Along with the development of facility agriculture, horticultural agriculture and leisure agriculture, nowadays, the functions of agricultural production in rural areas have been weakened but the functions of consumption have been increased in Beijing. This shows that the commodification of rural space in Beijing has been developed in recent years. Rural tourism, as one of the important forms of the commodification of rural space, has played an important role in increasing farmers' income, preventing rural decline and revitalizing rural economy. Therefore, this paper selects rural tourism as the representative of the commodification to examine the formation and evolution of spatial commodification of rural space in Mayufang village as well as to explore farmers' participation in this process based on the actor network theory. In the process of the transformation, the rural areas being the farmers' producing and living spaces have changed to the urban residents' leisure and consumption spaces in Mayufang village and formed a heterogeneous actor-network, in which Tourism Bureau of Changping District and Changling Travel Company and other human actors and non-human actors have played a focal role. Major actors used the policy and the financial support to enroll farmers and other actors by the top-down executive network. Along with development of promotion, training, supervision and infrastructure, some local farmers started to create the physical and non-physical environments for the urban residents' consumption activities. Thus more and more farmers have been engaged in rural tourism, and the commodification of rural spaces in Mayufang village has been developed. As Mayufang village became the consumption space to the urban residents, the commodification of rural space in Mayufang village started its transformation of actor network. However, with the quit of non-human actors, which is Duijiuyu Natural Beauty and reduction of incentives launched by the original major actors, the representative of market has become the focal actor in the new actor network. More and more farmers, who were against the common purpose of the actor network were excluded, quitted the former actor network, thus commodification in rural space in Mayufang village declined. In the process of the formation of commodification of rural space in Mayufang village, the farmers who had the advantages of location, age and profession have much stronger desire to be involved in rural tourism, unemployed farmers prefer to be involved in rural tourism than farmers who make a living on agriculture. The farmers who worked in township enterprises are more willing to participate in rural tourism than self-employed business persons; villagers employed in the government units have less possibility to take part in rural tourism. While commodification of rural space in Mayufang village has declined, farmers began to transfer the labor force to other professions from rural tourism. When interests of major actors are commonly and inextricably linked with actors in actor network in rural areas, its commodification in rural space is strengthened, and vice versa.
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Espaces touristiques: une perspective de l’acteur réseau. Cet article présente une autre fa04on de regarder et d’étudier le tourisme en traduisant la théorie de l’acteur réseau en termes des domaines de la recherche en tourisme. Basé sur le concept des espaces touristiques, l’article soutient que les gens et les choses s’emmêlent dans les processus complexes de la traduction. Tout y est rassemblé simultanément dans la production des espaces touristiques: personnes, organisations, objets, technologies et lieux. Ainsi, l’étude de tels éléments hétérogènes implique l’analyse des processus d’association et d’ordonnancement de ces éléments. L’article brosse un tableau du projet des études basées sur la théorie de l’acteur réseau en proposant sept constitutifs pour la recherche future. Mots-clés: espaces touristiques, théorie de l’acteur réseau, modes d’ordonnancement, traduction.
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Abstract This article examines one of the key occupations in nature tourism: wilderness guiding. It investigates what it means for the work of guides when nature is simultaneously a product to be sold, an operational environment and a partaker in the tour. The concept of ‘collective’ by Bruno Latour is used as a methodological guideline in investigating guiding as work. By examining a guide’s work as a collective, we can see what kinds of demands this kind of ‘hybrid-work’ requires, how nature is intertwined with customer service practices, and how technology becomes a part of guiding. It is demonstrated that nature and technology play a greater role in shaping tourism practices and performances of employees than previously thought. Nature is an essential part of a guide’s performance; it is an ‘actor’ which participates in constructing the service event of nature tourism.
