地理学报 ›› 2018, Vol. 73 ›› Issue (5): 893-905.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201805009

• 气候变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

陆面水文—气候耦合模拟研究进展

占车生1(),宁理科2(),邹靖3,韩建1,4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 清华大学地球系统科学系 地球系统数值模拟教育部重点实验室,北京 100084
    3. 山东省科学院海洋仪器仪表研究所,青岛 266001
    4. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2017-06-12 出版日期:2018-05-03 发布日期:2018-05-03
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFA0603702);国家自然科学基金项目(41571019, 41701023)

A review on the fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations

ZHAN Chesheng1(),NING Like2(),ZOU Jing3,HAN Jian1,4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
    3. Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266001, Shandong, China
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2017-06-12 Online:2018-05-03 Published:2018-05-03
  • Supported by:
    National Key R&D Program of China, No.2017YFA0603702;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41571019, No.41701023

摘要:

陆面水文过程是全球/区域气候模式十分重要而又十分薄弱的环节。本文通过科学文献计量法,分析了陆面水文—气候耦合研究的发展状况及研究热点和趋势,并进一步对研究中存在的问题和挑战进行综述和探讨。现有多数气候模式中的陆面模式主要基于一维垂向结构设计,缺乏对流域尺度水文过程的精细描述,尤其缺乏下垫面人类活动影响的描述。因此,为了科学认识水文过程与气候变化的相互反馈作用机制,大量研究主要通过耦合流域水文模型与气候模式,研究不同时空尺度下水文过程变化的气候反馈效应。陆面过程模式中水文过程的改进和大尺度水文模型发展为陆面水文—气候耦合模拟奠定基础,在此基础上,陆面水文—气候耦合研究正从传统的单向耦合研究逐步发展为考虑气候—水文反馈的双向耦合研究。然而,双向耦合研究远未成熟,其问题集中表现为陆面水文—气候模型耦合过程如何匹配并提高系统稳定性、研制有效的尺度转换方案、完善参数化方案并评估参数不确定性、研制有效参数移植方法并提高模型适用性以及高分辨率甚至超分辨率模拟等方面,逐步解决上述问题并提高模拟精度是未来水文—气候耦合模拟研究的重要发展方向。

关键词: 陆面水文, 气候模式, 水文—气候双向耦合;, 水循环, 研究综述

Abstract:

Terrestrial hydrological process is an essential and very weak link in the global/regional climate models. In this paper, the development of research on the coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations was analyzed, also the research trends and hotspots were identified by scientific literature analysis, and the challenges and opportunities in the coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations are reviewed and summarized. The land surface processes in most of the existing climate models are mainly designed by the one-dimensional vertical structure, which lacks a detailed description of the two-dimensional hydrologic processes over specific basins, especially the parameterization of human activities on the underlying surface. In order to overcome the poor simulation on watershed hydrological processes derived by climate models, numerous studies were performed to investigate the feedbacks between hydrological processes and atmospheric processes, through coupling hydrological models with regional climate models. At present, improving the representation of hydrologic processes in land surface models and the development of global hydrological models have been the fundamental of investigating the feedbacks between terrestrial hydrology and atmosphere. Furthermore, the research on the coupling between hydrology and atmosphere has developed from the one-way coupling to the two-way coupling (also called fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations). However, these studies on the fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology simulations were still immature and the fully coupled model needed further improvements, including further research on the matching methods of model coupling and system stability, research on effective scale transfer schemes, improvements on parameterization schemes and evaluation on parameter uncertainties, research on effective parameter transfer methods and improvements on regional applicability, as well as the coupled simulation of large-scale terrestrial hydrology and atmosphere at hyper-resolution with acceptable accuracy, and etc.

Key words: land surface hydrology, regional climate model, fully coupled atmosphere-hydrology, water cycle, research review