地理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 69 ›› Issue (11): 1640-1650.doi: 10.11821/dlxb201411005

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1990-2010年中国土地利用变化对生物多样性保护重点区域的扰动

赵国松1,2,3(), 刘纪远1,2(), 匡文慧1,2, 欧阳志云4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院陆地表层格局与模拟重点实验室, 北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-18 修回日期:2014-05-21 出版日期:2014-11-20 发布日期:2014-11-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:赵国松 (1986-), 男, 博士生, 主要从事土地利用/覆被变化及其环境效应研究。E-mail: zhaogs.11b@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划项目 (2014CB954302);国家科技支撑计划项目 (2013BAC03B04)

Disturbance impacts of land use change on biodiversity conservation priority areas across China during 1990-2010

Guosong ZHAO1,2,3(), Jiyuan LIU1,2(), Wenhui KUANG1,2, Zhiyun OUYANG4   

  1. 1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. Research Center of Eco-Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2014-03-18 Revised:2014-05-21 Published:2014-11-20 Online:2014-11-20
  • Supported by:
    National Key Basic Research Program of China, No.2014CB954302;National Science-technology Support Plan Project, No.2013BAC03B04

摘要:

基于人类土地利用活动对不同生态系统生物多样性保护服务的影响,构建生态系统综合人类扰动指数,结合不同级别的生物多样性保护区域 (一般重要、中等重要、重要、极重要四个级别) 从全国尺度及区域尺度分析了中国1990-2010年土地利用变化对生物多样性保护重点区域的扰动。结果表明:就2010年现状而言,我国中东部地区人类扰动程度较大,西部地区人类扰动程度较低,全国生物多样性保护中等重要、重要、极重要区域的人类扰动程度低于全国整体 (包括所有级别) 均值。就20年来人类扰动程度变化态势而言,全国中东部人类扰动程度变化幅度总体高于西部,生物多样性保护中等重要、重要、极重要区域人类扰动程度均呈轻微上升趋势,但增加幅度低于全国整体增加幅度。随着东部地区的快速城市化以及东北、新疆等地区的农田开垦等土地利用活动,生物多样性保护中等重要、重要、极重要区域等重点区域人类扰动程度呈现上升趋势,应引起重视;而随着黄土高原等地区退耕还林还草工程的实施,人类扰动程度整体则呈现一定的下降趋势。青藏高原区扰动变化幅度很小,几乎没有变化。总体而言,中国目前陆地国土开发利用的空间格局与生物多样性保护保护重要区域的空间分布是相互匹配的,这有利于国家生物多样性保护的整体布局。同时,20年来生态系统综合人类扰动指数变幅的区域分异也与生物多样性保护重要性空间格局相吻合,说明20年来针对生态保护的各项政策与措施在减少生物多样性保护重点区域人类扰动方面产生了积极的成效。

关键词: 土地利用, 生物多样性, 扰动, 变化态势, 中国

Abstract:

Considering the impacts of land use change on biodiversity conservation services of varied ecosystems, the Ecosystem Comprehensive Anthropogenic Disturbance Index (ECADI) is built to assess disturbance impacts of land use change during 1990-2010 on biodiversity conservation priority areas of China at national and regional scales. Four levels of biodiversity conservation areas are categorized: generally important areas, moderately important areas, important areas, and very important areas. Results showed that: In 2010, the ECADI value is higher in Central and Eastern China than that in Western China, and the values of the moderate important, important and very important regions are lower than the average value of the whole country at all levels. Notably, in recent 20 years, the change extent of ECADI in Central and Eastern China was much greater compared with that in Western China, and the change extent of ECADI in the moderately important, important and very important biodiversity conservation regions all showed slightly increasing trends, with the increasing degree lower than that of whole China at all levels. Due to human activities such as urbanization in Eastern China and cropland reclamation in Northeast China and Xinjiang, ECADI value in the moderately important, important and very important biodiversity conservation areas showed an increasing trend, which should be given more attention. However, ECADI value in the Loess Plateau presented a decreasing trend because of the obvious effectiveness of Green for Grain Project. Furthermore, the variation was negligible in the Tibetan Plateau.

Key words: land use, biodiversity, disturbance, change trend, China