bed states exist and vary (mostly) with slope, adding considerable strength to this empirical knowledge.
HuXiaofei, PanBaotian, KirbyE, et al.Spatial differences in rock uplift rates inferred from channel steepness indices along the northern flank of the Qilian Mountain, northeast Tibetan Plateau. , 2010, 23: 2329-2338.
HetzelR., TaoM, StokesS, et al. Late Pleistocene/Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. , 2004, 23: TC6006. doi: 10.1029/2004TC001653.
ShiYafeng, ZhaoJingdong, WangJie, et al.Shanghai: Shanghai Popular Science Press, 2011.
[施雅风, 赵井东, 王杰, 等. . 上海: 上海科学普及出版社, 2011.]
LiuZechun.Quaternary glaciations in Qilian Mountains. , 1963, 2: 33-48.
[刘泽纯. 祁连山的第四纪与冰川作用. , 1963, 2: 33-53.]
GuoPengfei.Study on Quaternary glaciations in the middle section of Qilian Mountains. , 1984, 6(1): 6-15.
[郭鹏飞. 祁连山中东段地区第四纪冰期探讨. , 1980, 6(1): 6-15.]
ZhaoJingdong, ZhouShangzhe, Cui Jianxinet al. ESR chronology of Bailanghe valley and new understanding of Qilianshan Mountain's Quaternary glaciation. , 2001, 19(6): 481-488.
ZhouShangzhe, LiJijun, Zhang Shiqiang. Quaternary glaciation of the Bailang River Valley, Qilian Shan. , 2002, 97/98: 103-110.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1040618202000551
The Qilian Shan, on the Northeast margin of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, is weakly influenced by the Asian monsoon. Until recently, the Quaternary glacial geology of this region has been poorly understood. This paper describes a sequence of Quaternary glacial deposits in the upper reaches of the Bailang River. Using electron spin resonance (ESR), thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon dating, tills, loess, buried soils and landforms were dated. The oldest till was dated 65463 ka BP by ESR. A younger till and its outwash terrace were dated to 65135 and 130 ka BP. The loess on this outwash terrace was dated to 141.7±11.4 ka BP at its base and 43.7±3.5 ka BP in its central part by TL dating. A buried soil on a younger till was dated at 6920±78 ka BP using 14C. The glacial landforms and these dating results show that glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age, the Neoglacial, MIS 2–4, MIS 6, and MIS 12. Glaciation during MIS 12 implies that the Qilian Mountains were rising coevally with the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, and were probably at a sufficient elevation for glaciation since at least 463 ka BP.
Owee LA, Spencer JQ, MAH, et al.Timing of Late Quaternary glaciation along the southwestern slopes of the Qilian Shan. , 2003, 32: 281-291.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1080/03009480310001632
Moraines along the southwestern slopes of the Qilian Shan were dated using cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface exposure techniques to help define the timing of glaciation in northernmost Tibet. The CRN data show glaciers extending 5–10 km beyond their present positions during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and probably maintained at their maximum extent until the Lateglacial. These data help support the view that glaciers throughout Tibet and the Himalaya were maintained at or near their maximum LGM extent until the Lateglacial. An optically stimulated luminescence date of 11.8 ± 1.0 ka on silt that caps a latero-frontal moraine shows that glaciers had retreated significantly by the end of the Pleistocene and that loess was beginning to form in this region in response to the changing climate during and after the Younger Dryas Stade.
YuanDaoyang, ZhangPeizhen, LiuBaichi, et al.Geometrical imagery and tectonic transformation of Late Quaternary active tectonics in northeastern margin of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. , 2004, 78(2): 270-278.
SklarL, Dietrich WE.River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply//Tinkler K J, Wohl E E. Rivers Over Rock: Fluvial Processes in Bedrock Channels. . Washington DC: AGU Press, 1998, 107: 237-260.
