地理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 72 ›› Issue (12): 2295-2309.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201712013

• 地理信息 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国11件享誉世界的古—近代地图多元价值

梁启章(), 齐清文(), 梁迅   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-04 修回日期:2017-08-01 出版日期:2017-12-25 发布日期:2017-12-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:梁启章(1940-), 男, 研究员, 主要从事地图学、GIS与农业信息化。E-mail: articlel@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    科技基础性工作专项项目(2012FY120200)

The extensive value of eleven world-renowned maps from ancient and modern China

Qizhang LIANG(), Qingwen QI(), Xun LIANG   

  1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2016-07-04 Revised:2017-08-01 Published:2017-12-25 Online:2017-12-25
  • Supported by:
    Project of Basic Science & Technological Special Program, No.2012FY120200

摘要:

“制图六体”,作为中国古地图学的核心内容,开创于西晋裴秀,后经历代著名地图学家继承和发展,先后创作了一批十分珍贵的古地图。本文以亲自参加的国家科技基础性工作专项《中国近代地图志》编研工作为基础,参考了《中国古代地图集》(3卷),遴选出11件享誉世界的中国古—近代地图(单幅图或地图集),分别是:西晋首创科学地图《地形方丈图》;唐代首创亚洲图《海内华夷图》;宋代首创科学《天文图》;元代《舆地图》成就影响了几个世纪,成为中国古地图科学完善标志;明代《大明混一图》、《更路薄》、《郑和航海图》、《广舆图》与《坤舆万国全图》,象征着中国古—近代地图演变进程,完成了世界上第一幅真正科学的洲际航海图以及第一幅最为精确的大型彩色中文世界地图;清代《康熙全览图》开创了大型经纬度实测地图,以及《海国图志》被誉为“中国近代自编世界地图集里程碑”。全文着重分析评价了这些古—近代地图在科学、历史、外交、航海、疆域、军事、人文等领域的多元价值,同时首次梳理了中西古地图定位技术及其融合发展历程,最后呼吁中国政府主管部门给予更多的支持,推进建设“中国古地图生态系统”,吸引相关领域专家协同研究,加快中国古地图遗产挖掘、评价与利用工作。

关键词: 中国古地图, 制图六体, 记里画方, 多元价值

Abstract:

The core content of ancient Chinese cartography is "the six principles of cartography" pioneered by Pei Xiu (Hawn) in the 3rd century, which was subsequently developed by several generations of renowned cartographic experts in China. A large number of highly valuable ancient and modern maps had been completed by the end of the 19th century. Eleven Chinese world-renowned maps were selected based on the author’s personal participation in the Basic Science & Technological Special Program National Project, which also referred to three ancient Chinese atlases (published in AD 1990-1997). The eleven maps include the following: Dixing Fangzang Tu (a general map), the first scientific map produced in the 3rd century; Hainei Huayi Tu (a general map covering Asia), made in the 8th century; Astronomical figure, a first scientific star figure depicted 1440 constellations made in 1190, which was the original drawing of Suzhou stone carving astronomical figure; Yu Ditu (a general map), made in 1315, which marked the perfection of ancient Chinese cartography; Daming Hunyi Tu (a general map), made in 1389; Genglu Bo (a South China Sea chart used by fishermen), and Zheng He's Nautical Chart, made in the 15th century; Guangyu Tu (a comprehensive atlas) made in 1541; Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (a large Chinese world map in color), made in 1602; Kangxi Quanlan Tu (a general map), which was the first large map including measurements of latitude and longitude made in 1718; Haiguo Tuzhi (a world atlas and annals), which is the predecessor of the contemporary and modern Chinese world atlases made in 1842-1852. The discussion of these ancient maps focused on their scientific, historical, foreign, sailing, territorial, military, and cultural values. Simultaneously, we evaluated their innovations and evolution of map-positioning technology between Chinese and Western cartography. Finally, we hope that the National Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China provide more support and promote the construction of an ancient Chinese map ecosystem to accelerate the use, evaluation, and mining of the heritage of ancient Chinese maps.

Key words: Chinese ancient map, the six principles of cartography, distance calculation &, drawing grid, multiple values