地理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 70 ›› Issue (12): 2001-2010.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201512011

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基于行为视角的北京城市交通空间结构

季珏1,2(), 高晓路2()   

  1. 1. 住房和城乡建设部城乡规划管理中心,北京 100835
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2014-08-25 修回日期:2015-03-16 出版日期:2015-12-25 发布日期:2016-01-05
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:季珏(1985-), 女, 博士, 主要研究方向为城市空间结构评价, 城市交通, 环境性能评价, GIS空间分析等。E-mail: Jitutu99@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    博士后基金项目(2014M550820);国家自然科学基金项目(41171138);国家软科学研究计划(2014GXS4B 072) [Foundation: China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, No.2014M550820;National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.41171138;Soft Science Project, No.2014GXS4B072]

Study on urban transportation structure based on residents' travel behaviors in Beijing

Jue JI1,2(), Xiaolu GAO2()   

  1. 1 The Administration Center of Urban-rural Planning Ministry of Housing & Urban-Rural Development, Beijing 100835, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2014-08-25 Revised:2015-03-16 Online:2015-12-25 Published:2016-01-05

摘要:

从行为的视角研究城市交通空间结构已成为地理学和交通规划关注的热点问题,但却面临微观研究的偶然性和典型性等局限,难以对城市交通空间结构进行全面的解析。本文提出了利用交通行为区来反映居民交通行为与地理环境耦合关系的思路,为解决城市微观研究中的不确定性问题提供了视角,同时建立起从典型抽样到面域覆盖的评价方法。本文假设居民的交通行为随着空间尺度的变动存在着逐步收敛的规律性。在此假设下,在北京市外围永泰居住区进行了出行调研实验,证实了居民出行行为的这一规律性,并得出居住小区的二手房价、建成年代、规划特征、公共交通服务水平等环境变量成为行为区划分的关键指标。在此基础上,以北京市城六区范围内搜集的居住小区为基本单元,参照环境变量的空间聚类结果,划分了5种典型的行为区类型,分别是:高档别墅区,中档建成区,历史中心区,高档高密度区,成熟完善区。5种行为区内主导的居民群体、居民的出行模式均具有明显的差异性。交通行为区的划分方法对于精细化研究城市交通空间结构具有重要意义,例如交通资源的差异化配置,低碳交通空间结构研究等。

关键词: 行为区, 出行行为, 实体环境, 城市交通, 北京

Abstract:

It is commonly agreed that the preference or behavior of people ought to be examined within specific geographical contexts. Because of the existence of uncertain geographic context problem, the way for defining the areal unit of geographic context may significantly affect the behavioral pattern. It is thus essential to select an appropriate spatial scale for analyzing the characteristics of transportation activities in cities. The concept of behavior zone (BZ) is proposed based on homogeneous assumption of behaviors to analyze an area-based pattern of people's travel behaviors in the whole city. Behavior zone is identified through spatial analysis of residents' daily travel behaviors with respect to the environments. With a daily travel survey conducted in Beijing's sample residential areas, the critical indices for identifying different types of behavior zones are revealed, including second-hand housing price, development intensity, population density, accessibility to public transportation. With these indices, the residential areas all over the central districts of Beijing are clustered by five representative behavior zone types: luxury villa, suburban, traditional, high-density, and mature areas. The population characters and behavior features, such as dominant income groups, average commuting distance, and share of commuting travel mode, differed obviously from community to community. These results provide great implications for fine transportation resources allocation since behavior zones are areas where the modal choice behaviors of inhabitants are projected. Besides, behavior zones are critically important to data transformation in terms of their area-based features.

Key words: behavior zone, travel behaviors, geographic context, urban transportation, Beijing