Wobus CW, Whipple KX, KirbyE, et al.Tectonics from topography: Procedure, promise, and pitfalls. , 2006, 398: 55-74.http://www.researchgate.net/publication/228740545_Tectonics_from_topography_Procedures_promise_and_pitfalls
Abstract content prepared wholly by U.S. government employees within scope of their employment. Individual scientists are hereby granted permission, without fees or further requests to GSA, to use a single figure, a single table, and/or a brief paragraph of text in other subsequent works and to make unlimited copies for noncommercial use in classrooms to further education and science. For any other use, contact Copyright Permissions, GSA, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301-9140, USA, fax 303-357-1073, email@example.com. GSA provides this and other forums for the presentation of diverse opinions and positions by scientists worldwide, regardless of their race, citizenship, gender, religion, or political viewpoint. Opinions presented in this publication do not reflect official positions of the Society. ABSTRACT Empirical observations from fluvial systems across the globe reveal a consistent power-law scaling between channel slope and contributing drainage area. Theoretical arguments for both detachment-and transport-limited erosion regimes suggest that rock uplift rate should exert first-order control on this scaling. Here we describe in detail a method for exploiting this relationship, in which topographic indices of lon-gitudinal profile shape and character are derived from digital topographic data. The stream profile data can then be used to delineate breaks in scaling that may be asso-ciated with tectonic boundaries. The description of the method is followed by three case studies from varied tectonic settings. The case studies illustrate the power of stream profile analysis in delineating spatial patterns of, and in some cases, temporal changes in, rock uplift rate. Owing to an incomplete understanding of river response to rock uplift, the method remains primarily a qualitative tool for neotectonic investi-gations; we conclude with a discussion of research needs that must be met before we can extract quantitative information about tectonics directly from topography.
Cyr AJ, Granger DE, OlivettiV, et al.Quantifying rock uplift rates using channel steepness and cosmogenic nuclide-determined erosion rates: Examples from northern and southern Italy. , 2010, 2(3): 188-198.http://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/lithosphere/article/2/3/188/145553/Quantifying-rock-uplift-rates-using-channel
OlivettiV, Cyr AJ, MolinP, et al. Uplift history of the Sila Massif, southern Italy, deciphered from cosmogenic 10Be erosion rates and river longitudinal profile analysis. , 2012, 31(3): TC3007. doi: 10.1029/2011TC003037.
Scott RM, Sak PB, KirbyE, et al. Neogene rejuvenation of central Appalachian topography: Evidence for differential rock uplift from stream profiles and erosion rates., 2013, 369-370: 1-12.
MolinP, CortiG.Topography, river network and recent fault activity at the margins of the Central Main Ethiopian Rift (East Africa). , 2015, 664: 67-82.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0040195115004801
JiangWenliang, HanZhujun, ZhangJingfa, et al.Stream profile analysis, tectonic geomorphology and neotectonic activity of the Damxung-Yangbajain rift in the south Tibetan Plateau. , 2016, 41(10): 1312-1326.http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/esp.3899
Crosby BT, Whipple KX.Knickpoint initiation and distribution within fluvial networks: 236 waterfalls in the Waipaoa River, North Island, New Zealand. , 2006, 82: 16-38.http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0169555X06001231
Berlin MM, Anderson R. Modeling of knickpoint retreat on the Roan Plateau, western Colorado. , 2007, 112: F03S06. doi: 10.1029/2006JF000553.http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2006JF000553/full
 The Roan Plateau in western Colorado constitutes a natural experiment for studying landscape response to a drop in base level. Late Cenozoic incision of the upper Colorado River led to elevational isolation of the Plateau and initiation of a wave of incision into its southern edge. Knickpoints (oversteepened reaches that contain waterfalls 60 110 m in height) mark the upstream extent of this headward propagating wave. That this incision has occurred in a laterally extensive, well-stratified, and essentially flat-lying bedrock and in an area with relatively uniform climate, implies that it should serve as a good test of existing knickpoint propagation models. We predict the locations of knickpoints by using a stream power-based celerity model, in which knickpoint recession rate is a power function of drainage area and is proportional to rock susceptibility to erosion. Models of the Parachute and Roan drainages (17 and 16 knickpoints, respectively) show expected rapid initial knickpoint propagation rates, which decline as drainage area decreases stepwise at tributary junctions. The modeled positions of knickpoints match well with observed features, using a single combination of parameters to model retreat in both drainage basins. We compare our celerity model results with past studies and explore how longitudinal profile analysis may be used to derive independently the exponent on drainage area in the celerity model.
Whipple KX, DiBiase R A, Crosby B T. Bedrock rivers//Shroder John F. San Diego: Academic Press, 2013: 550-573.
KirbyE, Whipple KX, TangWengqing, et al.Distribution of active rock uplift along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Inferences from bedrock channel longitudinal profiles. , 2003, 108(B4): 2217.doi: 10.1029/2001JB000861.
Whipple KX.The influence of climate on the tectonic evolution of mountain belts. , 2009, 2: 97-104.http://www.nature.com/articles/ngeo413
Simple physical arguments, analogue experiments and numerical experiments all suggest that the internal dynamics of actively deforming collisional mountain ranges are influenced by climate. However, obtaining definitive field evidence of a significant impact of climate on mountain building has proved challenging. Spatial correlations between intense precipitation or glaciation and zones of rapi...