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Custom Statistics Canada tabulations were used to analyse the distribution of the elderly, rural nonfarmers and migrants in Census Subdivisions around the south shore of Georgian Bay in 1991. The proportion of persons 60 and over in this area is well above the provincial average. In manycsDs, over 90 percent of those 60 and over are in the rural nonfarm category. Townships on the Bruce Peninsula were particularly attractive to elderly nonfarm migrants, while Wasaga Beach was an important destination for the elderly. Forallareas, the Colden Horseshoe around the western end of Lake Ontario was the largest source of elderly migrants from 1986 to 1991. Des totalisations spéciales de Statistiques Canada ont été utilisées pour analyser la distribution des migrants, des personnes 09gées, et des non-fermiers vivant sur les bords de la Baie Georgienne en 1991. La proportion de gens 09gés de 60 ans et plus est bien au dessus de la moyenne provinciale. Dans plusieurs subdivisions de recensement, plus de 90% de gens aCgés de 60 ans et plus appartiennent à la catégorie rurale non agricole. Les cantons de la Péninsule de Bruce ont particulièrement attiré les migrants 09gés de secteurs non agricoles. d'autre part Wasaga Beach était une destination importante pour les personnes 09gées. La région du 'Golden Horseshoe', a l'extrémité ouest du Lac Ontario, a été celle qui a fourni le plus de migrants 09gés de 1986 à 1991.
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This paper analyzes the possibility of regional development through the commodification of rural spaces by comparison of the Nasu region of Tochigi prefecture, the Joetsu region of Niigata prefecture, and the Kurobe alluvial fan of Toyama prefecture. In the Nasu region, individual tourism areas including Shiobara hot springs, Nasu Highland and the Nasu alluvial fan will be consolidated, and a broad based and multiple tourism area spreading dimensionally will be formed, and the possibility for the tourism area to contribute to the development of the entire Nasu region is very high owing to the commodification of rural spaces. The current issues in the Joetsu region are how to mutually connect various and small scale scattered tourism resources, what new tourism resources should be promoted, and how the viewpoints of studies and experience of tourisms should be introduced in order to create new tourism resources. Thus, the commodification of rural and urban spaces is essential. Compared to the above two mentioned regions, the Kurobe alluvial fan is a rural area with few famous tourism resources. Tourism development owing to rural commodification is limited here. Residents should evaluate familiar production activities, industries, landscape, lifestyle, and annual events and consider the direction for regional construction themselves through study and experience. The result will attract tourists from other regions and contribute to tourism development. The most significant factors of the differences among the three regions are the scale of the current and potential tourism resources and the difference in distances from major metropolitan areas.
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The expectation that local economies will positively benefit because of a World Heritage designation is usually high, with some believing that it will lead to local revitalization through the promotion of tourism. Nowadays politics surrounding World Heritage designations has resulted in the important challenge of conserving and using cultural landscapes such as rural space. This paper examines the World Heritage registration movement of the "Nagasaki Church Group and Christian Related Cultural Assets" as a case study and the meaning of and problems that local faith-related heritages in rural areas and their cultural landscapes can expect, including the attention they will be exposed to as a cultural heritage site. In this paper, the author focused on the role of three main actors, "World Heritage Association" that hopes to achieve the goal of World Heritage registration for the Nagasaki Church Group, the administration that wishes to create an opportunity to promote tourism while conserving them as cultural properties, and the Catholic Church that wishes people to understand Christianity while remaining in harmony with tourism. Culture attracts the attention of others and changes itself, so the problem of being treated as a consumer item can occur. When the value of being a World Heritage site is bestowed upon a cultural landscape such as the Nagasaki Church Group, ever larger waves of commodification can sweep over it. Generally, to commercialize something, it needs to be exchangeable after being separated from the context of its production. A church could be separated from the context of life in which it is rooted and that has maintained its vocational activities, climate and accumulation of history, and the place itself then produced and consumed as information. The concept and philosophy of being a World Heritage site may be part of human wisdom, but the more strongly heritage is connected to a region, the broader will be the influence on the region by being registered as a World Heritage site.