地理学报 ›› 2000, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (5): 627-636.doi: 10.11821/xb200005012

• 论文 • 上一篇    

中国洪涝灾害与泥沙关系

师长兴1, 章典2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京100101;
    2. 香港大学地理与地质系,香港
  • 收稿日期:2000-02-15 修回日期:2000-05-12 出版日期:2000-09-15 发布日期:2000-09-15
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目(59890200)

Analysis of Impacts of Sedimentation on Flooding Disasters in China

SHI Chang xing1, ZHANG Dian 2   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Department of Geography & Geology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • Received:2000-02-15 Revised:2000-05-12 Online:2000-09-15 Published:2000-09-15
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China;No.59890200

摘要: 综合分析近几十年中国洪涝灾害的增加与泥沙之间的关系,划分出4种泥沙影响水灾的形式,阐明泥沙加重洪涝灾害的机理。基于对泥沙与洪涝灾害关系的认识,提出我国洪涝灾害治理的可能途径和存在的问题。

关键词: 洪涝灾害, 泥沙, 灾害治理

Abstract: The flooding and inundated area in China has been increased since the end of the 1960’s. The area of farmland subjected to flooding or waterlogging increased at a rate of 4 69 million hm2 annually in 1965~1978, and rose to 16 74 million hm2 in 1991~1997. Climate condition is the number one important factor influencing the flooding disasters. However, changes in precipitation in China in the past decades did not support the considerable increase in flooded areas. Also, there was a decrease in the area damaged by flooding calculated in light of the disaster prevention level of the waterlogging prone farmland since lots of flood control and waterlogging mitigation works have been constructed in the same period. On the other hand, about 1 2 billion tons of sediment were deposited annually in river channels and lakes in the plains, reservoirs, irrigation areas, and flood detention areas in China. Supposing the annual increase in the volume of water flooding the farmland is equal to the annual volume of the 1 2 billion tons of deposits, there would be a good agreement between the calculated changes in flooded area and the actual increase in the flooded or damaged area after the year 1965. It suggests that the sediment accumulation in the rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc. in China may be considered as one of the main causes for aggravating flooding disasters. The patterns of impacts of sedimentation on flooding disaster are generalized as deposition in lakes and reservoirs, deposition in river channels, deposition in river mouth, and high sediment concentration in flows. Sediment accumulation results in the decrease in the flood regulating capacity of the lakes and reservoirs. It lowers the drainage capacity of the channels and canals and also raises the riverbed to form a perching river channel. The extension of river mouth due to sediment accumulation will lower the slope of channel, enhancing sediment deposition upstreams and deteriorating the flood prone situation of delta areas. The large amount of sediment carried by water flows can obviously enlarge the discharge of peak flood, and the hyper concentrated flows show an unstable behavior, leading to abrupt rise and fall of peak flood, an unfavorable situation to flood control. To alleviate the impacts of sedimentation on flooding disasters, soil erosion control, enlargement of sediment transport capacity of the river channels, decrease of the height difference between the river channels and surrounding plains, and reduce of deposition induced extension of river mouth should be the measures. However, the feasibility of these measures in the senses of economy and technology is not so clear now and they may have negative effects on economic development, environment and society. Thus, the feasibility as well as the positive and negative effects of these measures should be studied and compared comprehensively in order to achieve the best results in reducing the impacts of sedimentation on flooding disasters in the future.

Key words: flooding disaster, sedimentation, disaster prevention

中图分类号: 

  • TV14